Criminal Justice Courses

The curriculum of the School falls into is five areas: (1) the nature of crime; (2) law and social control; (3) criminal justice process and policy; (4) planned change in criminal justice, and (5) research methodology and practice. Enrollment in all graduate courses in the School is by permission of department and/or instructor only.

The Nature of Crime

Crj 507 Theories of Crime (3)

Theories of crime causation ranging through biological, psychological, sociological, cultural, and political theories, giving close attention to the problems inherent in approaching the study of crime from a "causes of crime" perspective. Developed around key concepts used in theories of crime (e.g., responsibility, rationality), emphasizing the multidisciplinary source of these concepts, how they are changed when applied to criminological theory, and their importance for understanding the present state of criminological theory.

Crj 510 Women and Crime (3)

Review of available data on female crime and criminal justice processing. Characteristics of female offenders are surveyed and offender classification systems are reviewed for their relevance to understanding motivational and behavioral patterns in female offenders. Crime causal theories (biological, sociological, psychological) are evaluated for their compatibility with female crime data.

Crj 555 Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers (3)

In this course, the crime analyst learns how to become an integral member of a problem-solving team, how to explore sources of information and data well beyond those normally collected by police, and how to communicate effectively with other members of a police department. Using the SARA model, the analyst will learn how to take the initiative at every stage of the project in defining the scope of the problem-solving effort, in trying to analyze the causes of the problem, in helping to find an effective response, and in setting up the project so that it can be evaluated and the police can learn from the results of approaching crime problems. A basic knowledge of Problem Oriented Policing, elementary statistics and mapping will be helpful, but are not essential for this course.

Crj 601 Crime, Deviation, and Conformity (3)

Crime and criminal behavior is viewed as one of many forms of deviation from political, moral, and conduct norms of the majority culture. Studies the parallel genesis of crime and other prevalent forms of deviance, and the relationship between some forms of deviance (such as mental illness and political extremism) and some forms of criminality. Studies the forces that produce conformity, and indirectly promote deviation.

Crj 602 Psychological Factors of Crime (3)

Survey of psychological and social typologies of offenders which relate to understanding or prediction of crime. Rationale, theories, procedures, areas of criminological application, and implications for research. Comparison of classification schemes in terms of discrepant and overlapping concerns and in terms of implications for prevention and rehabilitation. Individual student projects include development of a research design involving a classification system.

Crj 603 Structure Factors in Crime (3)

Introduction to major theories of how social and organizational contexts influence criminal behavior. Both theoretical development and empirical methods for evaluation models of structural factors are emphasized. Prerequisites: Crj 504 or Crj 681.

Crj 604 Gender and Crime in American Culture (3)

Drawing from criminal justice research, gender studies, social history, and popular culture, this course examines the nexus between gender and crime in American culture. The role of gender expectations in shaping the behaviors of victims and offenders and societal/criminal justice system responses will be explored.

Crj 605 Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime (3)

Examines the meaning of the concept of juvenile delinquency as a separable entity in the system of criminal justice. Considers the relationship between social attitudes and definitions of youthful law violation, and reviews studies on various forms of delinquency, such as auto theft, vagrancy, and sex delinquency. Also analyzes the diverse theoretical interpretation of delinquency including subcultural theories, ideas about distinct lower-class focal concerns, and views about delinquency and drift.

Crj 606 The Measurement of Crime and Delinquency (3)

Describes the amount, distribution, and pattern of crime. Analyzes the Uniform Crime Reports, results of the National Crime Panel Victimization, self-reporting inventories of crime and delinquency, and considers correlates of these alternative measures of illegal activity. Selected topics are emphasized depending on currently available data.

Crj 607 Advanced Theories of Crime (3)

Theories of crime causation ranging through biological, psychological, sociological, cultural, and political theories, giving close attention to the problems inherent in approaching the study of crime from a "causes of crime" perspective. Developed around key concepts used in theories of crime (e.g., responsibility, rationality), emphasizing the multidisciplinary source of these concepts, how they are changed when applied to criminological theory, and their importance for understanding the present state of criminological theory. Prerequisite: Open to PhD students ONLY or with the permission of the instructor.

Crj 608 Ideology and Crime (3)

The nature of ideology; the relevance of a wide range of political theories to the exploration of crime; the comparative influence of various ideologies upon criminological research; the paradigmatic view of science in relation to research in criminal justice; the problem of objectivity; the problem of progress; the role of the criminologist as researcher and practitioner; an introduction to the ideology of law.

