Courses in Geography

A GOG 101 Introduction to the Physical Environment (3)
Introduction to the three main fields of physical geography (climatology, biogeography, and geomorphology) from an integrated earth systems viewpoint. The major world climate, vegetation, soil and landform regions are treated as process-response systems whose physical patterns and interrelationships, causes, and significance are examined. Includes assessments of the role of human impacts for global and regional change.

A GOG 102/102Z Introduction to Human Geography (3-4)
Introduction to key elements of human geography as a social science, (including population, cultural, economic, and political geography), focusing on the disciplinary themes of place, space and landscape. These themes are applied at a variety of scales, from local to the regional to the global, with particular emphasis with geographical concerns with cross-cultural comparisons among regions and with the relationships of local and regional phenomena to global processes. Only one version of A GOG 102 may be taken for credit.

A GOG 106 (= A USP 106) Introduction to Geospatial Technologies (3)
This course aims to provide students with fundamental concepts related to the major aspects of Geographic Information Science: Geographic Information Systems, Global Positioning Systems, Cartography, and Remote Sensing. It will serve as an entry level course to introduce students who would like to have a broader perspective on GIS-related technologies and practical skills further in their studies or practices regardless of their majors. It also serves the role of preparing students for more specific courses such as Introduction to GIS, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Introduction to Cartography, and Introduction to GPS, and consequently advanced courses in those areas within this department. For students who are not pursuing further geographic information related courses, the techniques introduced in this class such as spatial analysis and map making will be powerful tools for students to apply in their further study or practices in domains such as business administration, social sciences, humanities, as well as emergency preparedness.

A GOG 125 (= A USP 125) The American City (3)
Provides a broad introduction to American urbanism from a geographical-historical perspective, focusing on spatial forms and the built environment, the social and economic processes that produced them, and their contested cultural meanings. Surveys the legacies of industrialization, immigration, planning interventions, and the struggles for rights by minorities and women, and poses questions about our urban future in an age of globalization, information technology, and environmental crisis.

A GOG 160/160V/160X/160Z (= A EAC 160/160V/160X/160Z) China: People and Places (3)
This course provides a systematic introduction of China as an emerging political and economic power in the context of globalization. Main topics include historical evolution, uneven physical and social geography, economic reform, rapid urbanization, population growth and family planning, environmental change, tradition and culture change, and persisting and emerging problems. This course aims to help student better understand China. This course also teaches students how to search, use and evaluate information for their research in an increasingly digital and information-oriented world. Only one version of A GOG/A EAC 160 may be taken for credit.

A GOG 200 Inequality, Conflict, and the Environment (3)
This course explores the nature/ society interactions through the lenses of inequality and conflict over environmental resources. By framing environmental conflicts through the perspective of human geography, the class will explore the spatial implications of difference and inequality for debates over environmental resources. Case studies relating to contemporary resource conflicts, drawn from different parts of the world, will provide contexts for understanding key debates in nature/society relations, environmental justice, and political ecology. Course themes may include, but are not limited to, topics such as race, colonialism, indigeneity, urban informality, environmental toxins, waste, pollution, and activism. 

A GOG 201 Environmental Analysis (3)
Uses laboratory work and local field excursions to give students “hands-on” experience in physical geography and environmental sciences. Focuses on human impacts on the environment and on problems of environmental contamination. Only one version of A ENV/A GEO/A GOG 201 may be taken for credit. Offered fall semester only. 

A GOG 220 (= A USP 220) Introductory Urban Geography (3)
Introductory survey of findings and theory of urban geography, which deals with the form and function of cities. Major themes include: history of urban form; spatial structure of modern urban systems; and the internal structure of the city, emphasizing social and economic patterns.

