# Courses in Physics

**A PHY 100 Contemporary Astronomyâ€”The Cosmic Connection (3)**

Modern developments in astronomy, the birth and death of stars, solar and planetary science, neutron stars and black holes, galactic structure, cosmology, theories of the origin and future of the universe.** **

**A PHY 103 Exploration of Space (3)**

The solar system, modern developments in planetary and space science; human exploration of space; space travel and future colonization.

**A PHY 104 Physical Science for Humanists (3) **

How the universe works. A historical approach to the development of the laws of physics from the classical physics of Newton to the present. Emphasizes the people and events of the revolution in physics in the 20th century. Unraveling of the structure and properties of the nuclear atom or from raisin pudding to quarks. Intended for nonmajors.

**A PHY 105 General Physics I (3)**

Vectors, kinematics, dynamics, vibrations and waves, sound, fluids, and thermodynamics. May not be taken for credit by students with credit for A PHY 140 or A PHY 142 or T PHY 141. This course is generally offered in the fall semester; students taking this course in the fall semester are required to enroll in a discussion section associated with the lecture. Smaller, out of sequence sections of this course are offered in the spring and summer semester and do not require enrollment in a discussion section.

**A PHY 106 General Physics Lab I (1)**

Laboratory experiments to complement the topics being studied in A PHY 105. One laboratory each week. Corequisite: A PHY 105. Offered summer and fall semesters only. This course may be substituted for A PHY 145.

**A PHY 108 General Physics II (3)**

Electrostatics, circuit electricity, magnetism, geometrical and physical optics, atomic and nuclear phenomena. May not be taken for credit by students with credit for A PHY 150 or A PHY 152 or T PHY 151. This course is generally offered in the spring semester; students taking this course in the spring semester are required to enroll in a discussion section associated with the lecture. Smaller, out of sequence sections of this course are offered in the fall and summer semester and do not require enrollment in a discussion section. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 105.

**A PHY 109 General Physics Lab II (1)**

Laboratory experiments to complement the topics in A PHY 108. One laboratory period each week. Corequisite: A PHY 108. Offered spring and summer semesters only.

**A PHY 112 Star Systems (3)**

We will explore our world and our lives in the context of the solar system to which we belong. We will compare our world to the other rocky worlds of the inner solar system, and explore the gas giants and frozen worlds of the outer solar system. We will come to understand our sun as a star, and will learn about the other stars in our galaxy and what we know about those star systems**. **Prerequisite(s): A PHY 105 or A PHY 140 or A PHY 142 or T PHY 141.

**A PHY 140 Physics I: Mechanics (3)**

An introduction to the fundamentals of physics: Classical Mechanics. Topics include the concepts of force, energy and work applied to the kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies and an introduction to special relativity. Only one of A PHY 140 or T PHY 141 or A PHY 142 may be taken for credit. This course is generally offered in the fall semester; students taking this course in the fall semester are required to enroll in a discussion section associated with the lecture. Smaller, out of sequence sections of this course are offered in the spring and summer semester and do not require enrollment in a discussion section. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A MAT 111 or A MAT 112 or A MAT 118.

**T PHY 141 Honors Physics I: Mechanics (3)**

Course content will follow A PHY 140. However, topics will be covered in more depth and at a somewhat more advanced level. T PHY 141 is the Honors College version of A PHY 142. Only one of A PHY 140 or T PHY 141 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A MAT 111 or A MAT 112 or A MAT 118. Open to Honors College students only.

**A PHY 142 Physics I: Advanced Mechanics (3)**

An introduction to the fundamentals of physics, Classical Mechanics. Topics include the concepts of force, energy and work applied to the kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies. This course is designed for students who are interested in careers in physical science and engineering and who are well prepared to take a more advanced course in introductory physics. Course content expands on the content of A PHY 140 and T PHY 141. More advanced textbook is used. Students with a strong interest in physical sciences should consider taking A PHY 142 instead of A PHY 140 or T PHY 141. Only one of A PHY 140, T PHY 141, or A PHY 142 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A MAT 111 or A MAT 112.

**A PHY 145 Physics Lab I (1)**

Experiments in mechanics. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite or corequisite: A PHY 140, or T PHY 141 or A PHY 142. Offered fall semester only.