Crj 610 Guns and Gun Control (3)

This course covers the spectrum of social science research on guns and gun control. Topics to be covered will include: a history of firearms ownership in the U.S., patterns of firearms ownership and use, the role of guns in self-defense, crime, suicide, and accidents; gun control policies; and the politics underlying the positions of gun nuts and gun control nuts.

Crj 611 Race and Crime (3)

This course explores the relationship between race and crime. Various theoretical perspectives on race and crime will be discussed. Dominant society responses to racial minorities will be examined within the context of evolving ideas about equality, justice, law, order, and social control. Minority overrepresentation as offender and victims, as well as class and gender issues will be discussed. Racial minority responses to crime within their communities and violence directed against them by those outside their communities will be examined.

Crj 612 Homicide Research (3)

Survey of scientific research and theory of the causes of homicide. Course is organized around a series of hypotheses about the causes of homicide (e.g., poverty causes homicide). In addition, an objective of the course is to develop skills necessary to make professional presentations and construct causal arguments.

Crj 613 Nature of Youth Gangs (3)

This course examines the nature and extent of youth street gangs in America, including definitional issues; gangs in the historical context; theories of gang formation and gang joining; gang and gang member characteristics and behavior; the gang experience; types of gangs; and gangs in the international context.

Crj 614 Crime and Cities (3)

This course focuses on cities as ecological areas of “contested space”. Cities are examined as a human invention. Tracing the evolution of cities, course looks at the demands that cities make on the people who live in them. Social, psychological, economic, political, and cultural dimensions of cities explored. The many different ways in which cities are perceived and experienced will be examined. Course will focus on crime as one aspect of urban life. Course will draw on materials from a variety of disciplines.

Crj 619 Special Topics: Nature of Crime (3)

Select topics in Nature of Crime are examined. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be taken for credit more than once provided subject matter is not repeated.

Crj 700 Seminars on Specific Problems in the Nature of Crime (2-4)

Seminar series probing specific subtopics relating to the nature of crime. The topic may vary in different sections in the same session, with variety from session to session. Sample topics include the relationship of alcohol to criminality, drug abuse and abusers, youth crime, petty offenses and offenders, organized crime and criminals, professional crime and criminals, violence and violent offenders, white collar crime and criminals.

Crj 702 Race and Crime (2-4)

This course explores the relationship between race and crime. "Race" and "crime" are examined as "social constructs" which have acquired their meaning through the interaction of human groups within social and historical contexts. Various perspectives and theories about the race- crime correlation will be examined. S/U graded.

Crj 707 Criminological Theory: Community & Ecological Perspectives (3)

This doctoral-level seminar will investigate criminological theories rooted in the social-ecological approach. The major objectives of the course are to: (1) explicate the general logic of social-ecological inquiry (including its philosophical origins and historical development); (2) analyze the major theoretical perspectives that have guided social-ecological examinations of crime (including a focus on theoretical innovations and the use of research methods); and, (3) review contemporary criminological research bearing the imprint of social-ecological theories. Chronologically, the seminar will bring special attention to the Chicago School and the development of social disorganization theory, and will be followed with explications of the development of theories of: systemic control, collective efficacy, concentrated disadvantage, community-based cultural approaches, and will close with the introduction of theories of criminal opportunity and situational crime prevention.

Law and Social Control Courses

Crj 615 Psychology and the Legal System (3)

This course is designed to provide graduate students with an overview of how psychology is applied to the criminal justice system, how case law shapes this application, and how legal decisions affect the direction of psychological research. Psychology and law is a vibrant area of research within the larger discipline of psychology. This is an interdisciplinary course for students whose research is concerned with criminology, psychology, and/or legal issues.

Crj 620 The Law of Deprivation of Liberty (3)

Introduction to legal institutions, analysis, and doctrine through the device of studying those areas of the law which deprive persons of liberty either as an end or as a technique to achieve a particular end. The Socratic method of instruction is employed and heavy emphasis is placed on class discussion. Illustrative of the areas studied are: exploration of the difference between civil and criminal law; analysis of the various rationales and objectives of detention and the procedures through which they are sought to be attained; specific reference to hospitalization of the mentally and physically ill, defective delinquents and sex psychopaths, commitments based on incompetency and an adjudication of insanity, the juvenile delinquency process, commitment of alcoholics and narcotic addicts, intra- and inter-system transfers.

