Courses in Biological Sciences

A BIO 102 General Biological Sciences (3)
Introduction to the major concepts in biology and a survey of the common structures of organisms, including humans, and their functions at the molecular, cellular, organismal and population levels. Emphasis placed on principles of ecology, inheritance, evolution and physiology relevant to human society. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit in A BIO 110, A BIO 120 or A BIO 131, A BIO 111 or A BIO 121 or A BIO 130, or other equivalent introductory courses. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Offered through the University in the High School Program only.

A BIO 117 Nutrition (3)
The biological roles of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals; digestion, absorption, and storage of nutrients, the chemical nature of foods and food processing; assessment of nutritional status; interactions of nutrients and disease; food supplementation and community nutrition. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A BIO 130 (formerly A BIO 121) General Biology: Molecular and Cell Biology and Genetics (3)
Formerly A BIO 121. First course in a two semester sequence which offers a comprehensive survey of the structures and functions common to all living systems at the molecular, cellular, organismal, and population levels. This course emphasizes molecular and cell biology, and genetics. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit for A BIO 111 or A BIO 121.

A BIO 131 (formerly A BIO 120) General Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Physiology (3)
Formerly A BIO 120. Second course in a two semester sequence which offers a comprehensive survey of the structures and functions common to all living systems at the molecular, cellular, organismal, and population levels. This course emphasizes evolutionary principles, ecology, anatomy and physiology. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit for A BIO 110 or A BIO 120. Students must complete A BIO 131 with a C- or better to register for A BIO 212Y or A BIO 301. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or A BIO 121.

A BIO 175 Forensic Science Investigation (3)
An introduction to forensic science and the various methodologies and applications used in today's multi-discipline crime laboratories. Topics will include a brief history of forensic science, introduction to crime laboratory disciplines and quality assurance, crime scene processing, analysis of physical evidence by the crime lab [firearms and tool marks, chemistry (toxicology, controlled substances), trace evidence, biology, patterned evidence, questioned documents, etc.] and presentation of test results in legal procedures. Does not yield credit toward the BS/BA in biology or the interdisciplinary BS in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This course is designed primarily for undergraduate students with little-to-no science background.

T BIO 176 Genomics & Biotechnology: The Broad Ranging Impact on Mankind (3)
The sequencing of the genomes of a large number of organisms, from bacteria to human, has provided enormous insights into a wide range of human endeavors. Almost no aspect of human knowledge has been untouched by the information being compiled. The information gathered has also driven the development of new technologies designed to explore and exploit the information gathered. The goal of this course will be to familiarize students with the nature of the information that can be gathered from genomics and the benefits derived from the new biotechnologies. Also, simple research problems will be assigned to introduce students to the web based resources and programs used to analyze genomic data. Open to Honors College students only.

A BIO 199 Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences (1–3)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of biological sciences. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Intended for students interested in exploring in depth themes covered in large lecture classes. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): consult instructor for specific prerequisites. S/U or A-E graded. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 201 (formerly A BIO 122) Introduction to Biological Investigations I (1)
First course in a two-semester laboratory sequence designed for biology majors. Students will learn the process of scientific investigation, collaborate in designing, conducting and analyzing experiments, develop the ability to communicate in scientific format and gain expertise in a variety of laboratory instrumentation, techniques, skills and procedures. One laboratory period per week. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 110 or A BIO 122. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121, A BIO 131 or 120, and A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125. Offered fall semester only. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 202Z (formerly A BIO 123Z) Introduction to Biological Investigations II (1)
Second course in a two-semester laboratory sequence designed for biology majors. Students will learn the process of scientific investigation, collaborate in designing, conducting and analyzing experiments, develop the ability to communicate in scientific format and gain expertise in a variety of laboratory instrumentation, techniques, skills and procedures. One laboratory period per week. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 111 or 123Z. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121, A BIO 131 or 120, A BIO 201, and A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125. Offered spring semester only. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 205 Human Genetics (3)
Survey of human genetics emphasizing the principles and mechanisms of inheritance and including the analysis of the genetic material of humans; the behavior of genes in individuals, families, and populations; and the implications for human behavior and evolution, medicine, and society. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121 and A BIO 131 or 120 or permission of instructor. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A BIO 212Y Introductory Genetics (4)
Genetics from the classical Mendelian Laws of inheritance to molecular genetics. Topics will include: DNA structure and replication; Mendelian genetics and recombination; population, fungal, somatic cell, and bacterial genetics; gene organization; the genetic code; mechanisms of gene expression and regulation; and applications of genetic technology. Three class periods and one discussion section. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121 and A BIO 131 or 120, with a grade of C- or better in A BIO 121 or A BIO 131. Students must complete A BIO 212Y with a C or better to register for A BIO 365.

