Student Info and FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions on the Biology Undergraduate Programs
What kind of Biology Degrees are available at UAlbany’s Department of Biology?

UAlbany’s Department of Biological Sciences offers several programs in the biological sciences – at the undergraduate, graduate and doctoral levels.

Undergraduate programs include a BA in Biology, a BS in Biology and a BS in Interdisciplinary Studies with a Concentration in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. To view a full list of the programs we offer, visit the Biology Programs page

What are some of the elective courses offered for Department of Biology majors?

Biology majors can complete their program by enrolling in various lecture and laboratory elective courses that cater to their interests and support future goals. Examples of electives offered in past semesters include:

  • Developmental Biology 
  • Microbiology 
  • Microbiome in Health and Diseases 
  • Genetics of Human Disease 
  • Immunology 
  • Neurobiology 
  • Biological Chemistry 
  • Introduction to International Medical Research 
  • Introduction to Bioinformatics 
  • Ecology 
  • Evolution 
  • Human Physiology 
  • Mammalian Anatomy 
  • Molecular Biology 
  • Molecular Virology 
  • Introduction to Biomanufacturing Pharmaceuticals 
  • Forensic Biology 
  • Forensic Science 
  • Instrumental and Biochemical Analysis 
  • Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology 
  • Supervised Research 

Past Biology majors have commented on how helpful the biology elective courses listed above and required courses helped prepare them for taking the required graduate standardized tests (MCAT, DAT, PCAT, OAT and GRE) and performing well during their first year of graduate/medical/healthcare studies. 

Are there specific Admissions Requirements for the Undergraduate Biology Programs?

There are no restrictions or selective processes for students applying to the BS or BA in Biology. Some of the required courses with prerequisites for the two majors include: 

  • C minus or better in ABIO 131 to enroll in either major 
  • C or better in ABIO 201, ABIO 212Y to advance in either major 
  • C or better ABIO 365 to advance in the BS in Biology major 

Students may be admitted into the Interdisciplinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major after they complete 40 graduation credits, usually in the Spring of their Sophomore year. At the time of admission, they must have at least a 3.0 GPA and demonstrated strength in Chemistry and Math courses. They must interview with the director of the program, who will determine if the student’s academic strengths are compatible with those required in this major. Approval for the major is then notified to the registrar’s office by the program director. 


What is the difference between a BA in Biology, a BS in Biology, and a BS in Interdisciplinary Studies with a Concentration in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology?

A BA in Biology offers a more flexible and customizable curriculum in the Biological Sciences.  

A BS in Biology is the degree recommended for students interested in a career in Medical/Healthcare, researcher/scientist in academics or industry, secondary educator, business professional, law, as well as other areas. 

Through the BS in Interdisciplinary Studies with a Concentration in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology program, students learn the essential principles of chemistry, physics, and math to then study living organisms at the cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels. 

To learn more about the undergraduate Biology programs, visit the Biology Programs page

Can I use Advanced Placement (AP) in the Biology Programs?

Students who have received scores of 5 on Advanced Placement exams in biology shall be allowed credit for A BIO 131 or 120, A BIO 130 or 121, A BIO 201, and A BIO 202Z, required of all majors. 

Students who have received scores of 3 or 4 on Advanced Placement exams in biology shall be allowed credit in either the natural science general education category or in the general elective category. No credit will apply towards the major or minor in Biology or the Interdisciplinary Studies major with a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology concentration. 

Is Biology the right major if I am Pre-Health? If I am considering Medical School?

A BS in Biology is an extremely useful major for students who are Pre-Health/Pre-Medicine (MD, DO, PA, DVM, RPh, PT, OD, etc.) because the curriculum has significant overlap with the MCAT, DAT, PCAT, OAT and GRE requirements for graduate studies. 

For example, 75% of students pursuing a BS in Biology program and participating in UAlbany’s Pre-Health Advisement Program have recently been admitted to Medical School (MD)/College of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). 

Some of the MD/DO Programs that UAlbany graduates have matriculated include: 

  • Albany Medical College
  • Upstate Medical
  • Downstate Medical
  • Morehouse
  • Tulane
  • Buffalo
  • Hofstra
  • Commonwealth PA
  • Vermont
  • Rochester
  • Columbia
  • NSU-Florida
  • Drexel
  • Touro
  • Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine
  • New England COM.