Crj 623 Substantive Criminal Law (3)

The sources, uses, and limitations of the criminal liability, including mens rea, actus reus, causality, and accessorial conduct. An attempt is made to develop an understanding of the rational basis of a law of crimes by studying specific problem areas such as the definition of criminal conspiracies, the distinctions drawn between crimes against property and crime against the person, the issues of whether so-called "sexual" crimes or "victimless" crimes or "administrative" crimes constitute validly distinct categories of criminal conduct, and the realistic applicability of such defenses as mistake, duress, drug addiction, and insanity.

Crj 625 Principles of Punishment (3)

Five main aspects of punishment are dealt with: the problem of the definition of punishment; the philosophical justifications for punishment, including utilitarianism, retributivism, social defense, deterrence, reductivism, and other variants of these; social and psychological research on punishment; the cultural significance of punishment in society, such as its relationship to authority, obedience, and subordination; and special topics such as capital punishment, physical control of the brain, and other types of penal treatment.

Crj 626 Law and Science in Criminal Justice (3)

The different methods and objectives of legal and scientific inquiry are explored. Different uses of the social and natural sciences in law are considered, focusing on the introduction of scientific evidence to prove disputed facts in trial courts and appellate courts' consideration of scientific research evidence in announcing and applying rules of law. Illustrative topics include the admissibility of scientific evidence (e.g., DNA analysis) in criminal trials, and the uses and potential uses of social science research to help inform judicial decision making in areas such as the reliability of eyewitness identification, jury decision making, and the law of capital punishment.

Crj 627 Evidentiary Issues in Criminal Justice (3)

The Anglo-American rules of proof as revealed through observation of criminal trials and other major decision points in the criminal justice system; competency and privileges of witnesses; judicial notice; burdens of proof, presumptions, and the function of judge and jury. Other problems addressed are remoteness and undue prejudice; habit and character evidence; examination, impeachment, and rehabilitation of witnesses; expert testimony, hearsay and the expectations as to its exclusion. The scope and function of the various rules are evaluated on the basis of their logical consistency and their tendency to promote or impede a rational method of investigatory fact finding and determination.

Crj 629 Constitutional Criminal Procedure (4)

The development of constitutional doctrine as a series of controls on the administration of criminal justice utilizing the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court as the basis for study. The areas of study for the course are: the nature of due process and equal protection, police practices _ with especially heavy emphasis on the fourth amendment _ wire tapping, interrogation, line-ups, etc.

Crj 630 The Legal Rights of Children (3)

This class examines the legal rights of children in diverse contexts. Principal focus is on the juvenile justice system, including procedural and substantive issures relating to juvenile delinquency and status offenses. Consideration also is given to select legal issues involving children's rights in the schools (e.g., expulsion, drug-testing, freedom of expression), to presonal autonomy (e.g., abortion and medical decisions), and in the context of the family (e.g., parental custody and visitation rights.

Crj 632 Research Seminar on Decision-Making and Deterrence (3)

This seminar surveys academic research relating to offender decision-making, deterrence, and punishment. Students will study the deterrence/rational choice theoretical approach to explaining crime, survey various empirical investigations of deterrence and offender decision-making, and use these substantive topics as the context within which to better understand the process of conducting academic research. Ph.D. students only or with the permission of the instructor.

Crj 633 Legal Foundations of the Trial Process (3)

This course addresses the legal and constitutional foundations of the criminal trial process - from arrest and bail to jury verdict and appeal. The course will address the legal and policy foundations of these stages of the trial, and examine how they operate in practice.

Crj 639 Special Topics: Law and Social Control (3)

Select topics in Law and Social Control are examined. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be taken for credit more than once provided subject matter is not repeated.

Crj 720 Seminars on Specific Problems in Law and Social Control (2-4)

Seminar series probing specific subtopics relating to law and social control. Topics include mental illness and the law, individual rights and public welfare, comparative criminal law and procedure, sanction law and public order, authority and power, and indirect social control in criminal justice.

Crj 721 Seminar: Capital Punishment (2-4)

Legal, empirical, historical, and philosophical issues related to the death penalty and its administration are explored through considering judicial decisions, legal and other commentary, social science research, and related materials.