A GOG 225/225Z (= A GLO 225/225Z & A USP 225/225Z) World Cities: Geographies of Globalization (3)
This course takes a critical look at globalization and its impacts on cities around the world. Globalization includes an array of economic, cultural, and political forces that are effectively shrinking our world. The first part of the course focuses on the ways transnational movements or 'flows' of trade, finance, people and culture operate in and through a network of linked `global' cities, the top tier of which function as the `command and control' centers at the `core' of the global economy. The second part of the course shifts attention to the global `periphery' and to some of the lower tier cities of the world's urban hierarchy: in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The concern here will be to examine the local consequences of globalization in two overlapping realms. The first will involve looking for and at evidence of the less salutary effects of globalization forces in these cities: for example, higher levels of social and spatial inequality, deteriorating environmental and health conditions, diminished per-capita share of local resources and infrastructures, and cultural homogenization. The other realm will be an investigation of local activities that occur in response and as resistance to the pervasive forces of globalization. The goal here will be to document and evaluate the effectiveness of some of the local movements and organizations that have struggled for social justice in the face of what they perceive to be oppressive (global) economic and cultural forces. After taking A GOG/A GLO/A USP 225 students will be able to compare cities on the global 'periphery' with each other, as well as with those in the global 'core' to learn about and understand how some aspects of economic and cultural globalization play out and are adapted to `on the ground' and to think critically about how people might effectively organize their thoughts and exercise their rights to the city in the era of globalization. A GOG/A GLO/A USP 225Z are the writing intensive versions of A GOG/A GLO/A USP 225; only one version of A GOG 225 may be taken for credit.

A GOG 240 Patterns of American Immigration (3)
This course provides a survey of immigration to the United States, focusing on key characteristics of immigrant groups and their cultures, in relation to both their places of origin and their destinations in this country.

T GOG 244Y Global Population Debates (3)
This course offers an in-depth introduction to the field of demography. Specially, it introduces main demographic concepts, theories and debates, offers an overview of world population pattern and regional variations, examines population processes and structure, and studies the impact of population on development and environment. Through case studies and debates, this course offers diverse demographic perspectives and tools (terminologies, methodologies and theories) to analyze population in both developed and developing countries. After taking this course, students should develop their own demographic perspective to facilitate their understanding of the world. Prerequisite(s): open to Honors College students only.

A GOG 250/250Z (= A LCS 250/250Z) Geography of Latin America (3)
An introduction to the geographical diversity of Latin America, reviewing the Continent’s physical features, natural resources, societies, economies and politics, and relating them to its history and cultural traditions. Particular attention will be given to rural and urban living conditions, social and regional inequalities, population distribution, internal and international migration, and socioeconomic development issues. Only one version of A GOG 250 may be taken for credit.

A GOG 260 (= A EAC 260 & A GLO 260) China in the Global Arena (3)
An introduction to the development of China's modern economy and society. Focuses on the role and influence of China in contemporary global affairs. Emphasizes Chinese history and contemporary figures to explain China's relationship to the global economy and its responsibilities as an increasingly important contributor to global governance. Focuses on China's leadership, soft power, culture, industrialization, domestic innovation and participation in global trade, finance and politics. This multidisciplinary course helps students understand the dynamics of China's rapid economic growth over the last three decades, and how Chinese and Western scholars interpret the country's growing importance in the global political and economic system. Prerequisite(s): A EAC/A GOG 160 or A EAC 170 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 270 (= A AFS 270) Geography of Africa (3)
Geographic analysis of the continent of Africa. The diversity of the African continent will be stressed by examining its physical environment, resources, social, cultural, economic, and political systems. Emphasis upon the demographic as well as spatial planning aspects of geography. Only one version of A GOG 270 may be taken for credit.

A GOG 290 Introduction to Cartography (4)
An introductory course in the theory and techniques of map production. Reviews and discusses the elements of cartographic theory including the relationships between human perception and map symbology. Students will produce a series of hand-drafted maps over the duration of the course.