In addition, UAlbany’s Pre-Health Advisement Program has reported that 41% of BS in Biology majors gained acceptance to different Physician Assistant (PA) programs at CUNY, Albany Medical College, Touro, Pace, Fairleigh Dickinson, Upstate Medical, Stony Brook, Le Moyne, St. Bonaventure, USC, Yeshiva, and West Coast. 

To learn more the UAlbany's Pre-Health Advisement Program, visit the Pre-Health advising page

Can Biology Majors take advantage of UAlbany’s Early Assurance/Admission Agreements with Medical and other Graduate Health Schools?

Over the years, both the BS in Biology and BS in the Interdisciplinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology majors have been accepted to Medical and other Graduate Health Schools through UAlbany’s Early Assurance/Admission programs. 

Past Biology majors have been accepted for early admission at Albany Medical College (MD and PA programs), Touro College of Medicine, Upstate Medical University, SUNY College of Optometry, and Sage Graduate School.

To learn more about UAlbany's Early Assurance/Special Admission Programs, visit the Pre-Health advising page

Can I get involved in research as a Biology major?

Yes, absolutely! Many Biology majors will do at least one or two semesters of research as part of their major. 

Students typically start research in their junior or senior year, although many begin earlier. Students perform a research project as part of their regular coursework through ABIO 399/499, receiving grades and academic credit.

Visit the Undergraduate Research page to learn more about ABIO 399/499


Can Biology majors enroll in an internship for credit?

Undergraduate biology majors can register for off-campus ABIO 496 Internship in Biological Sciences. This credit-bearing internship course provides students with experiential learning through work experience or professional training in the Biological Sciences and offers an opportunity to relate real-world experience to their academic coursework. 

Students are responsible for identifying and arranging their internship experiences. To receive credit, the internship must be approved by the Biological Sciences Internship Coordinator prior to beginning the work. 

Some examples of sites where students have completed internships are Albany Medical Hospital, HEAL Clinical Education Network, Sunnyview Rehabilitation Hospital, St. Peter’s Hospital, RNA Institute, NextGen Neuroscience, Capital Coral, Bioreserve, Aspen Dental, the New York State Museum, Regeneron and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation/Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve. 

Does the Department of Biological Sciences offer an Honors Program for their majors?

The Honors program is for outstanding BS in Biology and BS in the Interdisciplinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology majors. Students may apply for admission by submitting a letter of request to the departmental honors program coordinator. 

Requirements for admission include: 

  • 12 completed or in-progress credits of coursework in a Biology BS program, including ABIO 120 & 121 and ABIO 201 & 202Z 
  • An overall GPA of 3.5 
  • A GPA of 3.5 in courses required for the major 
  • A written recommendation from an adviser, professor, or teaching assistant 

Primary emphasis will be placed on an applicant’s academic ability and maturity to complete a program involving independent research. Students in the program must fulfill their major with three additional requirements: 

  • A minimum GPA of 3.5 overall and in the major 
  • Their elective upper-level courses must include at least one three-credit 500-level graduate course. 
  • The student must carry out the supervised research project, taking at least 6 credits of ABIO 399/499, to serve as the basis of an Honors Thesis. 
What type of Advisement Services does the Biology Department provide for majors?

The Department of Biological Sciences has a full-time Coordinator for Undergraduate Advisement with the objective of improving student success and retention. 

This coordinator provides primary and secondary advisement for approximately 400 biology majors and minors. Each student registered as a BA/BS in Biology is encouraged to meet with the Advisement Coordinator or their assigned faculty or staff advisor as often as needed, both to discuss their progress and pending requirements in the Biology major as well as to discuss their future career goals. 

For students interested in the health professions, UAlbany’s Pre-Health advising has a dedicated Pre-Health Advisor who mentors students and prepares their applications. A Pre-Health Advisement Board, which includes faculty from the Department of Biological Sciences, interviews students interested in Medical, Healthcare and Graduate schools. 

From 2015 to 2021, the Department of Biological Sciences has realized a 61% increase in Biology BS degrees awarded. 

What services does the Biology Department provide to help students succeed?