Recurring seminars are offered in this area:

Crj 722 The Law of Corrections (3-4)

In-depth examination of a particular area within the broader field of correctional law. Previous subjects and approaches have included the drafting of a model cede of prisoner's rights and an exploration of parole law with individual research papers.

Courses in Criminal Justice Process and Policy

Crj 540 Theoretical Foundations of Criminal Justice (3)

This course introduces students to theoretical work on criminal justice process and policy, from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Topics discussed include theoretical approaches to studying individual, organizational, system, and political behavior. Emphasis is placed on the practical utilization of theory to inform development of research problems and agendas.

Crj 554 The Private Sector in Criminal Justice (3)

The past and present roles of nongovernmental actors in the justice process, with a focus on the legal and sociological implications of their existence in a democratic society. Both volunteer and profit-making agencies are examined in their relation to the traditional government triad of police-courts-corrections. Private security operations ranging from technological hardware sales to department store detectives are surveyed along with private adjudicatory systems and extra-judicial correctional diversion programs.

Crj 636 Juvenile Justice (3)

Course covers the development, original philosophy, purpose, and operation of the juvenile court in the U.S.; traces the evolution of the juvenile court and justice system; examines influential players, social movements, theory, research, and policy; and considers key contemporary debates.

Crj 637 Public Opinion and Criminal Justice (3)

This course reviews the extant theoretical and empirical literature on popular views about crime and the criminal justice system. We will discuss: Competing conceptual understandings of public opinion; Current theories explaining fear of crime, confidence in the police and courts, support for punitive sanctions, and attitudes toward special populations of offenders; The extent and correlates of public knowledge about, and preferences regarding, current crime control policies as well as recent legislative proposals; and Important directions for future public opinion research.

Crj 640 Advanced Theoretical Foundations of Criminal Justice (3)

This course introduces students to theoretical work on criminal justice process and policy, from multiple disciplinary perspectives.  Topics discussed include theoretical approaches to studying individual, organizational, system, and political behavior.  Emphasis is placed on the practical utilization of theory to inform development of research problems and agendas.  Prerequisite: Open to PhD students ONLY or with the permission of the instructor. 

Crj 641 Comparative Criminal Justice (3)

This course will examine criminal justice institutions comparatively in several countries. The purpose will be to describe the variety of criminal justice experience, to understand the determinants of these variations, and to prompt Americans to reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of their own criminal justice institutions.

Crj 642 Issues in Policing (3)

Examination of issues in the performance of the police; reading critically seminal research studies of police effectiveness. Class acquaints students with police performance, to appraise attempts at evaluating police performance, and to develop skill in social science research.

Crj 643 Community Supervision and Treatment of Convicted Persons (3)

Analysis of theories and practice of probation and parole, responses of paroling authorities to public pressures and court controls and their implications for rehabilitative efforts. Analysis of efforts to create admixtures of institutional settings and normal community life; feasibility and effectiveness of treatment of individuals under sentence in the community.

Crj 644 The Incarceration Process (3)

Theory and practice of correctional institutions and their functions; the prison as a total institution; characteristics of various types of correctional facilities; problems of rehabilitation in institutional settings; analysis of the prison community; adjustment to prison life by personnel and inmates; the impact of institutionalization on the offender.

Crj 645 Prison Environment (3)

Sociological and psychological aspects of imprisonment. Description of the inmate culture and its variations. The impact of institutionalization on the inmate, and the attributes of prison_and of other total institutions_as living environments. Problems of coping with prison life and of adjusting to incarceration. Prison careers and their relationships to outside careers. Relationships of staff and inmates; role and adjustment problems of prison staff. Pains of imprisonment and their amelioration. Crisis intervention in prisons.

Crj 646 Sentencing (3)

Analysis of various sentence structures for both misdemeanor and felony offenders. Particular attention is paid to extended terms for dangerous offenders and to the relationship between type and length of sentence to time and conditions of sentences actually served.

Crj 647 Innovations in Policing (3)

This course will examine current thinking as well as experience with respect to changing and reforming police instructions and practices. The course will focus primarily on the United States. Its purpose will be to describe major innovations, to explore their rationale, and to examine impediments to their implementation.

Crj 648 (Pad 551) Terrorism, Public Security, and Law Enforcement (3)

This course reviews the role of domestic law enforcement in homeland security, including the prevention of and response to terrorism. Consideration of strategic issues that arise with respect to specific forms of terrorist threats, and of managerial issues, including the collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence, risk assessment and resource allocation, intergovernmental and interagency cooperation and conflict, and investigative authority and civil liberties.