**A PHY 150 Physics II: Electromagnetism (3)**

An introduction to the fundamentals of physics: electrostatics and magnetism, including the concepts of the electric and magnetic fields, electric potential and basic circuits; the laws of Gauss, Ampere, and Faraday; Maxwell's equations; geometrical optics. This course is generally offered in the spring semester; students taking this course in the spring semester are required to enroll in a discussion section associated with the lecture. Smaller, out of sequence sections of this course are offered in the fall and summer semester and do not require enrollment in a discussion section. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A MAT 113 or A MAT 119; prerequisite(s): A PHY 140, or T PHY 141 or A PHY 142.

**T PHY 151 Honors Physics II: Electromagnetism (4)**

An introduction to the fundamentals of physics: electrostatics and magnetism, including the concepts of the electric and magnetic fields, electric potential and basic circuits; the laws of Gauss, Ampere and Faraday; Maxwell's equations; geometrical optics. Course content will follow A PHY 150. However, topics will be covered in more depth and at a more advanced level. Only one of A PHY 150, or T PHY 151 or A PHY 152 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite or corequisite(s): A MAT 113 or A MAT 119 or T MAT 119; prerequisite(s): A PHY 140, or T PHY 141 or A PHY 142. Open to Honors College students only.

**A PHY 152 Physics II: Advanced Electromagnetism (3)**

An introduction to the fundamentals of physics: electrostatics and magnetism, including the concepts of the electric and magnetic fields, electric potential and basic circuits; the laws of Gauss, Ampere and Faraday; Maxwell's equations. This course is designed for students who are interested in careers in physical science and engineering and who are well prepared to take a more advanced course in introductory physics. Course content expands on the content of A PHY 150 and T PHY 151. More advanced textbook is used. Students with a strong interest in physical sciences should consider taking A PHY 152 instead of A PHY 150 or T PHY 151. Only one of A PHY 150, T PHY 151, or A PHY 152 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite or corequisite(s): A MAT 113 or A MAT 119 or T MAT 119; prerequisite(s): A PHY 140, or T PHY 141 or A PHY 142.

**A PHY 155 Physics Lab II (1)**

Experiments in electricity and magnetism, circuits, and optics. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite or corequisite: A PHY 150, or T PHY 151 or A PHY 152. Offered spring semester only.

**A PHY 202 Environmental Physics (3)**

Study of the collection, evaluation, and interpretation of data and the modeling and analysis of urban and environmental problems. Topics include population, pollution, mass transportation systems, comparison of various energy sources such as solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel, and effective utilization of natural resources. Prerequisite: algebra.

**A PHY 204 (= A MUS 204) Physics of Music (3)**

Why does one musical chord sound consonant, the other dissonant? How does the human ear work? Why do musical instruments sound so distinctive? How can musical sound be faithfully recorded, and then reproduced in a life-like manner? In this course, the class will use physical methods and principles to answer these questions. The class will start with the physics of sound production, transmission, and reception. It will then investigate the workings of the ear, and its relation to the perception of sound; the origin and development of musical scales; the design and workings of musical instruments; and the spoken and singing voice. The class will end with the science of auditorium acoustics, and high-fidelity sound recording and reproduction. This is a course ideal for musicians with scientific curiosity, or for non-musicians curious to see how science illuminates and supports many facets of musical activity. Does not yield credit towards the majors or minors in Physics and in Music. Only one version may be taken for credit.

**A PHY 235 Mathematics in Physics (3)**

An enhancement of mathematics skills developed in the first year math and physics courses. Emphasis is on applications of calculus, complex variables, linear algebra, power series, and differential equations to problems in physics. Students must complete A PHY 235 with a *C* or better to register for A PHY 320 or 410, 335Z, 340 or 470, 350 or 480, 440, 450, and 460. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 150 or T PHY 151 or A PHY 152. Corequisite: A MAT 214.

**A PHY 240 Physics III: Structure of Matter (3)**

An introduction to the fundamentals of physics: Thermodynamics and kinetic gas theory. Quantum theory of photons, atoms, nuclei and solids. Students must complete A PHY 240 with a *C* or better to register for A PHY 320 or 410, 340 or 470, and 440. Prerequisite or corequisite: A MAT 214; prerequisite: A PHY 150 or T PHY 151 or A PHY 152. Offered fall semester only.