Introductory Biology Academic Support Service (IBASS) was developed and implemented to improve Biology students’ access to academic support. Through IBASS, students can receive walk-in tutoring for any of the introductory or advanced Biology courses from peer tutors with demonstrated success in their assigned courses. 

Other services offered by the Biology Department to support student success: 

  • Letters of recommendation for scholarships, internships, employment, and applications to medical and graduate programs, when appropriate 
  • Serving as advisors and mentors to student organizations 
  • Career Development Events 
  • Support for student-organized events such as the MCAT Club, Tri-Beta National Biological Honor Society, and Living-Learning World of Biology 
How many students graduate annually with a Biology degree? How large is the class size for lecture and laboratory courses in the Biology Department? Who instructs lecture and laboratory courses?

As of Fall 2023, the Department of Biological Sciences has a total of 420 intended majors with a total declared Biology enrollment of 542 majors. Roughly 180 Biology majors graduate at the end of the academic year. 

Each introductory Biology course (ABIO 130 and ABIO 131) may have as many as 300-400 students in lecture, while the 200-, 300- and 400-level lecture courses usually have 20-200 students. The 200-, 300- and 400-level laboratory courses are generally no more than 16 students per section. 

Under the supervision of a full-time permanent instructor, graduate teaching assistants or lecturers instruct the Introduction to Biological Investigations laboratory sequence (ABIO 201 and 202Z) sections, while the 200-, 300- and 400-level lecture and laboratory courses are typically taught by full-time tenured faculty or permanent instructors. 

Can I study abroad and still do a Biology Major?

Yes! The Office of International Education (OIE) oversees a Study Abroad program that allows students to choose from more than 65 University programs and earn major, minor and General Education credit while studying abroad. 

The Department of Biological Sciences has provided the required advisement for undergraduate Biology majors to take part in the University at Albany’s Exchange Study-Abroad program. 

Undergraduate Biology students have studied abroad at colleges in various countries, including Scotland, Britain, Japan and Italy. 

What can I do with an undergraduate degree in Biology?

Graduate Study

A number of our Biology graduates choose to pursue an MS, PhD or Medical degree in preparation for careers in research, medicine, certain allied health care positions such as OT, PT, NP, etc., teaching, public health, or health administration.

Career Outcomes

Many of our graduates find entry-level jobs in government, industry, academia, or sales with a BS or BA degree. Possible positions that do not require further study include: 

  • Biology Laboratory Technicians
  • Sales Representative
  • Quality Control Analyst
  • Wildlife Biologist
  • Science or Medical Writer
  • Cytotechnologist
  • Research Assistant
  • Environmental Scientist
  • Biosafety Officer
  • Scientific Advisor for Government Agencies

Graduates also pursue positions in sales, account management, research or production for companies producing chemical or biological products.

Frequently Asked Questions on Advisement
Why go see the Advisement Coordinator?

You don’t need a reason to come see Rolando Valentin, but some common reasons are:

  1. You are his advisee 
  2. You have not been assigned an advisor
  3. You are having difficulties with contacting your advisor
  4. You need approval Of Transfer Credit
  5. You are seeking advisement For Double Majors
  6. You are seeking advisement for  Biology Minors
  7. You need clarification Of Degree Audit
  8. You are experiencing Degree Audit Issues
  9. Degree Clearances
  10. Degrees In Absentia
How do I change my major?
  • Students can change their majors by going to the Advisement Services Center (LI36 below the Main University Library) during their hours of operation.
  • For a change into the Interdisciplinary Concentration in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, they should consult with the Program Coordinator; afterwards they will need to complete a form at the Advisement Services Center.
Who is my Advisor?
  • Your advisor's name should be available through MyUAlbany
  • If not, please contact the advisement coordinator Rolando Valentin.
How should I contact my Advisor and/or make an appointment?

Each faculty member has contact information on their web pages. In addition, the Department posts office hours at the Department Office provided by the individual faculty.

Faculty differ in how they prefer to be contacted by Advisees.

Here are some general hints:

  • You should use their UAlbany email.
  • The email should include your Name as it appears on MyUAlbany.
  • They should make the subject heading meaningful. Specify "Advising"
  • Most advisors prefer to be contacted for an appointment by email.
What courses should I take?