A BIO 213 Microbiology in Health and Disease (4)
Course content will include a brief history of microbiology and immunology; microbial structure, metabolism, growth, and genetics. Aspects of microbiology relevant to the health care professional, including disinfection, antimicrobial drugs, epidemiology, and specific human microbial diseases will also be covered. The course includes lectures and laboratory sessions. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. May not be taken for credit by students with credit for A BIO 314 and A BIO 315. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121, 131 or 120, 201, 202, A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125, or permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

T BIO 260 Neural Basis of Behavior (3)
An analysis of the neural basis of innate and learned behaviors, as well as the neurological deficits accompanying lesions of different parts of the brain. Emphasis will be placed on sensory processing, reflexive behavior, feature extraction and behavioral triggers, using simple learned behaviors amenable to analysis at the neuronal level, including analysis of membrane electrical activity, chemical synaptic activity and neuromodulation. Feature extraction will be considered as the basis of visual localization and prey (insect) capture in toads and in echo localization and insect capture in bats. Analysis of brain lesions will include both behavior and simultaneous brain imaging to connect the deficits with specific brain regions, and will cover semantic/episodic learning and amnesia, as well as speech/language comprehension. We will also discuss prospects for transplanting brain stem cells to cure diseases caused by cell death of specific neurons. T BIO 260 is the Honors College version of A BIO 460. Only one can be taken for credit. Neuroscience minors can take only one of T BIO 260 and T PSY 214 for credit toward the minor requirements. Open to Honors College students only. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121, A BIO 131 or 120. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 296 Biological Sciences with Laboratory (2-4)
Laboratory training in biological sciences. Yields laboratory credit towards the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit when topic varies.

A BIO 298 Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences, with Laboratory (1-3)
Laboratory classroom training in selected areas of biological sciences. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields laboratory credit towards the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z; consult with instructor for specific prerequisites. S/U or A-E graded. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 301 Molecular Cell Biology (3)
Molecular basis of cell structure and functions in eukaryotes. Topics include: basic genetic mechanisms and protein synthesis; recombinant DNA technology, cell nucleus and control of gene expression; plasma membrane structure, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, intracellular compartments, protein sorting, exocytosis and endocytosis; cell signaling and cell communication. This course may not be taken for credit by students who have already completed A BIO 217. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121 and A BIO 131 or 120, with a grade of C- or better in A BIO 121 or A BIO 131.

