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April 2024

Designing a Community Health Worker (CHW) Certificate Training that Centers Marginalized Youth’s Health and Wellness

Mendenhall, R., Butler-DeLong, T., Lee, M. J., & Langford, K. (2024). Designing a Community Health Worker (CHW) certificate training that centers marginalized youth’s health and wellness. Journal of Community Medicine, 0(0), 52-56. 

Abstract: 

The genesis of the youth Community Health Worker (CHW) and Citizen/Community Science (CS) training is rooted in interdisciplinary research and the lived experiences of families in Chicago and Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Mendenhall and colleagues’ (Drs. Robinson, Roberts and Rodriquez-Zas) South Chicago’s Black Mothers’ Resiliency Project provided insights into Black women’s experiences with genomics, trauma, and community science. Black women’s testimonies highlighted the health impacts of living in neighborhoods with high levels of gun violence and the resilience strategies they employ. This led to the development of a youth-centered CHW and CS training program, aimed at addressing health disparities. The program trained high school students and young adults (up to age 24) as CHWs and CSs, focusing on the objectives of (1) embedding culturally competent health workers in marginalized communities; (2) amplifying community voices; (3) collecting, analyzing, and quantifying observational data to inform policy decision-making; (4) amplifying community voices in healthcare discussions and (5) creating community health care worker training certification for youth. Over three years, the program trained over 50 participants, incorporating elements of wellness, art, and entrepreneurship. Based on ethnographic notes participants reported increases in wellness such as reduced anxiety and increased empowerment. The program’s long-term goals include creating employment opportunities for graduates and contributing to improved community health outcomes. This initiative represents a step towards addressing racial trauma and promoting community healing through youth-led innovation and empowerment.

 

A path toward race-conscious standards for youth: Translating adultification bias theory into doctrinal interventions in criminal court

Levin, J. (2024). A path toward race-conscious standards for youth: Translating adultification bias theory into doctrinal interventions in criminal court. UC Law SF Journal on Gender and Justice, 35(2), 83. 

Abstract: 

This article demonstrates how advocates can leverage empirical literature regarding adultification bias to craft doctrinal interventions that recognize and remedy the disproportionately harsh treatment of Black youth in the juvenile and adult criminal legal system. Through case examples, all of which I litigated in the Civil Rights Clinic at Seattle University School of Law, I demonstrate how adultification bias was used to explain the racial disproportionality in the transfer of young people to adult court for prosecution, as well as the harshness of the sentences received by young people in both juvenile and adult court. These cases provide roadmaps for clinicians and advocates to educate criminal legal system stakeholders about the risk of adultification bias and other forms of implicit bias, either as amicus or in direct service to clients. The briefs proposed new legal standards in cases that require criminal legal system stakeholders to account for adultification bias. These litigation strategies are designed to obtain outcomes for clients that account for one way that race plays a role in prosecutorial and judicial decision-making, a problem which is clear in the aggregate but has historically evaded remedy in individual cases. These proposals also provide a concrete example of how law school clinics can put theory into practice and produce doctrinal interventions that advance racial justice. 

 

Addressing the harms of structural racism on health in incarcerated youth through improved nutrition and exercise programs

Henning, K. N., Omer, R. D., de Jesus, J. M., Giombi, K., Silverman, J., Neal, E., Agurs-Collins, T., Brown, A. G. M., Pratt, C., Yoon, S. S., Ajenikoko, F., & Iturriaga, E. (2024). Addressing the harms of structural racism on health in incarcerated youth through improved nutrition and exercise programs. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 0(0), 1-10. 

Abstract: 

Every year, hundreds of thousands of youth across the country enter the juvenile legal system. A significantly disproportionate number of them are youth of color. While youth arrests have declined over the past several decades, racial disparities have increased and persist at every stage of the system. Many youth of color enter the juvenile legal system with a history of trauma and stress that compromises their health and well-being. Arrest, prosecution, and incarceration exacerbate these poor health outcomes. This paper examines several of the health impacts of structural racism in the policing and incarceration of youth of color. The paper begins by highlighting some of the most pressing social determinants of adolescent health and then considers how youth detention and incarceration contribute to unhealthy weight, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease through unhealthy food environments, limited physical activity, and the added stress of the incarceration setting. This paper adds to the existing literature on the harms of youth detention and advocates for harms elimination strategies grounded in a public health approach to public safety and community-based alternatives to detention. For those youth who will remain in detention, the authors offer suggestions to reduce harms and improve the health of systems-involved youth, including opportunities for research.  