Crj 649 Gender, Administration, and Policy (3)

Review of theories and empirical knowledge about gender issues in criminal justice administration and policy. Discussion of the impact of the integration of women into the criminal justice professions; consideration of the relevance of gender in the treatment of convicted offenders and in reforms in the adjudication of female defendants; examination of social and policy questions in criminal justice responses to female victimization, particularly in domestic violence and rape cases.

Crj 651 Policing in America (3)

Examines seminal and current scholarship on the forces that shape the exercise of police discretion, including sociological, psychological, organizational and political approaches to explaining police behavior. Considers the implications of research findings for organizational and political reforms.

Crj 652 Prosecution and Adjudication (3)

Criminal court judges as participants in the definition of criminal law as well as participants in the operation of the criminal justice process. Also scheduled is the prosecutor in his dual-capacity as law enforcement agent and officer of the court, with emphasis on his resolution of demands and pressure from the community, the police and the courts. Attention is given to the detention of the accused before adjudication.

Crj 655 (Pad 552) Crime, Criminal Justice and Public Policy (3)

Analysis and evaluation of crime control policy and criminal justice. Overview of concepts of policy analysis and principles of evaluation research as applied to crime and criminal justice problems. Consideration of deterrence, incapacitation, rehabiliation, and prevention as policy objectives, and intensive examination of selected policy initiatives. Analysis of the criminal justice policy process.

Crj 659 Special Topics: Administration of the Criminal Justice Process (3)

Select topics in the Administration of the Criminal Justice Process are examined. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be taken for credit more than once provided subject matter is not repeated.

Crj 740 Seminars on Specific Problems in the Criminal Justice Process (2- 4)

Seminar series analyzing specific topics relating to the criminal justice process; more than one topic may be covered in the same session. Recent examples include: Issues in Sentencing; Restorative Justice in Theory and Practice; Drugs, Crime & Public Policy.

Crj 741 Field Experience in Criminal Justice Agencies (3)

Students are placed in local criminal justice agencies, such as courts, police departments, district attorney's offices, public defender agencies or group homes, to observe firsthand the operation of the agencies. Journals of observations are kept and distributed among the class for discussion. Each student writes a research paper relating as aspect of the student's observations to larger criminal justice issues. Speakers from various agencies attend the class to offer views of their work. Exploratory in nature, this course is offered only on a S/U basis.

Crj 747 Violence in Criminal Justice (2-4)

This seminar provides an overview of violent behavior that is of interest to the criminal justice system. Subjects covered include domestic violence, police-citizen conflict and violence in prisons and schools, guns, mental health issuses, and violence and the media. Problems of causation are discussed, as are proposals aimed at the prevention and reduction of violence.

Courses in Planned Change in Criminal Justice

Crj 560 Introduction to Individual and Organizational Interventions (3)

Important general theories, methods of analysis, and techniques of planned change; interventions with individuals and organizations; deliberate efforts to introduce and encourage planned change with criminal justice organizations; selected models and strategies used by change agents and the resultant dilemmas that must be confronted.

Crj 561 Introduction to Community Intervention (3)

Important theories, methods of analysis, and techniques employed in changing communities; deliberate efforts to involve criminal justice organizations and programs in community change; community organizing for the prevention of crime; selected models and strategies used by change agents and the resultant dilemmas which must be confronted.

Crj 656 Social Response to Youth Gangs (3)

This course examines social responses to youth street gangs in America and abroad, including legislation; prevention, intervention, and suppression approaches; including approaches that focus on individuals, groups, and on individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors.

Crj 661 Modes of Correctional Intervention (3)

Analysis of specific treatment and rehabilitation practices attempted with various types of offenders; problems of matching therapists and therapy methods to personality and setting; difficulties in control and treatment of nonamenable and dangerous offenders. Low-cost, short-term reeducational and treatment methods uniquely suited to institutional settings and to utilization of personnel with limited professional training are studied as are impediments, limitations, objectives and evaluation of limited therapeutic interventions.

Crj 662 Community Intervention and Criminal Justice (3)

This course examines planned community changes that (1) involve one or more criminal justice agencies as one of the change agents or change targets or (2) crime in specific localities as an objective of intervention. The causes and consequences of community participation, mobilization, identification, coordination, and control of space are analyzed.