A GOG 304 Climatology (3)
Survey of the fundamentals of climate system. Particular attention is paid to the explanation rather than the description of atmospheric and oceanic processes. Emphasis is given to the application of concepts of environmental physics to selected natural objects: terrestrial planets, the World Ocean, continents, cities, vegetation, animals, and humans. Energy balance study at different temporal and spatial scales is used as a methodological tool to provide a better understanding of such concepts as the “greenhouse” effect, climate sensitivity, photosynthesis, the metabolism of animals, survival of humans in different climates, etc. Work on the Internet with remote weather stations and climate related resources is a part of the course project. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101 or A ATM 103, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 307 (= A USP 307) Geospatial Applications of Drones (3)
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), or drones, have been developing very fast lately. More such systems will be acquired by government and non-government agencies in the near future. The acquisition of a drone may be an easy thing to do but running and managing the system may prove to be challenging for an ordinary user without prior knowledge in this field. There is quite a large amount of information now available on the UAS. However, most of such information focuses on either the engineering aspect of the aircraft or its army applications. Very little information is available on the geo-spatial utilization of UAS. This course is designed as a guide to UAS. It provides an introduction to the technology and operations made possible by it. In the course students will learn about the history, anatomy, applications, and future trends in UAS. Students will walk through the entire process of running an UAS which includes selection of the platform and payload for aerial mapping, complying with current and anticipated rules for UAS operation, conducting an aerial survey and post-processing the acquired imagery.

A GOG 310 (= A BIO 311 & U UNI 310) World Food Crisis (3)
Interdisciplinary approach to understanding world food problems through analyses of social, political, economic, nutritional, agricultural, and environmental aspects of world hunger. Faculty from several departments in the sciences, humanities, and social and behavioral sciences present views from various disciplines. Only one version of may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 321 (= A EAS 321 & A LCS 321) Exploring the Multicultural City (3)
This course will explore the human dimensions and implications of ethnic diversity in the United States, focusing on New York City. The course utilizes a variety of methods to introduce students to the multicultural city, beginning in the classroom but ending with fieldwork in a specific New York neighborhood. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102, 120 or 225, 125, 160, 220, or 240.

A GOG 324 (= A USP 324) The City on Computer (3)
An introduction to the use of geographic technology in studying urban features and patterns. The course provides a conceptual bridge between introductory courses in urban geography and specialized courses in geographic techniques. Students will acquire familiarity with relevant software, data sources and methods of analysis through regular computing laboratory assignments. Prerequisite(s): any two of the following: A GOG 125, 220, 225, A USP 201.

A GOG 325 (= A GLO 325 & A USP 325) Global Urbanism and Culture
This course explores contemporary debates on globalization, global urbanism and culture. It covers a series of themes central to cities, planning and public policy. These include among others: the role of culture in fostering multicultural cities, the relationships between urban sustainability and environmental planning, the geography of culture, the creative class, cultural industries, the arts and culture sector, local economies and place identity, cultural policies and urban regeneration programs, local and regional resilience networks, public space, local heritage, sense of belonging, community development, and global futures. Only one version of A GOG 325 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A GOG/A GLO/A USP 225.

A GOG 327 (= A GLO 327) World Regions and Global Markets (3)
Analyzes human development from the perspective of the world's major regions. Outlines the main political, economic, biogeographic, historical, geographical, food and linguistic-based divisions found among human societies. Summarizes the distinctiveness of the world's major regions and outlines the ways in which regions operate in today's global economy. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102, A EAC/A GOG 160 or A GOG 225 or by permission of the instructor.

A GOG 328 (= A USP 328 & A WSS 328) Gender, Space, and Place (3)
Power relations and categories of social difference are reflected by dramatic inequalities in local environments, and in the quantity and quality of available space. This course examines, through the lenses of feminist geography and planning, how space is invested with social meaning. It discusses how the built environment affects and reflects relations of gender, sexuality, and ethnicity, and considers how these social classifications produce “geographies of difference.” Gender is also related to nationalism, colonialism, “geographic skills,” and feminist research methodologies. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A GOG/A USP 125, A USP 201, or permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2018-2019.