**A PHY 245 Physics Lab III (1)**

Experiments in modern physics. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A PHY 240. Offered spring semester only.

**A PHY 250 Physics IV: Waves (3)**

Waves and oscillations in optics, in classical and in quantum mechanics. An introduction to physical concepts (wave packets, normal modes, interference and diffraction) and mathematical techniques (Fourier series, transforms, complex numbers, eigenvectors). Students must complete A PHY 250 with a *C* or better to register for A PHY 335Z, 350/480, 450, and 460. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235, A PHY 240, or permission of instructor. Offered spring semester only.

**A PHY 277 Computers in Physics (4)**

This course provides an introduction to the use of computers in physics. Operating systems and programming languages commonly used in physics will be surveyed. Applications of contemporary numerical recipes to problems in physics and graphical displays of results will be practiced with standard software, and object-oriented coding. Pre/corequisite(s): A MAT 214; prerequisite(s): A PHY 150 or A PHY 152 or T PHY 151 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 300 Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics (3)**

This course will enable students to gather information about the science of astronomy and its mathematical and physical underpinnings. After taking this class, students will have a solid understanding of the basics of astrophysics; be able to perform simple physical calculations of orbital motion, the structure of stars, and the expansion of the Universe; and will be able to describe the evolution of the cosmos. Major themes are Kepler's Laws; properties of stars, galaxies and the solar system, cosmology. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235, A PHY 250, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 335Z Advanced Physics Lab (3)**

Introduction to the techniques of experimental research in the areas of electronics, electromagnetism and modern physics. Measurement technique and error analysis are emphasized. Students must enroll in a lab section first to be placed into the lecture. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 250 with a *C* or better or permission of Department Chair. Offered spring semester only.

**A PHY 370 (= A THR 370) Lighting Technology (3)**

Introduction to the physical properties of light and the technology used in entertainment lighting systems. Topics include the physics of light, electricity, color, optics, photometric calculations, equipment, and the interpretation of drafting and related paperwork. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A THR 135 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 404 Biophysics and Bioimaging (3)**

This course provides a broad study of biophysics from the perspective of imaging. The course covers the theory of light, light interaction with biological tissues, cells and molecules, color vision, microscopic image formation, color vision, fluorescence, interference-based imaging, holography, X-Ray imaging, FLIM, FRAP, FRET, spectral imaging, and super-resolution approaches (STORM/STED/PALM/ SIM). Prerequisite(s): A MAT 111 or A MAT 112, A MAT 113 or A MAT 119.

**A PHY 409/409Y Mathematical Models in Physics (3)**

Topics in theoretical and applied physics will be studied using both analytical and numerical approaches. Formal descriptions of phenomena and interpretations of results will involve a variety of classical and modern mathematical techniques. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235; pre/corequisite(s): A PHY 320 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 410 Classical Mechanics (3)**

(Formerly A PHY 320) Fundamentals of Newtonian mechanics: conservation theorems, central forces, motion in non-inertial frames, rigid-body motion. Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations. Offered fall semester. Prerequisite: A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 240 with a grade of *C* or better and A PHY 250, or permission of Department Chair.

**A PHY 415/415Y Electronics (3)**

Transistors and their characteristics; electronic circuits, field effect transistors and applications, amplifiers, low and high frequency response; operational amplifiers; consideration of control-circuit design; fast-switching and counting devices; integrated circuits and their designs. Two class periods and one three-hour laboratory each week. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 150 or 152, or T PHY 151.

**A PHY 416 Electronics: Projects (3)**

Independent projects involving laboratory work in the study of electronic circuits using linear and/or digital devices. (Each student is expected to undertake a project that requires originality and broadens knowledge of the area.) Special attention is paid to counters, registers, encoders, decoders, and digital applications.

**A PHY 425 Information Physics (3)**

The basic principles of information theory and their relation to the laws of physics. Probability and entropy as tools for inductive reasoning. The Cox axioms. Bayes' theorem and its application to elementary data analysis. Relative entropy, the method of maximum entropy and the foundations of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Information geometry, the Fisher-Rao information metric. Derivation of quantum mechanics from information theory. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 450 and A PHY 460, or permission of the instructor.