Crj 663 Organizational Change (3)

Exploration of significant theories and methods of organizational change with special emphasis on issues involved in their application to criminal justice agencies and on methods of developing a continuous capacity for change in these organizations.

Crj 664 Criminal Justice Planning and the Future (3)

Techniques (Delphic, statistical projection, and simulation) for assessing the probability and desirability of future possible states of society, and particularly of social control systems, will be considered in relation to the goals of the criminal justice system, Normative factors (needs, desires, missions, external pressures, etc.) in planning generally and in the criminal justice field and their importance in projections.

Crj 665 Strategies of Innovation and Change Promotion (3)

Review of literature in social psychology, public administration, and sociology that relates to the effectiveness of alternate strategies of promoting change in institutions, organizations, and public and individual attitudes and values. Resistances to change and factors promotive of change; roles of change agents, sets of principles and models related to change promotion; case studies of successful and unsuccessful innovation.

Crj 667 Prison Reform (3)

History and current status of efforts to change conditions of confinement; reforms during the progressive era, and more contemporary developments, including ongoing innovations. Critiques and proposals for reform. Problems of implementation and evaluation. Application of principles of planned change to change in corrections.

Crj 669 Special Topics: Planned Change in Criminal Justice (3)

Select topics in Planned Change in Criminal Justice are examined. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be taken for credit more than once provided subject matter is not repeated.

Crj 760 Seminars in Change and Innovation in Criminal Justice (2-4)

Seminar series examining specific topics related to the area; more than one topic may be covered in the same session. Sample topics include self- help efforts by offender and deviates; the clients of the criminal justice system as change agents, the demonstration project as a dissemination technique, the utility of survey feedback methods, laboratory training and change, legislation as an instrument of reform, and problems in reorganizing political subdivisions for criminal justice improvement.

Research Methodology and Practice

Crj 503 Research Fundamentals (1)

This course introduces students to the basic functions of fundamental software systems used in graduate level research. It is designed for those students who want a deeper understanding of how to use Excel and SPSS. Additionally, this course will serve as an introduction to graduate level writing. This course will be available to both MA and PhD students who wish to improve their skills in graduate level writing and research.

Crj 504 (Ssw 504) Applied Statistics I (3)

Introduction to statistical techniques appropriate for use in the criminal justice field. Descriptive statistics; scales of measurement; measure of central tendency, variability, and association. Introduction to statistical inference including sampling distributions and tests of significance.

Crj 505 MA Research Design (3)

This course provides an introduction to methods of research used in criminal justice and social sciences. Major topics include the logic of social inquiry, causality, and conceptualization; sampling theory; data collection and measurement; and research design. The primary objectives of this course are: 1) to help students be informed consumers of contemporary criminal justice research and 2) to enable students to initiate and execute worthwhile research projects of their own. MA students only or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 592 Data Utilization 1 (3)

This course will teach the basics of quantitative data file construction, cleaning, documentation, and use.  This is a hands-on computer course where students will learn proper techniques for managing simple datasets.  They will also learn how to use SPSS for data management and documentation.  Students will apply their technical skills to major criminal justice data collections to learn how the technical and substantive skills are complementary. 

Crj 670 Independent Study in Criminal Justice (1-3)

Study in a specific area under guidance of a faculty member. May be repeated for credit to a maximum of six credits with departmental approval. Prerequisite: Admission to graduate study and consent of instructor.

Crj 679 Statistics and Data Analysis I (4)

This course is an introduction to statistics, and provides the background necessary for Statistics II. The topics to be covered include descriptive statistics, point and interval estimation, statistical inference, measures of association for discrete variables, and regression. No previous knowledge of statistics is necessary, and no more than a working knowledge of high school algebra is required to follow the material. However, the course assumes that the students will eventually want to use statistics in their own research, and the subject matter will be covered in enough depth for this to be possible.

Crj 680 Independent Research in Criminal Justice (1-3)

Investigation of a specific area under guidance of a faculty member. May be repeated for credit to a maximum of six credits with departmental approval. Prerequisite: Admission to graduate study and consent of instructor.

