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The complexity inherent in the security context and other competitive environments of the 21st century presents multiple opportunities for Red Teaming  which encompasses a range of activities that seek to emulate the actions of adversaries – to play a role beyond its military origins. For example, the Red Teaming approach could benefit a variety of areas, from counterterrorism, cybersecurity and emergency response, to corporate espionage and business strategy. 

Potential contributions of Red Teaming include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Testing of defensive systems and architectures to evaluate their effectiveness;

  • Identifying previously unrecognized vulnerabilities at the operational level;

  • Helping to identify emerging threats and in turn set new requirements for policy and investment at the strategic level;

  • Training of response personnel by exposing them to realistic threats that they might face;

  • Providing validation of novel tools and models that would otherwise be unfeasible or too expensive to validate using empirical data.



The Center for Advanced Red Team Training at the University at Albany Logo

However, both the art and science of Red Teaming are underdeveloped, with limited research into how Red Teaming is best conducted and no accredited academic training or education programs. As the first academic center devoted to advancing the art and science of Red Teaming, the Center for Advanced Red Teaming (CART) seeks to address a conspicuous need, identified by practitioners, for both research and education in this growing area of security studies.

The primary goals of CART

  1. Employing interdisciplinary research and analysis techniques to advance the art and science of Red Teaming in support of the public and private sectors.
  2. Serving as a clearinghouse for Red Teaming best practices.
  3. Advocating for scientific approaches to Red Teaming.
  4. Educating and training the next generation of Red Teaming practitioners, emphasizing the strengths that diversity brings to the Red Teaming enterprise.
  5. Facilitating the recognition and implementation of Red Team results into policy and practice.
What We Do
Advanced Red Teaming

CART develops and employs new methodologies to assist a variety of sponsors in designing, conducting and evaluating advanced Red Team exercises. We engage with entities in the public and private sectors to enhance current risk, threat, and vulnerability assessments, and to improve their ability to anticipate, prevent and mitigate unwelcome shocks to their operations. Leveraging deep expertise in social and behavioral sciences, management research and engineering principles helps ensure that Red Teaming provides sponsors with maximum value added in terms of their mission goals.


CART applies cutting-edge scientific research techniques to validate and enhance existing Red Teaming practice. CART researchers conduct a variety of research efforts to improve the art and science of Red Teaming for the betterment of the field overall. CART 's research utilizes research and analysis methods across a wide range of disciplines. These include controlled experiments, surveys, statistical analysis, and computational modeling inter alia the research questions posed above. CART is committed to publishing the results of its research in ways that provide direct support to Red Team practitioners and scholars.

CART explores new applications for Red Teaming. CART researchers assess the extent to which Red Teaming can contribute to new domains, as well as how existing practices need to be modified to adapt to new contexts. It also works to integrate Red Teaming into a wide array of risk assessment tools, including computation risk models and response exercises.


CART serves as a clearinghouse for Red Teaming best practices and other resources. CART will serve as a repository of Red Teaming literature and guidance documents. It will also facilitate linkages across the broader Red Teaming community by providing both online forums for collaboration and convening in-person meetings to advance the science and practice of Red Teaming.

Training and Education

CART seeks to design and conduct accredited education and training in Red Teaming. CART's offerings will supplement existing training modules available at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers and within the U.S. Army's University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies. Initially, CART's activities will provide experiential learning opportunities for students at the University of Albany and beyond. Planned offerings include a Graduate Certificate in Red Teaming for Defense for both university students and working practitioners, as well as a concentration in Red Teaming for CEHC Masters Programs.

CART will explore the pedagogy of Red Teaming. CART will examine the extent to which Red Teaming activities can function as a case-based learning approach that can be embedded in a variety of courses at various levels of education, from K-12 through graduate studies.

Red Teaming Resources

CART is committed to providing user-friendly, open-access resources for the Red Teaming community. Included below are resources produced by CART, as well as resources produced by other organizations. Please check back often as new resources will be added periodically.