A BIO 302 Cell Biology Laboratory (2)
Introduction to modern techniques in cell biology, including advanced optical microscopy, DNA extraction and analysis, protein electrophoresis and western blotting, cell homogenization and fractionation, and cell culture. These techniques are used to investigate cell motility, membrane structure and permeability, mitochondrial respiration, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and cell adhesion. One laboratory period per week; additional time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 217 or A BIO 301 and 365. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 303 Developmental Biology (3)
The development of form and function in animals with emphasis on molecular analyses of organismal and cellular events underlying fertilization, early development, morphogenesis and growth. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 305 Developmental Biology Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course examines the mechanisms of animal and plant development at the molecular and cellular level by modern and classical techniques. Topics include gametogenesis, fertilization, early and later development, cell division and morphogenesis. One laboratory period per week; additional time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 303. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 309 Genetics Laboratory (2)
Laboratory studies that focus on the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the significance of these principles to other aspects of biology. Genetic principles will be demonstrated through the utilization of model organisms such as lambda bacteriophage, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Topics may include classical Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics and genomics, and modern applications of these techniques. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202 and A BIO 212Y. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 314 Microbiology (3)
Introduction to the morphology, physiology, structure, genetics, and metabolism of microorganisms, including the roles played by microorganisms in medical, environmental, agricultural, and biotechnological sciences. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 315 Microbiology Laboratory (2)
Laboratory studies that deal with the culture and study of microorganisms, the dynamics of microbial growth, and the physiological basis of bacterial identification. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202Z, and A BIO 212Y. Pre/corequisite(s): A BIO 314. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 318 (= A ANT 312; formerly A BIO 419/A ANT 412) Human Population Genetics (3)
Population genetics theory is the foundation of evolutionary biology and contributes heavily to modern ideas in ecology, systematics, and agriculture. This course is an introduction to that theory with special emphasis on evolution. Only one of A ANT 312 and A BIO 318 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 211 or A BIO 205 or 212Y. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 326 Environmental Microbiology Laboratory (2)
Explores the role of microbes in natural and human-impacted systems through topics such as nutrient cycling, waste degradation, bioremediation, waterborne disease, food safety, and pollution control. Informal lectures and current events discussions may be incorporated into laboratory exercises. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202Z, and A BIO 212Y. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 328 Invertebrate Ecology Laboratory (2)
This laboratory will explore the invertebrate diversity found across terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It will examine taxonomic descriptors of different groups but will more specifically focus on the ecology of these organisms through experimentation, field work and critical reading of the primary literature. Through the semester, topics will be confronted that impact many invertebrates such as invasive species, habitat, chemical communication, predator-prey interactions, and competition. Students will be offered the opportunity to participate in several optional field trips to local streams as part of a citizen science project with the Department of Environmental Conservation. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, 202Z, and 212Y. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 329 Genetics of Human Disease (3)
Four categories of the involvement of human genes in disease will be explored using specific examples to illustrate general phenomena. First, inheritance of diseases caused by single mutant alleles will be discussed. Second, the pre-disposition of specific genotypes to disease will be investigated highlighting the interplay between genes and between the genes and the environment. Third, genetic instabilities that give rise to genetic rearrangements and chromosome loss will be explored. Fourth, the genetic interplay between host and pathogen will be explored with respect to the evolution of protective mechanisms by the host and evasion by the pathogen, and how new pathogens emerge. For each category, multiple cases of specific diseases will be discussed with an emphasis on both the molecular basis of the genetic interactions and the population genetics of disease spread and persistence. The potential of modern genetic techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of diseases will also be discussed. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 330 Principles of Ecology and Evolution (3)
Survey of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Course will cover fundamental concepts and current advances in the fields of these two inter-related disciplines. Topics will include population biology, microevolution, macroevolution, community ecology, ecosystem ecology, and animal behavior. Emphasis will be on patterns and processes, and how those are studied. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 335 Immunology (3)
The structure and function of the antibody molecule and of reactions between antigen and antibody. Also covers cellular interactions in the immune response as well as both the beneficial and harmful consequences of the response. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 336 Laboratory in Immunology (2)
Modern laboratory techniques will be performed to study the cellular and humoral components of the immune system; immune cells and cell markers, immunoglobulin purification and characterization, antibody and antigen identification assays including immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, and enzyme-based immunoassays (ELISA). One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 335. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 341 Neurobiology (3)
The structure and function of the nervous system examined at the cellular level. Topics include: organization of nervous systems; morphology and physiology of nerve cells; synaptic transmission; sensory processing; cellular circuitry underlying "simple" behaviors; cellular basis of learning; and the development of neuronal connections. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 130 or 121, A BIO 131 or 120.

A BIO 342 Neurophysiology Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course uses both neurophysiological techniques and computer simulations to examine the electrophysiological properties of the nervous system. The course covers the basic principles underlying action potentials, synaptic potentials and receptor potentials. These electrical signals are recorded from the nervous systems of cockroaches, crayfish and fruit flies; the signals are examined using data acquisition and analysis software. In subsequent exercises, a more detailed analysis of action potentials and synaptic potentials is performed using computer simulations. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202Z, and A BIO 341. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 343 Evolutionary Biology and Human Health (3)
This course illustrates the importance and utility of evolutionary perspectives on various topics related to human health. In addition to the "how" questions, this course also introduces the "why" questions. Various evolutionary hypotheses are examined. Arguments for and counter-arguments against each hypothesis are presented to foster understanding of each topic. Selected topics include infectious diseases, pathogen virulence, allergy/asthma, mental health/addiction, genetic disorders, diseases of civilization, sex, pregnancy, and aging. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 344 Mammalian Anatomy Laboratory (2)
A comprehensive mammalian gross anatomy lab. Topics include skeletal and muscular system, brain and nervous system, sense organs, endocrine system, circulatory system, lymphatic and immune system, respiratory system, urinary system, digestive system and reproductive system. Disease pathologies impacting normal body function will be examined. This laboratory includes dissection of preserved specimens, microscopic investigations and examination of skeletal samples and anatomical models. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, 202Z and 217 or 301.