March 2024

Restoring Equity for Black Youth in Urban Schools: A Scoping Review 

Manigault, D. F., & Davis, C. (2024). Restoring Equity for Black Youth in Urban Schools: A Scoping Review. Youth & Society, 0(0). 1-19.

Abstract: 

Zero tolerance policies in urban schools increased the disparities in urban school discipline for Black youth in comparison to white youth. Restorative interventions continue to be a popular response to deviant student behaviors; however, exploring the impact of restorative interventions in reducing harsh discipline on Black youth should be a continued focal point for scholars. This study used a scoping review to explore the breadth of knowledge available regarding using restorative interventions in urban schools. Five databases were used to identify relevant literature. Seven pieces of literature met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Findings revealed that restorative interventions do not have substantially positive impact on Black youth’s suspension rates; yet racial inequities in school and perceived negative thoughts about Black youth are among chief reasons Black youth are more likely suspended. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. 

 

Service utilization among adolescents seeking trauma-related care: Differences by risk for suicide and ethnoracial background 

Bravo, L. G., Ford, J. D., Giscombe, C. W., Cooke, A. N., Stein, G. L., Gonzalez-Guarda, R. M., Jones, C. B., & Briggs, E. C. (2024). Service utilization among adolescents seeking trauma-related care: Differences by risk for suicide and ethnoracial background. Research in Nursing & Health, 47(2), 161–171.

Abstract: 

Adolescents from ethnoracially minoritized backgrounds increasingly report high rates of attempted suicide, trauma exposure, and limited access to mental healthcare services. However, less is known regarding their use of services across different youth-serving systems. This study examines the associations and interactions between self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), race/ethnicity, and service sector utilization (mental healthcare, general healthcare, school, and social services) among a sample of trauma-exposed and treatment-seeking adolescents. Participants were treatment-seeking adolescents (N = 4406) ages 12–17 from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set who had available data for SITBs, race/ethnicity, services utilized, and other key variables. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine main and interactive effects for whether adolescents' race/ethnicity and SITBs were associated with service utilization in each of the identified service sectors. SITBs were associated with adolescents' utilization of mental healthcare (OR = 1.38 p < 0.001), general healthcare (OR = 2.30; p < 0.001), and school services (OR = 1.38 p < 0.001). NH Black adolescents reporting SITBs were less likely to use mental health services than other NH Black youths (OR = 0.53; p = 0.004). Hispanic adolescents reporting SITBs were more likely to utilize healthcare services than other Hispanic youths (OR = 1.51; p = 0.039). Trauma-exposed adolescents reporting SITBs are more likely to utilize mental healthcare, general healthcare, and school-based services than other trauma-exposed adolescents. However, NH Black adolescents experiencing SITBs may face additional barriers to utilizing mental healthcare services. Findings can be used to develop nursing practices and policies to address barriers faced by adolescents reporting SITBs.

 

Examining Behavioral Variations in Disadvantaged Adolescents: A Cross-Racial Study of African, Latinx, and Asian American Adolescents

Kim, C., & Hong, R. (2024). Examining Behavioral Variations in Disadvantaged Adolescents: A Cross-Racial Study of African, Latinx, and Asian American Adolescents. Youth & Society, 0(0).

Abstract: 

This study explored racial differences in internalizing and externalizing problems among minority adolescents in impoverished urban communities. The study centered on a sample of 211 participants who were engaged in the 2018 Building Resilience Against Violence Engagement (BRAVE) programs. Their internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed using Youth Self-Report (YSR). The results of a one-way between-subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) uncovered substantial racial disparities, with African American adolescents reporting a higher prevalence of externalizing problems compared to Asian adolescents. Additionally, Latinx adolescents exhibited the highest prevalence of delinquency rate at the p < .05 level. These findings underscore the strong connection between racial groups and youth problems, emphasizing the importance of considering racial factors in the context of service provision for minority adolescents. 