This can be tricky as each student is different, but as mentioned before the course need can be found on your degree audit. It is important that you stick as closely to the sequence as possible.

NOTE: Student progress toward the degree can often be hindered by inability to register for necessary courses either because of a lack of prerequisites or because the courses are not being taught in a particular semester.

Following the sequence below will facilitate finishing the degree within four years.

First Year - Fall First Year - Spring
Class Credits Class Credits
BIO 120 3 BIO 121 3
CHM 120 3 CHM 121 3
CHM 124 1 CHM 125 1
Second Year - Fall Second Year - Spring
Class Credits Class Credits
BIO 212 4 BIO 217 3
BIO 201 1 BIO 202Z 1
CHM 220 3 CHM 221 3
CHM 222 1 CHM 223 1
PHY 105 3 PHY 108 3
PHY 106 1 PHY 109 1
Third Year - Fall Third Year - Spring
Class Credits Class Credits
BIO 365 3 BIO Elective 6
BIO Elective 3 BIO Lab 1-2
Fourth Year - Fall Fourth Year - Spring
Class Credits Class Credits
BIO Electives 3 BIO 402 3
BIO Lab 1-2 BIO Elective 3
    BIO Lab 1-2
How do I search for classes?

Visit the Registrar's Schedule of Classes page where you can search for classes in various semesters.


General Information on the Biology Graduate Program
Learning Objectives

Graduate school provides a wonderful opportunity to develop fine skills in the following areas: 

Research, Critical Thinking, Content Knowledge

Critically apply theories, methodologies, and knowledge to address fundamental questions in your primary area of study. Pursue research of significance in the discipline or an interdisciplinary or creative project. Students plan and conduct this research or implement this project under the guidance of an advisor while developing the intellectual independence that typifies true scholarship.


Demonstrate a mastery of skills and knowledge at a level required for college and university undergraduate teaching in their discipline and assessment of student learning.


Demonstrate, through service, the value of their discipline to the academy and community at large.


Demonstrate skills in oral and written communication sufficient to publish and present work in their field and to prepare grant proposals.

Entrepreneurship and Leadership

Interact productively and pro-actively with people from diverse backgrounds as both leaders/mentors and team members with integrity and professionalism.


Follow the principles of ethics in your field and in academia.

Frequently Asked Questions about the Graduate Program

Is an MS degree necessary before I apply to the PhD program?

No, a BS degree is required. Students interested in receiving a PhD should apply directly to the PhD program.

What are the minimum application requirements/pre-requisites for the PhD programs in Biology?

  • BS degree from an accredited institution
  • GPA of 3.0
  • Undergraduate preparation should preferably include
    • 18 credits in biology
    • 2 courses in mathematics (at least 6 credits)
    • 2 courses in physics with laboratories (at least 6 credits)
    • 4 courses in chemistry with laboratories of which 2 courses must be in organic chemistry with laboratories (at least 12 credits)
  • For MCDN: Applicants should have taken Biochemistry and Genetics
  • For EEB: Applicants should have taken Ecology, Genetics and Evolution.

What GRE scores are needed for graduate school?

Only the GRE General Test scores are required. Other tests such as GMATs or MCATs are not applicable or accepted.

What are the English Proficiency requirements and policies for international students?

  • TOEFL is required for ALL international students except for students that have completed 2 semesters of coursework in English.
  • While admission of non-native English language students to the University’s Graduate Programs requires a TOEFL minimum score of 550 (paper) or 79 (internet based), there are additional requirements to be eligible for a Teaching Assistantship. You must have either:
    • A GRE Verbal score greater than or equal to the 40th percentile with a TOEFL minimum score of 620 (paper) or 105 (internet based), OR
    • A GRE Verbal score greater than or equal to the 60th percentile with a TOEFL minimum score of 600 (paper) or 100 (internet based) to receive a Teaching Assistantship
  • All international students whose TOEFL scores are below 650 (paper score) or 114 (internet based) are required to take the Speak test. You must take the Speak test prior to the start of your second semester. The test is administered by the Intensive English Language Program, located in the Science Library at the University at Albany. A student must score at least:
    • 50 to continue as a Teaching Assistant in a lower division course
    • 45 to continue as a Teaching Assistant in an upper division course
    • A student who scores below 45 must be supported by a grant or non-Teaching Assistantship funds
    • All students are encouraged to take ZESL 001 (Oral Communication for International Students) and/or other courses offered through the Intensive English Language Program during their first year of study to improve upon their English.