Who We Are




Gary Ackerman

Director, Center for Advanced Red Teaming
Associate Professor and Associate Dean, College of Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, Cybersecurity

Relevant Expertise: CART Director Gary Ackerman has designed and conducted Red Teaming for over a decade on behalf of a variety of government agencies and other organizations, including the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and national laboratories. He has published a compendium of his Red Team scenarios related to nuclear and radiological threats, titled Gaming Armageddon, which has been widely used within the United States government. Dr. Ackerman came to Red Teaming through his quest to understand terrorist tactical and strategic decision-making in the context of unconventional weapons and emerging technologies. Before founding CART and joining the faculty of the University at Albany, he was the Founding Director of the Unconventional Weapons and Technology Division at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), where he also previously acted as the Research Director and Special Projects Director.



Brandon Behlendorf

Deputy Director, Center for Advanced Red Teaming
Assistant Professor, College of Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, Cybersecurity

Relevant Expertise: CART Deputy Director Brandon Behlendorf has researched organizational decision-making among illicit actors for over a decade for a number of agencies and components within the Department of Homeland Security. Leveraging criminological insights, Dr. Behlendorf has developed Red Team scenarios related to transnational criminal organizations, radiological and nuclear security, and terrorist tactics and decision-making. Coupled with advanced analytics in network and geospatial sciences, Dr. Behlendorf's research has informed operational protocols and provided decision-support software to meet end-user needs with security and enforcement agencies. He previously served as Assistant Director for Research Development at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) and was a law enforcement analyst for the Ohio Department of Public Safety. 


Affiliated Faculty

Victor Asal
Director, Center for Policy Research
Professor, Political Science
Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy
Relevant Expertise: Professor Asal is renowned for his work in the simulation of human conflict and contentious politics and brings this expertise to CART.

Brian Nussbaum
Assistant Professor, College of Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, and Cybersecurity
Relevant Expertise: Dr. Nussbaum spent 2012-2013 as a Visiting Assistant Professor of Homeland Defense in the Strategic Wargaming Division of the Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) at the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and both there and in NYS homeland security agencies has run, built, supervised, and served as a participant in numerous war games, simulations and adversary focused exercises. 

James Steiner
Public Service Professor, Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy
Relevant Expertise: Dr. Steiner has participated in Red Team-related activities for over forty years, including participating in several iterations of the Global War Games at the Naval War College and preparing multiple red books for senior US Government officials, including presidents.

Eric Stern
Professor, College of Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, and Cybersecurity
Relevant Expertise: Professor Eric Stern has extensive experience in crisis simulations for purposes of threat and vulnerability assessment, training and exercise, planning and crisis organization development heuristics, preparedness, and active learning. This includes dozens of scenario and simulation exercise projects funded by organizations such as FEMA, DHS, DoD, NATO, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. He was the Training and Exercise Director at the Swedish National Center for Crisis Management Training for several years.




Douglas Clifford
Program Manager, Center for Advanced Red Teaming
Douglas Clifford is a U.S. Army Military Police Veteran and CEHC alumnus and has participated in the development and implementation of several Red Team exercises. In his position as the Program Manager for the Center for Advanced Red Teaming, he manages CART's day-to-day operations and oversees all research assistants and interns. 





Research Assistants

Jenna LaTourette

Mike Mieses

Hayley Peterson

Anna Wetzel


Advisory Board

Ana Aslanishvili
Red Team Lead - Facebook

Amaury T. Cooper
Deputy Director, Global Security - Global Communities

Dr. Scott Crino
Co-Founder and CEO - Red Six Solutions LLC

Michael G. Deal Jr.
Intelligence Community Government Contractor, Red Team Lead Analyst

Mark French
Director - University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies, United States Army Combined Arms Center

Lt. Col William Johnson
Deputy Director - School of Advanced Warfighting

Dr. Kathleen Kiernan
CEO and Founder - Kiernan Group Holdings

Dr. Mark Mateski
Founder - Red Team Journal

Brian McDermott
Red Team Analyst / Facilitator

Jason Pinegar
Director - Red Team Index Division, Transportation Security Administration

Chad Treboniak
Owner - Critical Ops LLC


Fall 2021 Interns

Melissa Jennings

Cailee Navarro

Deirdre Occhino

Elyssa Thomas



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Contact CART
CEHC 340

135 Western Avenue
Albany, NY 12203
United States