**A PHY 426/426Y Introduction to Particle Physics (3)**

A broad survey of Particle Physics. The course will cover the basic concepts in this field: Quark Model, Forces and Symmetries in Nature, Feynman diagrams, the Standard Model, recent developments such as the discovery of neutrino oscillations and the Higgs boson-like particle, accelerators and detectors used in experiments, and techniques used to analyze data. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 240 or a basic Quantum Mechanics course such as A PHY 440, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 428 The Physics of Radiation Therapy (3)**

This course focuses on radiation therapy physics with special emphasis on clinical applications. The course provides basic radiation physics and physical aspects of treatment planning using photon and electron beams and brachytherapy sources. The course consists of three parts: Part I deals with the basic physics of radiation; Part II deals with classical radiation therapy, which includes dosimetry and treatment planning; Part III focuses on modern radiation therapy, which deals with conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The course will also involve lectures by Medical Physics experts from local hospitals. Students will write a report on a topic selected in consultation with the teacher. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 320 or 410, 340 or 470, 350 or 480, and 440.

**A PHY 430/430Y Optics (3)**

This course provides a broad introduction to optics, including both theory and experiment. The geometrical and wave theories of light propagation will be introduced along with their applications such as imaging systems (e.g. microscopes, and telescopes), lasers and polarization optics. The course will include 5 labs covering the material presented in lecture. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 and A PHY 250, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 433 Physics Measurements (3)**

This course offers theoretical and experimental aspects of measurements, data acquisition and test design in physics and engineering. It introduces students to the National Instruments LabVIEW, a graphical programming platform that allows integration of different software and hardware modules into a single project. The course will cover fundamentals of measurement (statistical error, sampling theory and so on), discuss sensor theory, and offer instruction on virtual instrumentation, such as data logging, signal processing, and graphical user interface design. The course will include several labs covering the material presented in lecture. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 335Z or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 440 Quantum Physics I (3)**

Introduction to non-relativistic quantum mechanics; wave functions, amplitudes and probabilities; the superposition of quantum states, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Time evolution: the Schroedinger equation, stationary states, two-state systems. Motion in one-dimensional potentials: tunneling, particle in a box, harmonic oscillator. Offered fall semester. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 240 with a grade of *C* or better and A PHY 250, or permission of Department Chair.

**A PHY 442 Introduction to General Relativity (3)**

Review of Special Relativity. Introduction to tensor analysis and the geometry of curved spaces. Einstein's equations. Applications to gravitational waves, black holes and expanding universes. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 320 or 410.

**A PHY 443/443Y Introduction to Cosmology (3)**

An introduction to cosmology, the study of the structure and evolution of the Universe. Topics: Newtonian cosmology, elements of general relativity (metric, geodesics, Einstein equations), Friedman equations and their solutions, dark matter, dark energy, inflation, introduction to quantum gravity. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 320 or 410, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 446/446Y Laser Physics and Applications (3)**

This course provides a broad introduction to lasers, including theory spontaneous and simulated emission, design of optical resonators and laser beam propagation. The course will also cover the design of various types of lasers and laser applications, such as holography, microscopy and spectroscopy. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 250.

**A PHY 448/448Y Medical Imaging (3)**

This introduction to the physics of radiography includes discussions of CAT, PET, MRI, SPECT, fluoroscopy, and nuclear medicine. Image quality assessment concepts such as contrast, MTF, DQE(f), and ROC will also be covered. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 250 and A MAT 220 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 449/449Y Quantum Information, Computation, and Foundations (3)**

Quantum theory has many mysterious features, such as entanglement and the probabilistic nature of measurements, which seem to defy understanding in terms of the mechanistic clockwork picture of reality that underlies classical physics. What do these features suggest about the nature of physical reality? For example, is there really "spooky action at a distance" in Nature, as Einstein quipped? In this course, we investigate possible answers to these questions, and form an understanding as to why these questions matter. In particular, we look at recent work which views quantum theory as a theory of information manipulation, and see that this provides extraordinary new insights into the nature of physical reality, which leads to new technological possibilities (such as quantum cryptography and entanglement-assisted computation) that harness quantum weirdness, and even helps us to derive the mathematics of quantum theory from simple physical assumptions. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 440 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 450 Quantum Physics II (3)**

Quantum motion in central potentials; angular momentum and spin; the hydrogen atom. Identical Particles. The structure of atoms and molecules, the periodic table. Stationary-state and time-dependent perturbation theory. Scattering theory. Offered spring semester. Prerequisite: A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 250 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 440 or permission of Department Chair. Offered spring semester.