Crj 681 Statistical Techniques in Criminal Justice Research I (3)

This course is an introduction to statistics, and provides the background necessary for Statistics II. The topics to be covered include descriptive statistics, point and interval estimation, statistical inference, measures of association for discrete variables, and regression. No previous knowledge of statistics is necessary, and no more than a working knowledge of high school algebra is required to follow the material. However, the course assumes that the students will eventually want to use statistics in their own research and the subject matter will be covered in enough depth for this to be possible. Restrictions: Ph.D. students only or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 682 Research Design in Criminal Justice I (3)

Development of research design of the kind most useful to criminal justice problems, construction of descriptive systems for qualitative analysis; use of various data collection methods including observation, development of interview schedules, questionnaire construction and sociometric devices, questions of validity and reliability.

Crj 683 Research in the Criminal Justice Process (3)

Critical examination of current research in criminal justice with regard to methodological adequacy and significance and import of its contributions; problems in the design and execution of criminal justice research; the posing of research questions in context; social policy implications of criminal justice research; questions relating to the selection of designs, methods and feedback techniques; problems in the implementation of research findings in innovation. Restrictions: Ph.D. students only or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 687 Statistical Techniques in Criminal Justice Research II (4)

Introduction to multivariate analysis of cross-sectional data. Techniques include multi-way contingency tables, partial and multiple correlation and multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance and covariance, analysis of qualitative dependent variables, and data reduction using weighted and unweighted additive scales. The use of the computer for data analysis will be an integral part of the course. Prerequisite: one course in univariate and bivariate descriptive and inferential statistics at the level of Crj 681. Restrictions: Ph.D. students only or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 688 Research Design in Criminal Justice II (4)

Examines research design problems in criminal justice at an advanced level; use of sophisticated classical research designs and data-gathering techniques; analysis of problems related to sampling theory and procedures; application of mathematical models to problems in research design and analysis; use of techniques permitting causal inferences.

Crj 689 Research in Action Settings (4)

Analysis of the social scientist's role in development, implementation, and evaluation of research activities in criminal justice settings; nature of negotiations between research and action staff in planning, implementation, and monitoring data analysis and feedback of findings; protection of the integrity of the research design analysis of strains on organization and persons in action settings; use of research findings to encourage social change. Students work in a field setting in order to develop and implement a research project.

Crj 690 Statistical Techniques in Criminal Justice Research III (3)

Topics vary from year to year and may include one or more of the following; design and analysis of longitudinal research; time series analysis; categorical data analysis including log-linear, logit, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, and probit analysis models; or structural equation (LISREL) models. The course may be repeated for credit when topics change. The use of the computer for data analysis will be an integral part of the course. Prerequisite: specific prerequisites may vary depending on the topics covered in the course, but one course in multivariate analysis at the level of Crj 687 is recommended. Restrictions: Ph.D. students only or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 691 Program Evaluation (3)

Systematic review of efforts to evaluate intervention programs and assess effectiveness of crime prevention schemes and methods for the treatment of offenders, both in ongoing operations and under experimental conditions. The use of prediction techniques and other forms of matching and operational research methods, with special reference to problems of criteria and measurements of effectiveness or performance. Students should have some familiarity with multivariate statistical methods before taking this course.

Crj 692 Data Utilization in Criminal Justice (4)

This course will cover the essentials of quantitative data file construction, documentation, transfer, manipulation, storage, and management. Topics include building both rectangular and hierarchical data files using various types of programs and formats. This includes matching and merging data files. Special attention will be paid to issues surrounding the management of longitudinal data files including security, time ordering of events for analysis, data storage, weighting of stratified data, and post-stratification weighting for attrition. The logic, mechanics, and implications of various mechanisms for imputing missing data will be covered. Prerequisites: Permission of department.

Crj 693 Geographic Information Systems in Criminal Justice (4)

Exploration of theory and techniques associated with collection, display, analysis, storage of geographic information in the criminal justice environment. Laboratory work will supplement information within lecture component by exposing students to operational geographic information system and databases, supplemented by GIS applications in planning, census and demographic studies, and community and economic planning/development. Prerequisite: Permission of Department

Crj 694 Spatial Data Analysis in Criminal Justice (4)

The course introduces the student to a variety of methods and techniques for the visualization, exploration, and modeling of spatial data. The emphasis is on understanding concepts underlying spatial data analysis and on description and exploration of data. The main objectives are to teach students about geographic data and its organization, basic concepts of spatial statistics, applications of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) techniques, point and area pattern analysis and spatial auto-correlation. Course will consist of both lecture and lab work. Prerequisite: Completion of Crj 693 (Geographic Information Systems in Crj I) or equivalent or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 695 Responsible Use of Criminal Justice Information (3)