What are the GRE and TOEFL Codes for the UAlbany Biology Department?

  • The GRE institution code is 2532.
  • The TOEFL institution code is 2532 (same as above).

How many credits are required to complete the doctoral program?

A total of 60 credits are required for the doctoral program.

Can I transfer credits to your graduate program?

Yes. For the PhD program, which is a 60 credit program, at least 50% of the program requirements must be completed while in residence.

How can I get an application?

All applications are handled by the Office of Graduate Education. Please follow the instructions on How to Apply. All applications must be submitted online.

How much is the application fee?

The current processing fee for MS and PhD applications is $75 and must be paid for an application to be considered complete and reviewed by the department. There is a fee of $20 to process applications for Non-Degree status.

What type of financial support is available?

Stipends for the first year of study in the PhD program are at a minimum of $23,750 (FYI 2017-18: $19,250 for the academic year and $4,500 for the summer). Tuition scholarships are also available for these supported students. International graduate students must comply with the department English proficiency requirement to receive a teaching assistantship. MS students can be hired as part-time lecturers, but there are no assistantships available. 

What type of research is available?

Go to the "Research Opportunities" tab (above) to view labs with openings for students. Also try selecting keywords that interest you and peruse the research interests of the Faculty.

How are admissions decisions made?

Once an application is complete [application form, fee paid, 3 letters of reference, all prior transcripts, statement of goals] the file is transmitted to the department office. The entire file and all required components are reviewed by a committee of faculty and a recommendation is sent forward to the University Graduate Admissions Office. Students should expect at least 2 weeks for a file to be reviewed once the file is received in the department office.

Where do I submit my application?

Please follow the instructions here. All applications for graduate programs at the University at Albany are submitted online. DO NOT submit materials to the department office. This will significantly delay review of your file.

What are the deadlines for application?

Deadlines and requirements for applications to the Biology PhD Program can be found on the Office for Graduate Education web site.

I want to make a visit to the department, whom do I contact?

Please contact the Admissions Committee Chairperson Dr. Marlene Belfort.

Can prospective graduate students admitted to the available programs for the Spring semester?

Although Spring admissions are not typical, there may be opportunities to do this. Please contact the Admissions Committee Chairperson, Dr. Marlene Belfort, for additional information.

What Alumni Say

“The Graduate Programs at UAlbany provided me with world class training and the tools to excel in my field. I was lucky to be a part of it!” 

Dr. Thomas Begley (Class of 1999), Associate Professor of Biological Sciences at University at Albany, and Associate Director of the RNA Institute.


"The biology PhD programs at the University at Albany provide a well-rounded education: challenging classes, hands-on mentoring in the research lab, flexible research mentorship, and an opportunity to teach undergraduates. The the University at Albany campus also provides many opportunities to present your research and build on your teaching and grant writing skills – all critically important for a career as a scientist. The breadth of opportunities and training available to me as a graduate student allowed me to focus on my specific career goals. Those opportunities coupled with an amazing mentor helped me land my dream job! "

- Dr. Elise Gervais (Class of 2015), Lecturer, Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany

"The excellent training and mentorship I received during my time in the biology graduate program helped prepare me for life as a postdoctoral fellow and faculty member." 

Dr. Kurt Gibbs (Class of 2010), Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology and Chemistry at Morehead State University (KY)


"The Biology Graduate Programs provided access to nationally recognized research programs and cutting edge technologies which prepared me for entry into the biomedical research arena and future success in academic medicine. Many of my graduate peers and faculty remain close colleagues and friends and have been instrumental in my career advancement. I treasure the time I spent there." 

Dr. Andres Melendez (Class of 1992), Interim Dean of the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

General Information on the MS Program
Find Your MS Mentor

The MS mentor plays a key role in the success of your degree.  For this reason, it is important that you do some research and familiarize with their fields of expertise. View a list of faculty and research interests of Biology MS mentors.

