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UAlbany Study Examines Impact of Punitive Sentencing on Generation X 

A new study led by UAlbany researchers suggests the prolonged involvement in the criminal justice system by members of Generation X is driving higher incarcerations rates throughout adulthood. 

ALBANY, N.Y. (Sept. 1, 2020) – Although U.S. crime rates have dropped significantly since the mid-1990s, rates of incarceration peaked in 2008 and remain high. The standard explanation for this pattern is that all people exposed to the criminal justice system today are treated more harshly than before. But a new study using 45 years of incarceration data from North Carolina suggests an alternative explanation: This pattern is driven by the prolonged involvement in the criminal justice system by members of Generation X, who came of age during the 1980s and early 1990s.

The study, by researchers at the University at Albany, RAND Corporation and the University of Pennsylvania, appears in Criminology, a publication of the American Society of Criminology.

“Birth cohorts who were young adults during the crime and punishment boom that occurred in the 1980s and 1990s have higher rates of incarceration throughout their lives, even after the crime-punishment wave ended,” explains Shawn Bushway, a senior policy researcher at the RAND Corporation on leave from UAlbany, who coauthored the study. “We believe that this occurs because these individuals accumulated an extended criminal history under a determinate sentencing regime — implemented in 1994 and still in effect today — that systematically increases punishment for individuals with prior convictions.”

When members of this generation were convicted again in their 30s and 40s, they were much more likely to receive a prison sentence because of their prior records. One additional consequence is that the median age of people in prison has increased substantially during this time period, even for newly admitted prisoners, continued Bushway, a professor of Public Administration and Policy at UAlbany.

The study examined individual-level data from public administrative records in North Carolina from 1972 to 2016, which included the sentencing and corrections records of 450,000 current and former state prison inmates, probationers and parolees. The study found that the crime-punishment wave of the late 1980s and early 1990s increased rates of incarceration for all age groups during this time period.

However, this shock was particularly big for Generation X who were in their peak crime years. This short-term shock became a long-term effect for Generation X, who faced increased levels of incarceration when they were convicted at later ages because of their longer prior records. These effects existed for both Black and white people, despite disproportionate increases in incarceration rates among Black people in the 1980s and 1990s.

“The criminal justice policies when an individual came of age as well as criminal behavior itself played a role in determining levels of criminal justice involvement in young adulthood, which generated further disadvantages in one’s interaction with the criminal justice system later in life,” notes Yinzhi Shen, a PhD candidate in Sociology, who is the lead author on the study. “Policies to reduce the number of people imprisoned should pay attention to the ways in which current policies weigh prior criminal involvement.”

Birth cohorts who are now in their peak years of criminal involvement — Generation Z/Zoomers — have dramatically lower incarceration rates than members of Generation X. In fact, their rates of incarceration resemble those of people who came of age in the early 1970s. These low rates of involvement should continue as they age into their late 20s and 30s, and aggregate incarceration rates should begin to drop even faster as Generation X exits the prison system, even without additional policy changes.

Among the study’s limitations, the authors acknowledge, are that the researchers were unable to investigate the behavioral mechanisms behind the differences in cohorts. In addition, because the United States does not operate under a single criminal justice system, more study is needed to determine whether similar patterns exist in other states.


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A comprehensive public research university, the University at Albany-SUNY offers more than 120 undergraduate majors and minors and 125 master's, doctoral, and graduate certificate programs. UAlbany is a leader among all New York State colleges and universities in such diverse fields as atmospheric and environmental sciencesbusiness, public health, health sciences, criminal justice, emergency preparedness, engineering and applied sciences, informatics, public administration, social welfare, and sociology taught by an extensive roster of faculty experts. It also offers expanded academic and research opportunities for students through an affiliation with Albany Law School. With a curriculum enhanced by 600 study-abroad opportunities, UAlbany launches great careers.