A BIO 365 Biological Chemistry I (3)
The chemistry and biochemical interrelationship of carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids; enzyme catalysis and introduction to metabolism. Only one of A CHM 342 and A BIO 365 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 220 and A CHM 221 and a grade of C or better in A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 366 Biological Chemistry II (3)
Control and regulation of metabolic pathways, expression and transmission of genetic information, and a variety of selected current topics. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 367 Biochemistry Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course is designed to provide basic training in various procedures used in present day biochemical research. These will include methods for protein purification, enzyme kinetics, peptide sequencing, and fractionation of intracellular components. In addition, biochemical processes such as glucose metabolism and photosynthesis will be studied. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 or equivalent and permission of instructor. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 375 Principles of Human Disease (3)
This course will cover a wide variety of human diseases from an anatomical, physiological, genetic, pathological, and/or public health perspective. We will investigate the onset, cause, or contraction of the disease, potential pre-disposition to, diagnosis, pathophysiology, physical symptoms, and treatment of many common and uncommon human diseases and conditions. We will explore in depth many types of cancer, genetic diseases, and physical abnormalities, as well as diseases caused by developmental defects, microorganisms, aging, and/or environmental exposure. Scientific research and investigations of human diseases of current public health concern will be emphasized. Using current literature, students will identify and research a human disease of personal interest, then present their research in a scientific poster for a portion of their grade. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y and A BIO 301 or A BIO 217. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 389Z Writing in Biology (1)
Students who are concurrently registered in, or have previously taken, any 300 or 400 level biology course which yields credit toward the major, may with permission of the instructor of that course, enroll in A BIO 389Z and fulfill a writing intensive version of that other course. One additional meeting per week in which writing techniques and experiences are stressed is required. Written work that will be used for credit in A BIO 389Z must be in addition to any writings required for the companion course. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): a companion biology course at the 300 or 400 level. S/U graded.

A BIO 395 Undergraduate Teaching Experience in Biological Sciences (1-2)
Teaching Experience in Biological Sciences allows high-achieving, motivated undergraduates to assist in the education of undergraduate students. Participation in undergraduate teaching can provide valuable leadership skills and allow students to gain a deeper understanding of the principles learned in the course they teach. This experiential learning can occur in laboratory courses, lecture classes or in a departmental peer tutoring program. Duties may include working directly with students, laboratory preparation, assistance in grading laboratory reports or quizzes, providing guidance to students for in-class exercises or discussions, etc. Students cannot receive credit for both A BIO 395 and A BIO 496. Up to 2 credits of A BIO 395 can be applied toward the major or minor. Prerequisite(s): students must have earned a grade of B+ or better for the course in which they will assist. A minimum overall GPA of 3.0 is required. Course can be repeated up to 3 times for credit for a total of 4 credits.

A BIO 397 Topics in Biology (1-3)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of biology. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields credit toward the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing, and permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 398 Topics in Biology, with Laboratory (1-3)
Issues in selected areas of biology. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields laboratory credit toward the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit, when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 399/399Z Supervised Research for Juniors (2–3)
Individual, independent research on selected topics in biology. Critical analysis of selected research papers. Junior majors in the department of biological sciences apply for this course through the prospective research adviser. Students taking two or more semesters of A BIO 399, 399Z, 499, or 499Z will prepare a poster or make an oral presentation at the Departmental Research Symposium. A copy of the final written report of each semester’s work, preferably typewritten in journal format, is kept on permanent file in the department. May be taken either semester. A maximum of 6 credits may be earned in A BIO 399 and 399Z.

A BIO 401 (formerly A BIO 320) Ecology (3)
This course covers fundamental questions in ecology, and the process of ecological research, spanning levels of organization from individual organisms to populations, communities, and beyond. The range of topics includes physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, population ecology, species interactions, community ecology, ecosystem ecology, macroecology, and applied ecology. Each week the class will address topics with a lecture, a computer lab, and a discussion. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 320. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y, A BIO 330, and A MAT 111 or A MAT 112.

A BIO 402 Evolution (3)
The patterns and processes of biological change with time from the origins of life, through major evolutionary innovations, to the development of human culture. Fundamental concepts in biology will be stressed, including information, mutation, selection, random drift, and adaptation. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y and A BIO 330.       

A BIO 410 Human Physiology (3)
The functions of organ systems and their contributions to the functions of the human body as a whole. Topics to include: nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal systems and energy metabolism and temperature regulation. Two 1 1/2-hour lecture periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, 202Z, 217 or 301. 