A GOG 330 (= A USP 330) Principles of Environmental Management (3)
Examines issues and problems arising from the interactions between humans and their physical environment. Explores the degradation of environmental systems resulting from human use and modification, as well as the impact of environmental processes on human systems. The policy options for dealing with environmental issues and problems are investigated. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101 and either A GOG 201 or A USP 201; or permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2018-2019.

A GOG 354 (= A LCS 354) Environment & Development (3)
A survey of international development issues, focusing on the impact of economic growth, population growth, and increased consumption of natural resources on global and local environments. This course focuses primarily on the poorer countries of the world, and particularly on tropical environments. It discusses issues of deforestation, desertification, and increased vulnerability to man-made and natural hazards. Only one version of A GOG 354 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101 or 102, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 356 Geography of the United States (3)
A systematic treatment of the physical, economic, and cultural geography of the United States; selected regional problems of land utilization and of geographic adjustments. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 364Y (= A GLO 364Y & A USP 364Y) India: Development Debates (3)
Analyzes the 20th and early 21st century development of India as a nation state, discussing the broad range of ideas and policy proposals relating to wealth, poverty, socio-economic development, urbanization, and nation-building. Reviews British colonial policies and attitudes, the ideas of important advocates of Indian Independence, the impact of partition, national self-reliance policies and national planning in the first three decades after Independence, and the more recent economic liberalizations and opening to the global market and transnational investment. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): declared major or minor in Globalization Studies, Geography, Urban Studies & Planning, or minor in International Studies, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 365/365Z Geography of Europe (3)
Overview of the physical and human geography of Europe considered as a whole, followed by a more intensive discussion of selected topics on the Mediterranean countries, the British Isles, France, Germany, and the countries of east-central Europe from Scandinavia to the Balkans. Cultural, political, and economic issues will be emphasized, with analysis of contemporary matters in their historical context. Only one version of A GOG 365 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 366 (= A GLO 366) India: Field Study of Development Issues (3)
A faculty-led field course requiring a minimum of three weeks full-time study in India. Broadens and deepens the agenda of A GOG/A GLO/A USP 364Y “India: Development Debates”, examining urban and rural development issues in and around three major Indian cities. Each city will be home to the course for one week. Students will study major issues (e.g., the management of urban traffic flows, the organization of small-scale retailing, the redevelopment of poor neighborhoods, and the work of micro-business and social welfare NGO’s) through a combination of direct observation, institutional visits, and conversations with local experts. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor and the Center for International Education and Global Strategy.

A GOG 375 (= A USP 375) Methods of Urban Analysis (3)
This class will build a foundation for the lager field of statistical analysis and planning methodologies. Students will develop fundamental skills, such as data collection and presentation, descriptive analysis, and data interpretation. When the course successfully completed, students will be to identify different types of data, accurate present data in table and graphic format, describe and analysis data using statistic tools such as measures of central tendency and dispersion, conduct hypothesis testing, build confidence intervals and use these tools to analyze places. Prerequisite(s): A MAT 108 or equivalent.

A GOG 390 Intermediate Cartography (3)
Techniques of reproduction graphics with emphasis on map planning and construction. Utilization of half-tone, color-key, and other production processes as models of cartographic expression. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 290.

A GOG 404 Topics in Physical Geography (1–4)
In-depth examination of a significant topic in Physical Geography. May be repeated up to 9 credits when content varies. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 405 Topics in Human Geography (1–4)
In-depth examination of a significant topic in Human Geography. May be repeated up to 9 credits when content varies. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 406 Topics in Geographic Information Systems (1–4)
In-depth examination of a significant topic in Geographic Information Systems (cartography, GIS, remote sensing, global positioning, etc.) May be repeated up to 9 credits when content varies. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 290 for cartography topics; A GOG 496/A USP 456 for GIS topics; A GOG 385 for remote sensing topics; or permission of instructor.

A GOG 407 Biogeography (3)
The study of the distribution of organisms and adaptations to their environments, both in the past and present. This includes studies of all patterns of geographic variation in nature in species diversity and species distribution. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101, A BIO 102, or A ENV 105, or equivalent.