February 2024

Intimate Partner Violence and Help-seeking Behavior Among College Students Attending A Historically Black College and University

An, S., Welch-Brewer, C., & Tadese, H. (2024). Intimate Partner Violence and Help-seeking Behavior Among College Students Attending A Historically Black College and University. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 

Abstract: 

This study provides critical evidence of the diversity of college students’ experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and their informal and formal help-seeking behaviors at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). The study collected data on college students (N = 266) in fall 2021 using a one-site cross-sectional survey data. Findings revealed that many students at the HBCU reported IPV victimization (68.4%), IPV perpetration (68.0%), and coexperience of IPV victimization and perpetration (61.3%) in the past 12 months, but a few student survivors of IPV sought help from formal or informal support systems. Further, we found that IPV victimization types (e.g., physical, psychological, sexual abuse, and injury) with different severity levels (e.g., less severe or more severe) were differently related to the student survivor’s help-seeking behaviors from formal and informal support systems. The findings of this study highlight the importance of supporting students attending HBCUs by addressing their perceptions of IPV help-seeking and coping with different types of IPV victimization via culturally tailored IPV prevention programs. HBCU campuses should promote physical health and mental health services for Black/African American survivors in HBCUs.

 

Interpersonal Violence, Racial Discrimination, and Mental Health Symptoms Among Adolescents of Color in the Juvenile-Justice System

Jouriles, E. N., Sitton, M. J., Rosenfield, D., Lui, P. P., & McDonald, R. (2024). Interpersonal Violence, Racial Discrimination, and Mental Health Symptoms Among Adolescents of Color in the Juvenile-Justice System. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Abstract: 

The current study examined how interpersonal racial discrimination experiences operate together with other forms of interpersonal violence to contribute to mental health symptoms among justice-involved adolescents of color. Participants were 118 justice-involved adolescents of color aged 14 to 17 (M = 15.77, SD = 1.08; 52.5% male; 77.1% Black/African American) and their mothers. At baseline, adolescents reported on experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination, harsh parenting, teen dating violence, and exposure to interparental physical intimate partner violence. At baseline and the 3-month follow-up assessment, adolescents reported on trauma symptoms, and adolescents and their mothers reported on the adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Multivariate multilevel modeling results indicated that interpersonal racial discrimination experiences contributed additively to adolescent mental health symptoms at both the baseline and 3-month follow-up assessments, after accounting for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence. The current findings highlight the importance of considering adolescents’ experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination, together with other forms of interpersonal violence, in work focused on understanding the mental health symptoms of justice-involved adolescents of color.

 

Beyond monolithic threat: Understanding risk typology in court-involved Black male youth

Eyitayo Onifade, Christina Campbell, Kwanele Shishane, Sylvia Annan, Emma Odotei & Justin B. Williams (2024) Beyond monolithic threat: Understanding risk typology in court-involved Black male youth, Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice.

Abstract: 

Black male youth are at greatest risk of disparate contact and detention in the U.S. juvenile justice system. This study aims to identify recidivism risk/need patterns among African American male youth in the Ohio juvenile justice system, utilizing cluster analysis of risk assessment data from the Ohio Youth Assessment System-Disposition (OYAS-DIS). We found four distinct risk patterns and accompanying recidivism rates in the Black male youth population. Two of the clusters exhibited moderate levels of risk. However, they had significantly different recidivism outcomes, suggesting certain combinations of risk factors have more or less impact the propensity for crime in the Black male sample. Implications for policy and practice are discussed, as well as future directions for research.