A BIO 411 Human Physiology Laboratory (2)
A mixture of lab experiments and computer simulations in systemic physiology with emphasis on membrane transport and excitability, muscle contraction, cardiovascular regulation, respiration and metabolism, acid-base control, renal system physiology, and sensory physiology. Three hours laboratory and one hour discussion per week, with emphasis on writing of scientific lab reports. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Corequisite(s): A BIO 410. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 413 Biology of Stem Cells (3)
Stem cells are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and the potential to differentiate into a diverse range of specialized cell types. As such they are the focus of considerable interest by the biomedical research community and in the area of regenerative medicine. In addition, derivation from embryonic tissues raises ethical concerns. This lecture course focuses on the biological and genetic characteristics of stem cells that originate from embryonic and adult tissues. Study materials will be drawn from contemporary scientific papers and web based resources. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y, A BIO 303, and permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 425 Molecular Biology (3)
Mechanisms of gene expression and regulation will be studied, using examples from bacteria and eukaryotes. Discussion will include experimental approaches to gene cloning and sequencing, analysis of DNA-protein interactions, and structure and function of RNA. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 426 Laboratory in Molecular Biology (2)
Experiments in the modern techniques of recombinant molecular biology will be performed. These may include restriction mapping of plasmids, gene cloning, DNA blotting, DNA sequence analysis, plasmid constructions, and gene expression studies. One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 and 425. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 429 Molecular Virology (3)
Viruses are usually associated with damaging and often fatal infections. However without viruses our world would be a very different place. This course will introduce the fundamental principles of virology with an emphasis on the viral replication strategies, virus-cell interactions, pathogenesis, and evolution of viruses; as well strategies applied for control and prevention of infection. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y and 217 or 301. Prerequisite or corequisite(s): A BIO 365. 

A BIO 435 Methods in Biotechnology (2)
This laboratory course is designed to provide training in modern techniques used in Forensic and Biomedical fields. These will include sequential methods for RT-PCR, PCR product cloning, analysis of recombinant plasmid clones, PCR-based VNTR genotyping, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 or permission of instructor. Course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 441 Molecular Neurobiology (3)
The molecular biology of learning, memory, neural development and neurological disease. The course will relate the structure and function of receptors, second messengers, cytoskeletal proteins, transcription factors and gene structure to their roles in the nervous system. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 365 and either A BIO 341 or A BIO 217 or A BIO 301. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 447 Cellular Aspects of Neurophysiology (3)
The course covers ion channels in excitable membranes, synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. It correlates the properties of ion channels and synaptic transmission with their physiological functions, such as learning and memory and sensory information processing. It discusses the organization principles for the formation of functional neural networks at synapse and cellular levels. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 121 or A BIO 130 and A BIO 341. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 454 Introduction to the Biomanufacturing of Pharmaceuticals (3)
The class is structured to introduce students to protein and nucleic acid-based pharmaceuticals and the process of biomanufacturing. Students will gain in depth knowledge on the parameters of protein and nucleic acids-based pharmaceuticals that affect their efficacy and mechanism of action, as well details on how pharmaceuticals are validated for use in humans. Students will be introduced to the cell-based production of proteins, purification techniques, and microbiology concerns specific to biomanufacturing. Students will be introduced to blockbuster pharmaceuticals and late breaking trends in biomanufacturing. Students will learn and apply fundamental concepts in the areas of biology, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and molecular biology to gain a broad understanding of pharmaceutical mechanism of action and the biomanufacturing process. Students will develop verbal and written communication skills though presentations and homework assignments. Students will be introduced to team-based science, through group project work and group assessments. Students will also critically evaluate the work of their peers and be required to demonstrate broad knowledge of the biomanufacturing and pharmaceutical fields. Finally, students will be required to explain how new technologies intersect with biomanufacturing, and will theorize future application areas and/or areas of future improvements. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y or permission of instructor.

A BIO 460 Neural Basis of Behavior (3)
An analysis of the neural basis of innate and learned behaviors, as well as the neurological deficits accompanying lesions of different parts of the brain. Emphasis will be placed on sensory processing, reflexive behavior, feature extraction and behavioral triggers, using simple learned behaviors amenable to analysis at the neuronal level, including analysis of membrane electrical activity, chemical synaptic activity and neuromodulation. Feature extraction will be considered as the basis of visual localization and prey (insect) capture in toads and in echo localization and insect capture in bats. Analysis of brain lesions will include both behavior and simultaneous brain imaging to connect the deficits with specific brain regions, and will cover semantic/episodic learning and amnesia, as well as speech/language comprehension. We will also discuss prospects for transplanting brain stem cells to cure diseases caused by cell death of specific neurons. Only one of A BIO 460 and T BIO 260 can be taken for credit. Prerequisite (s): A BIO 341 or equivalent or permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2022-2023.