The Department of Biology offers ample room to let you explore a wide variety of research areas, through which you can strengthen your research skills and boost your creativity in new topics that you did not explore during your undergraduate studies. View a list of current full-time faculty in the Department of Biology.

General Information on the PhD Programs
Find Your PhD Mentor

The PhD mentor plays a key role in the success of your PhD. For this reason, it is important that you do some research and familiarize with their fields of expertise. A list of Biology faculty research interests can be found here.

If you get the opportunity to meet a prospective mentor in person, then do so. Let them know that you’re interested in doing a PhD in his/her area and make an appointment to discuss common topics of interest. Make a shortlist of mentors you are interested in and check their availability for laboratory rotations during your first year as a PhD student in Biology.

The Department of Biology offers ample room to let you explore a wide variety of research areas, through which you can strengthen your research skills and boost your creativity in new topics that you did not explore during your undergraduate studies. A list of current full-time faculty in the Department of Biology can be found here.

Research Opportunities

There is a broad array of research opportunities available with top researchers for PhD students in Biology at the University at Albany. 

Researcher Research Topics
Marlene Belfort One research project relates to intron dispersal under cell stress, and to the structure and function of a catalytic RNA that is related to mammalian introns and retrotransposons. The second project researches inteins as biological sensors of cell stress, and their role in infectious disease and biotechnology.
Haijun Chen Ion channel function and human diseases
Soma Dash Craniofacial development
Daniele Fabris Structural determinants of HIV 1 5’- UTR in virions and infected cells
Paolo Forni Projects in our lab focus on molecular signals defining cell identity and neuronal migration during embryonic development. Research opportunities are available for graduate students interested in developmental biology, molecular biology, imaging and use of genetically modified animal models.
Gaby Fuchs Ribosomes, translational regulation, genome editing and single-molecule fluorescence
Melinda Larsen The Larsen lab studies organ development and regeneration using the salivary gland as a model. Opportunities are now available to study salivary gland organ development using organoids and salivary gland regeneration in an in vivo regeneration model using transgenic animals
Pan Li Single molecule study of alternative folding of a retroviral untranslated RNA
Gregory Lnenicka Current projects include the role of postsynaptic calcium in synaptic plasticity and homeostasis, the role of the postsynaptic SK channel in regulating synaptic strength and the effect of Pb on synaptic development.
Cara Pager Projects in our lab examine the interactions and mechanisms by which RNA viruses such as hepatitis C virus exploit host microRNAs and RNA granules to promote infection.
Kaalak Reddy (Adjunct) Investigating RNA dysregulation in neuromuscular diseases
Morgan Sammons Projects in our lab focus on understanding the role of chromatin structure in controlling the p53 tumor suppressor across different cell lineages.
Annalisa Scimemi We are interested in understanding how the brain functions, using a variety of experimental and theoretical approaches including: electrophysiology, imaging and optogenetics, computer modeling and behavioral approaches. We currently have three main areas of active investigation: (1) Determine the biophysical mechanisms that regulate synaptic transmission in the brain; (2) Study the function of neuronal circuits implicated with neuropsychiatric disorders; (3) Determine how stroke affects the functional properties of brain cells 
Hua Shi RNA aptamers and their application to protein modulation in health and disease
Max Turner Neural circuits for natural vision and visually guided behavior
Alex Valm The mouth microbiome
Ing-Nang Wang Phylogeographic dynamics of a vector and pathogen in a natural environment
Logistics of the PhD Program


Currently, the University at Albany does not offer housing for graduate students. The Department of Residential Life maintains a Housing Registry, however, that can help with your search for off-campus housing (click here for more information).

Campus Locations

Currently, the University at Albany offers coursework at three campus locations in New York’s Capital Region: Uptown Campus, Downtown Campus and East Campus.

Interactive Virtual Tour

If you have never visited the Campus, do not miss the opportunity to take an interactive virtual tour. There is a lot to see, do and be part of! If you are ready, click here.


BIO399 and BIO499
How to Register

The Department of Biological Sciences has an active undergraduate research program. Interested students should read the instructions for registering for BIO 399/499 on this page. BIO399 (for Juniors) and BIO499 (for Seniors) offer students the opportunity to carry out directed experimental research in some aspect of biology.