A GOG 412 (= A ANT 410 & A LCS 410) Tourism, Culture, and Identities (3) 
This course is designed as an in-depth examination of tourism in relation to culture and its impact on the identities of both hosts and guests. Some questions to be explored in this course include the role of tourism in the formation of regional, national, and transnational identities, how tourism reflects global inequities and the consequences tourism creates for local communities and everyday lives.

A GOG 414 Computer Mapping (3)
Introduces the student to the fundamental techniques and applications of automated map production. Lectures include discussions of algorithm and program development as well as existing software packages. Students will also be introduced to current problems and research in automated map production. Covers a wide range of topics including but not limited to automated drafting, computer generated projections, coordinate systems and transformations, data structures, and discussions of algorithms for specific applications. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 290 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 422 GIS for Social Sciences (3)
The objective of this course is to apply GIS techniques on social sciences. Specific goals are: (1) to provide students with an understanding of how GIS can be applied in social sciences; (2) to familiarize students with advanced GIS and modeling techniques; (3) to provide students with hands-on experience in working with various data sources through a project related to their own research interest. Applications spread from typical themes in urban and regional analysis (e.g., trade area analysis, regional growth patterns, urban land use and transportation) to issues related to crime and health analyses. It also covers common tasks (e.g., distance and travel time estimation, spatial smoothing and interpolation, accessibility measures) and major issues (e.g., modifiable areal unit problem, rate estimate of rare events in small population, spatial autocorrelation) that are encountered in spatial analysis. Computer exercises with ArcGIS and R are designed to help students gain hands-on experience on the topics presented in lectures. Students are required to present and discuss assigned readings and develop an individual research project that applies geospatial methods in geographical problem solving. Prerequisites: A GOG 496/A PLN456, or equivalent. Students should have some basic GIS and statistical knowledge equivalent to one introductory GIS course and one elementary statistical course.

A GOG 424 Landscape Ecology (3)
Landscape ecology is a highly interdisciplinary field, which has its roots in geography and ecology, and has direct relevance to landscape planning and architecture. It deals explicitly with interactions between spatial pattern and ecological processes, including various human influences. This introduction course covers the basic concepts, principles, and methods of landscape ecology, as well as its important applications in nature conservation, resource management, and landscape design and planning. Prerequisites: a general ecology-focused course at the college level or permission of instructor.

A GOG 427Y (= A USP 427Y) Human Factors in Geographic Information Science (3)
Building on previously learned knowledge and skills of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the course provides students with a further introduction to cognitive theories, designing principles, and evaluation methods that are related to GIS. As a very important aspect of geographic information science, human factors involving spatial cognition address the acquisition, processing, and utilization of spatial information and the use of them in decision making. The study of human factors not only contributes to a better understanding of the efficiency of geographical information systems but also informs the design and development of cognitively efficient applications. Students will be actively involved in the design of practical sessions that strengthens their understanding of cognitive principles in empirical design and assessments. Prerequisite(s): at least one of A GOG 106, A GOG 290, and A GOG 496 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 430/430Z (= A USP 430/430Z) Environmental Planning (3)
Environmental planning is much more than preservation of pristine land. Through the examination of environmental movements, energy policy, the land use-transportation nexus, environmental justice, and environmental policy formation, at the end of this course, students will be able to: (1) identify how normative bias influences planning and policy choices; (2) describe major conflicts in environmental planning and policy; and (3) understand the relationship of scale and environmental planning/policy options. Only one version of A GOG 430 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A USP 201 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 431 Climatic Change (3)
The evolution of the global climate is explained through the analysis of feedback loops between different components of the climate system; atmosphere, oceans, living organisms, the carbon cycle, volcanic activity and changes in solar luminosity. Emphasis is placed on the study of climate sensitivity to global factors, and application of this knowledge to the forecast of future human-produced climatic changes. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101 or A ATM 103, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 433Y (= A USP 433Y) Urban Ecology (3)
A major landmark has been crossed in the 21st century when humans became an "urban" species, Homo sapiens "urbanus." Indeed, more than 50% of the world's, and 80% of the U.S. population now resides in cities. The course addresses problems of understanding urban areas from the ecological viewpoint. Central to this understanding is the recognition that humans are organisms, but ones with unique capabilities of modifying the environment on multiple scales. A crucial concept to be introduced is the distinction between ecology in cities and ecology of cities. The former addresses how organisms (including humans) respond to and influence the physical and biological characteristics of cities. The latter studies the role of cities within broader geophysical and ecological processes such as global biogeochemical cycles, local and regional climates, patterns of biodiversity and organism movements, and ecological and social responses to disturbances. This course will look at both of these aspects through a theoretical lens of modern urban ecology. Urban areas are socio-ecological systems, a mosaic of landscapes, in which humans and their activities are a component of, rather than a disturbance imposed on, (urban) ecological systems. The approach taken in this course will be to facilitate students' learning through a combination of lecture, discussion and practical homework exercises. Prerequisites: a general ecology-focused course at the college level or permission of instructor.       