A BIO 475 Forensic Biology I (3)
In this course (1 credit lecture and 2 credit laboratory), students will learn about many of the techniques routinely carried out in forensic biology laboratories. They will begin with search and recovery of mock biological evidence, move on to serological testing of body fluids, and then spend several weeks focusing on DNA techniques. Students will extract and quantify DNA using three different methods and generate a DNA profile using state of the art methodology. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 425 or permission of instructor.

A BIO 477 Forensic Science (3)
Forensic Science (1 credit lecture and 2 credits laboratory) will introduce students to commonly used forensic science techniques and instrumentation. Topics covered in this course will include pattern evidence, microscopy, ballistics, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, toxicology, crime scene collection, laboratory safety and quality assurance. Students will follow standard operating procedures with regard to documentation, sample preparation, data collection and analysis and reporting. The laboratory will conclude with students working a mock evidence case or performing quality control on tested samples and reporting their findings. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202Z, and A BIO 212Y, or permission of the instructor.

A BIO 478 Instrumental and Biochemical Analysis (2)
This course (2 credit laboratory) will introduce students to analytical methods as well as classic and state-of-the-art instrumentation typically employed in accredited forensic laboratories for the extraction, separation, identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biochemical substances. More importantly, students will complete experiments with various platforms that include Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, and Gas Chromatography. Laboratory topics will include casework, documentation, sample preparation, data collection and analysis, reporting, quality assurance, and laboratory safety. The laboratory will conclude with students working a sample case, reporting their findings in a written summary and oral presentation. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 365 or permission of the instructor.

A BIO 480 Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology (3)
This course (1 credit lecture and 2 credits laboratory) is an advanced course that utilizes methodology and instrumentation commonly used in today's accredited forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratories. For example, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, headspace chromatography, TLC, immunoassay, liquid and solid phase extraction, etc. will be used to forensically analyze and interpret drug chemistry, and biochemical and toxicological substances. Other topics will include casework, documentation, sample preparation, chemical and instrumental analysis, data processing, reporting, uncertainty measurement, and statistical analyses. Laboratory safety and quality assurance will also be included in the course. Students will process evidence from a mock crime scene and collect samples for Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology testing. The laboratory will conclude with students working a sample case, reporting their findings in a 1-2 page summary and oral presentation. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 478 or permission of the instructor.

A BIO 490 (= A PSY 490) Topics in Neuroscience (3)
This course is designed as the capstone course for the interdisciplinary Neuroscience Minor. It is expected that Minors will take this course in the fall of their senior year. This course will be team taught by Neuroscience faculty from Biology and Psychology and will cover current topics in neuroscience research, engaging students in the original research literature and providing information about graduate education and careers in neuroscience. Prerequisite(s): Neuroscience minor, Senior status, A PSY 214, and A BIO 341.

A BIO 496 Internship in Biological Sciences (1-3)
Internship in Biological Sciences allows Biology majors to obtain course credit for their experiential learning in an off-campus internship. The internship provides the students with work experience or professional training in the Biological Sciences and provides an opportunity for the student to relate this real world experience to their academic course work. Students are responsible for identifying and arranging their internship experiences. They can take place in a variety of settings including private companies, government agencies and nonprofit organizations without geographical restriction. In order to receive A BIO 496 credit, the internship must be approved by the Biological Sciences Internship Coordinator prior to beginning the work. Students cannot receive credit for both A BIO 496 and A BIO 395. Up to 2 credits of A BIO 496 can be applied toward the major or minor. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y, junior or senior standing and minimum overall GPA of 2.50. S/U graded.

A BIO 499/499Z Supervised Research for Seniors (2-4)
Individual, independent research on selected topics in biology. Critical analysis of selected research papers. Senior majors in the department of biological sciences apply for this course through the prospective research adviser. A copy of the final written report of each semester’s work, preferably typewritten in journal format, is kept on permanent file in the department. May be taken either semester. Students taking two or more semesters of A BIO 399, 399Z, 499, or 499Z will prepare a poster or make an oral presentation at the Departmental Research Symposium. A maximum of 8 credits may be earned in A BIO 499 and 499Z.