**A PHY 451/451Y (= I CSI 451 & C INF 451) Bayesian Data Analysis and Signal Processing (3)**

This course will introduce both the principles and practice of Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for data analysis, signal processing, and machine learning. This is a hands-on course that will introduce the use of the MATLAB computing language for software development. Students will learn to write their own Bayesian computer programs to solve problems relevant to physics, chemistry, biology, earth science, and signal processing, as well as hypothesis testing and error analysis. Optimization techniques to be covered include gradient ascent, fixed-point methods, and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A MAT 214 (or equivalent) and I CSI/I ECE 201.

**A PHY 452/452Y Astroparticle Physics (3)**

An in-depth discussion of precision cosmology: dark matter, dark energy, and the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, from experimental/technological, observational, mathematical/theoretical, phenomenological, and computational perspectives. Introduction to intragalactic and extragalactic gamma-ray/x-ray astronomy, the study of cosmic rays, and astrophysical neutrinos, as well as experimental searches for extra/higher spatial dimensions and constraints on Lorentz invariance violation via various particle astrophysics detection methods. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 443 and A PHY 320 or 410, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 453 Microprocessor Applications (3)**

(Formerly A PHY 353) This course describes applications of microprocessors to data collection and process control. Topics include the capabilities of typical microprocessors and the techniques used to interface them to external devices, input/output programming, use of the data and address busses, interrupt handling, direct memory access, and data communications; characteristics of peripheral devices such as keyboards, printers, A/D and D/A converters, sensors, and actuators. Only one version of A PHY 353/453/553 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): I CSI/I ECE 201. An elementary knowledge of electricity is helpful.

**A PHY 454 Microprocessor Applications Laboratory (3)**

Complements the theoretical development presented in A PHY/I CEN 353. Centers around practical laboratory applications in both hardware and software of a particular microprocessor. Students prototype a minimum system and expanded system. Applications include keyboard, printer, display, A/D, D/A, and control functions. A knowledge of a microprocessor and digital logic functions is desirable. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY/I CEN 415, or A PHY/I CEN 353 or 453, or permission of instructor.

**APHY 458/458Y Physics of Radiation Detectors (3)**

Radiation is everywhere, and radiation detectors have multi-disciplinary applications, ranging from particle physics, nuclear engineering, physical chemistry, to medical physics. New radiation detectors are constantly developed in laboratories around the world. This course will encompass theories, methodologies and technologies in order to understand the conceptual basis of radiation devices. It will also cover the statistics, and data analysis methods and softwares used in the context of radiation detectors. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisites(s): A PHY 235, A PHY 240, A PHY 250, and A PHY 277, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 459/459Y Symmetry in Physics (3)**

Symmetry is a fundamental principle by which we organize our knowledge of the physical world. Symmetry expresses not only visible regularities, such as the periodic structure of crystals and fractal structure of snowflakes, but also regularities that underpin the laws of classical and quantum physics. In this course, we investigate physical symmetries using two powerful mathematical tools - group theory (and their matrix representations) and the theory of functional equations. Specific topics include the connection between symmetry and conservation laws in classical and quantum mechanics; the origin of spin; atomic selection rules and the rules for identical particles in quantum mechanics; scaling laws in dynamical systems (which underlie fractal structures such as the Mandelbrot set); the harnessing of symmetry to systematically derive probability theory, information theory and quantum theory; and applications of symmetry methods in other disciplines such as mathematics and economics. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 and A PHY 440 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 460 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics (3)**

Thermodynamic systems and variables; the laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials and applications, ideal and real gas relations; changes of phase, introduction to probability theory; elementary kinetic theory of gases; micro and macro-states of simple quantum-mechanical systems; Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A PHY 440. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 250 with a grade of *C* or better or permission of Department Chair. Offered spring semester only.

**A PHY 462/462Y (formerly A PHY 362) Physics of Materials (3)**

The physics of real materials: the structure of crystalline and amorphous solids; x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy; the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations; crystallographic defects and their relation to mechanical properties. Only one version may be taken for credit. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 250.