A GOG 440 Global Politics, Space and Place (3)
Examines the spatial character of political processes and how political boundaries inform understandings of "our" space versus the "their" space at the local, national and global scales. Major themes include: territory, citizenship, and the state; localism, regionalism, and nationalism; identity politics and social movements; geopolitics; urban politics; and internal and international political conflicts.

A GOG 442Z Geography of Religion (3)
This course provides a detailed examination of the study of religion from the perspectives of human geography, focusing both of geographical insights into religion as a cultural phenomenon and the ways in which the study of religion can provide insights into broader concerns within human geography. Key topics include the development of religious hearths, processes in the diffusion of religion, the role of place in the diversity within and among religious systems, religious efforts to exert cultural territoriality over secular space, and the meanings and uses of sacred space at various scales. The course will emphasize particular case studies, as appropriate. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 444Y Population and Development (3)
This course examines major population dynamics and their relationships with development. Through case studies and debates, this course offers diverse demographic perspectives and tools (terminologies, methodologies and theories) to analyze population in both developed and developing countries, and explores how the world can cope with global population changes and development challenges. After taking this course, students should develop their own demographic perspective to facilitate their understanding of the world. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102 or A GOG 227 or permission of instructor.

A GOG 447 (= A GLO 447) Development and Underdevelopment (3)
An analytical survey of “Third World” development theories and the development strategies they inspire. Topics covered include traditional concepts of natural and human resources identification and use, geographic diffusion, modernization, and economic growth, as well as challenges to the prevailing ideas and practices such as dependency, sustainable development, and community empowerment. Only one version of A GOG 447 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 450 Independent Study in Geography (1-6)
The student will work independently on a directed reading, field survey, or individual research project in geography. A member of the faculty will authorize and advise the project, which will be dimensioned in proportion to the number of credits being taken. The student will submit a final report for assessment. May be repeated up to 6 credits when content varies. Prerequisite(s): 9 credits in Geography, junior or senior class standing, and permission of instructor.

A GOG 452 The Chinese City (3)
This course examines the Chinese city over time, focusing on the traditional, socialist and reform era. In addition to the historical and geographic context, this course studies various aspects of the Chinese city and their socioeconomic and political driving forces, including urbanization and migration, urban economy, and their impact on urban landscape, urban life, and urban challenges. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102 or  A GOG 160, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 460 (= A USP 460) People, Place, and Power (3)
This course will examine the relationships between current energy supplies and alternatives that are renewable and more environmentally sustainable. It begins with defining energy then turns to an analysis of the economic, social, political, and technological factors that determine the potential a carbon free energy future. At the end of this course, students will be able to 1) identify how normative bias influences planning and policy choices; 2) describe major conflicts in energy planning and policy; and 3) understand the differences between physical/technological barriers versus economic/political impediments to sustainable energy planning/policy options.

A GOG 480 (= A USP 480) Advanced Urban Geography (3)
Explores some of the theoretical debates and empirical research conducted by geographers and planners interested in the contemporary city. Adopts a political/economy approach to the investigation of social problems currently pervasive in the capitalist city, including: inner city poverty and the underclass, homelessness, gender-related issues, racial segregation, and crime problems. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 102, 210, or 220.