This course introduces students to the policy implications of the increased usage of information technology in criminal justice. Emphasis is on identifying issues that are important to policy makers and managers of information technology. The discussion is non-technical and the focus is on gaining a broad perspective of the role of information technology in criminal justice rather than learning specific technologies. Topics will include nature of information technology currently in use, future technology needs, legal and ethical concerns regarding information access and expected effects on organizational structure. Prerequisite: Permission of Department

Crj 696 Geographic Information Systems in Criminal Justice (4)

In this course students will explore advanced topics in Geographic information Systems. The course covers Avenue, raster modeling, network analysis, and internet mapping. While new material will be introduced through lectures and laboratory work, the focus is on advancing student knowledge in an applied fashion and there will be considerable emphasis on the development of individual or group projects. Students will define a problem, develop GIS applications to analyze the problem and present solutions and recommendations.Prerequisites: Completion of Crj 693 (Geographic Information Systems in Crj I) or equivalent or with permission of the instructor.

Crj 697 Qualitative Research in Criminal Justice (3)

This course covers the basics of collecting, analyzing, and writing up qualitative data.  It is designed for those who want to employ or incorporate qualitative methods in their own research as well as for those wishing to gain a deeper understanding of how qualitative research is produced and evaluated.  We will focus primarily on ethnographic field research and in-depth interviewing, although we will review other methods such as conversation analysis, autobiographies and life histories, and case studies. 

Crj 698 Master's Research Essay (3)

A continuation research culminating in the writing of the master's research essay.

Crj 701 Research/Analytical Writing Seminar (3)

A seminar on issues and processes pertinent to doctoral students entering advanced stages of research and analysis.  Topics will include how academics cull effective research questions from academic literatures and how they develop a research agenda.  Students will both develop and present research questions along with supportive analyses of the various literatures from which these questions were developed:  Restrictions:  Ph.D. students ONLY or with permission of the instructor. 

Crj 711 Doctoral Orientation Seminar (1)

A seminar on issues and processes pertinent to new doctoral students in criminal justice. Discussion topics will include socialization into the profession, career tracks and choices, problems and coping mechanisms in pursuit of the Ph.D., the evolution of the field and its future directions.

Crj 751 Special Topics in Criminal Justice (1)

Special group studies which provide students and faculty with the opportunity to explore significant themes, issues, and problems from a broadly humanistic and interdisciplinary perspective. May be repeated for credit provided the subject matter is not repeated.

Crj 761 Prison Reform (2-4)

History and current status of efforts to change conditions of confinement; reforms during the progressive era, and more contemporary developments, including ongoing innovations. Critiques and proposals for reform.  Problems of implementation and evaluation.  Application of principles of planned change to change in corrections.

CRJ 786 Teaching at the College and University Level (2-4)

This course is intended to be a forum for discussing and experimenting with teaching objectives, strategies, and curriculum innovations, grounded in the broader context of social science and criminal justice education and its multidisciplinary origins. Students will work on both practical issues in teaching (such as organizing material, finding resources, and developing teaching styles), planning issues (such as designing syllabi), and general issues in criminal justice curriculum organization.

Crj 788 Special Methods Seminar (2-4)

Designed to permit the exploration of data gathering and analysis techniques that attach to a specific research function in the criminal justice process.

Crj 790 Seminar on Specific Problems in Research Methodology (2-4)

Offered either as an individual tutorial or as a seminar to focus on the specific methodological problems related to dissertation topics.

Crj 799 Master's Capstone Seminar in Criminal Justice (3)

The Capstone Seminar will provide the opportunity to demonstrate special field competency by synthesizing and refining graduate experiences around a set of related activities, built on each student's curricular choices and acquired specialized expertise. The seminar will be taken in the final semester of Master's study.

Crj 800 Independent Study in Criminal Justice (2-15)

Crj 801 Individual Research in Criminal Justice (2-15)

Crj 893 General Readings in Criminal Justice (1-12)

Individual work in preparation for the Ph.D. comprehensive examinations in Criminal Justice.

Crj 895 General Readings in Criminal Justice (1-12)

Individual work in preparation for the dissertation prospectus.

Crj 899 Dissertation Research, Writing and Defense (1)

Load graded.  Appropriate for doctoral students engaged in research and writing of the dissertation.  Prerequisite: Admission to doctoral candidacy.