**A PHY 466/466Y X-ray Optics, Analysis and Imaging (3)**

A broad survey of x-ray optics and their uses. Introduction to the theory of x-ray interaction with matter, including refraction, diffraction, total reflection, image formation, fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and the effects of Compton scattering, photo-electric absorption, and surface roughness. Applications include x-ray astronomy, microscopy, lithography, materials analysis and medical imaging. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite: A PHY 340 or 470.

**A PHY 468 Particle Physics (3)**

Particle interactions and symmetries. Introduction to classification and the quark model. Calculation of elementary processes using Feynman diagrams. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A PHY 440 or equivalent or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 469 Physics of Nuclei (3)**

This course will deal with basic properties of nuclei such as size, shape, and nuclear force. Nuclear structure based upon shell and collective models, nuclear reactions induced by nucleons including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and nuclear energy. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 440 or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 470 Electromagnetism I: Statics (3)**

(Formerly A PHY 340) Electrostatics and magnetostatics in vacuum and in materials. The mathematics of vector fields will be introduced, including a review of vector calculus. Potential formulations of the electrostatic and magnetostatic fields will be introduced. Methods for solving boundary value problems will be practiced including separation of variables and orthogonal function expansions and multipole expansions. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better; A PHY 240 with a grade of *C* or better; and A PHY 250; or permission of Department Chair. Offered fall semester only.

**A PHY 471/471Y Introduction to Neutrino Astronomy (3)**

An introduction to the burgeoning field of Neutrino Astronomy. Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in Nature, and are produced in a variety of extra-terrestrial sources, e.g., interaction of cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere, our Sun, Supernovae, Active Galactic Nuclei, the Big Bang. This course will give a broad overview of the underlying physics, detection techniques and results. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisites: A PHY 240 or A PHY 440, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 472 Fluid Mechanics (3)**

Most fluids are described by the Navier-Stokes equation. Simplifications or approximations are often needed to extract the physics from this complicated equation. Topics covered include: static fluids, pressure and surfaces; the Euler equation, d'Alembert's paradox, Bernoulli's equation and circulation; viscosity, damping and the Reynolds number; boundary layers and turbulence; waves and sound propagation. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 320 or A PHY 410, and A MAT 214.

**A PHY 477/477Y Computational Methods (3)**

Applications of modern computational methods to current topics in physics. Basics of coding and use of standard software packages. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 and A PHY 277, or permission of instructor.

**A PHY 480 Electromagnetism II: Electrodynamics (3)**

(Formerly A PHY 350) Electrodynamics in vacuum and materials. Topics will include electromagnetic induction and displacement current, Maxwell's equations, energy and momentum in electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic waves and radiation. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 235 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 250 with a grade of *C* or better, A PHY 340 or 470, or permission of the Department Chair. Offered spring semester only.

**A PHY 487 Solid State Physics I (3)**

A broad survey of the phenomena of solid state physics. Symmetries of crystals and diffraction from periodic structures; vibrational states and electronic band structures in crystalline metals, semiconductors, and insulators; thermal, transport and optical properties of solids. A PHY 487 is suggested for Honors students, though assignments and grading are not quite at the graduate level. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 440 and A PHY 460.

**A PHY 488 Solid State Physics II (3)**

A broad survey of the phenomena of solid state physics (continuation of Solid State Physics I). Superconductivity; magnetic and dielectric properties of materials; spectroscopy with photons and electrons; point and line defects; surfaces and interfaces; alloys; noncrystalline solids. A PHY 488 is suggested for Honors students, though assignments and grading are not quite at the graduate level. Prerequisite(s): A PHY 487.

**A PHY 497/497Y Research and/or Independent Study (1-3)**

Research and/or independent study under the direct supervision of a faculty member with whom the student has made an arrangement. Ambitious students are encouraged to engage in an activity that broadens their experience considerably beyond that of conventional course work. A written report is submitted on the work of each semester. May be repeated for credit. *S/U* graded.

**A PHY 498 Honors Seminar in Physics (3)**

A seminar specifically designed for students admitted to the Departmentâ€™s Honors program. Topics are determined by the Departmental Honors Committee. Prerequisite(s): admission to Honors Program.