A GOG 484 (formerly A GOG 385) Remote Sensing I (3)
Introduction to the concepts and interdisciplinary applications of remote sensing. The basic principles of theory and practice are presented for earth resource management. Photographic and non-photographic sensors are examined. Visual and digital image analysis techniques are introduced. Students will interpret color infrared, multispectral, and other sensor imagery for a variety of purposes. May not be taken by students with credit for A GOG 385. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 485 Remote Sensing II (3)
Examination of current concepts and research in digital image analysis with emphasis on multispectral and radar data sets. Students will utilize a variety of data sources including optical and digital imagery, maps, census data, ground surveys, and other GIS data layers in completing an interpretation and analysis of selected geoscience aspects of environmental concern. Methods and importance of accuracy assessment are introduced. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 484 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 490 (= A GLO 420) Human Dimensions of Global Change (3)
This course provides an overview of human responses to global challenges posed by changing climatic conditions, border enforcement, development, global urbanization, and violence. Students will explore theoretical debates and empirical analysis generated by geographers who are interested in such indicative themes as: migration and crisis, including sovereignty, borders, enforcement, and refugees; resources and power, including uneven development, neoliberalism, scarcity, and pollution; and militarization and human security, including hazards, military responses, humanitarian aid, and nongovernmental organizations. Throughout the course, students will focus on geographic approaches to risk, resilience, and human agency. Prerequisite(s): A GOG/A GLO/A USP 102, or permission of instructor.

A GOG 492 Geography Internship (3)
An internship enabling students to extensively use their geographic knowledge and skill in a professional setting. Students need to provide detailed responsibilities and requirements for the internship for the approval of their advisor, and arrange for the supervisor of their proposed Internship to discuss it with their advisor, before registering for the Capstone Experience. At the end of the internship, students need to submit a report to position their internship experience in the broader context of geographic debates and paradigms, which must be approved by the advisor. Internships are open only to qualified juniors and seniors who have an overall grade point average of 2.50 or higher. Prerequisite(s): completion of all required geography core courses and at least two advanced courses in the cluster that it is related to the Capstone Experience, or permission of the advisor. S/U graded.

A GOG 493 Geographic Thought (3)
This is the capstone course of the Geography Major. It offers an historical, integrative view of the origin, development, and content of geography, with emphasis on geography as a university-level discipline in the United States. The class will consider the contributions of prominent figures both as innovators and as creatures of their social and intellectual contexts. The class will be taking an historical view with appropriate emphasis on contemporary questions, and will engage with the philosophical reflection and critique that characterize modern geography. Students will note lasting themes and unities in the discipline across time and across sub disciplines, identify revolutionary changes, examine important debates, and ask what geography's future may be like. Prerequisite(s): A GOG 101, 102, and 106, and junior or senior standing.       

A GOG 496 (= A USP 456) Geographic Information Systems (3)
Introduction to the structure, design, and application of data base management systems designed to accept large volumes of spatial data derived from various sources. The student will learn how to efficiently store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze, and display these data according to a variety of user-defined specifications. Prerequisite(s): familiarity with maps and coordinate systems.

A GOG 498 (= A USP 457) Advanced GIS (3)
Introduces students to ARC/INFO, a geographic information system (GIS) with extensive analytical and cartographic components. Students will use ARC/INFO to compile and analyze data for selected research projects in Geography and Planning. Major topics include data conversion procedures, registration and rectification of digital data, spatial statistical analysis, and cartographic display. Prerequisites: A GOG 496/A USP 456 or equivalent courses.

A GOG 499 Senior Honors Thesis (3)
Preparation of an honors thesis under the direction of a member of the Department of Geography and Planning. The student must submit a formal proposal describing the project, and the final thesis must be approved by both the adviser and the Honor’s Committee. Prerequisite(s): admission to the honors program.