January 2024

Interpersonal violence, racial discrimination, and mental health symptoms among adolescents of color in the juvenile-justice system

Jouriles, E. N., Sitton, M. J., Rosenfield, D., Lui, P. P., & McDonald, R. (2024). Interpersonal Violence, Racial Discrimination, and Mental Health Symptoms Among Adolescents of Color in the Juvenile-Justice System. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Abstract: 

The current study examined how interpersonal racial discrimination experiences operate together with other forms of interpersonal violence to contribute to mental health symptoms among justice-involved adolescents of color. Participants were 118 justice-involved adolescents of color aged 14 to 17 (M = 15.77, SD = 1.08; 52.5% male; 77.1% Black/African American) and their mothers. At baseline, adolescents reported on experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination, harsh parenting, teen dating violence, and exposure to interparental physical intimate partner violence. At baseline and the 3-month follow-up assessment, adolescents reported on trauma symptoms, and adolescents and their mothers reported on the adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Multivariate multilevel modeling results indicated that interpersonal racial discrimination experiences contributed additively to adolescent mental health symptoms at both the baseline and 3-month follow-up assessments, after accounting for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence. The current findings highlight the importance of considering adolescents’ experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination, together with other forms of interpersonal violence, in work focused on understanding the mental health symptoms of justice-involved adolescents of color.

 

Interventions for trauma-affected youth in the juvenile justice system: An overview of diagnostic, ethical, and clinical challenges and evidence-based treatments

Kerig, P. K., Ford, J. D., Alexander, A. R., & Modrowski, C. A. (2024). Interventions for Trauma-Affected Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: An Overview of Diagnostic, Ethical, and Clinical Challenges and Evidence-Based Treatments. Psychological Injury and Law. 

Abstract: 

Recognition of the high prevalence of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress reactions among young offenders has led to calls for a shift toward the implementation of trauma-informed approaches in juvenile justice systems. However, meeting the clinical needs of youth in this population not only requires comprehending the profound effects of polyvictimization, developmental trauma, and complex PTSD but also an appreciation of the ways in which traumatic experiences and posttraumatic sequela intersect with diverse youth identities, including ethnicity and race, gender, sexual minority status, developmental stage, and gang involvement, which in turn may affect engagement in treatment. Ethical, legal, and clinical challenges specific to providing services in the context of the juvenile justice system also must be considered, including complications related to confidentiality, protection from self-incrimination, threats to psychological safety, and the potential for secondary traumatic stress among service providers delivering trauma-focused interventions in forensic contexts. This paper reviews those issues and goes on to describe the existing evidence base for interventions for posttraumatic reactions among justice-involved youth, as well as its limitations, and points toward future directions for research and clinical developments that could expand the precision and reach of mental health services for youth at risk or already involved in the legal system.

 

Attachment and the (mis)apprehension of Aboriginal children: epistemic violence in child welfare interventions

Wright, A., Gray, P., Selkirk, B., Hunt, C., & Wright, R. (2024). Attachment and the (mis)apprehension of Aboriginal children: epistemic violence in child welfare interventions. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 1–25. 

Abstract: 

Child protection systems in Australia continue to disproportionately investigate Aboriginal families and intervene to remove Aboriginal children, applying non-Indigenous constructs and understandings of child development that contribute to these enduring inequities. Attachment theory is one such prevalent framework with significant applications in child protection. While constructions of attachment have attempted to grapple with diversity, its application in Australian child protection policy and practice reflects dominant socio-cultural perceptions as a foundation for decision making that misrepresents Aboriginal families and their children’s developmental needs. We position this socio-legal application of attachment specifically, and developmental sciences more broadly, within a long history of settler-colonial intervention, providing a façade of scientific authority that perpetrates further harms on Aboriginal children, families and communities. We offer insights about a new frame for attachment that respects Aboriginal worldviews as part of structural transformations to address those harms.

December 2023

“Flights for Freedom With Her Words”: Black, Latinx, and Polynesian Girls Co-Conspiring Against Misogynoir Through Love

Wong, C. P. (2023). “Flights for Freedom With Her Words”: Black, Latinx, and Polynesian Girls Co-Conspiring Against Misogynoir Through Love. Educational Researcher, 0013189X231216970. 

Abstract: 

I examine how youth racialized and gendered as Black girls co-conspired to challenge misogynoir with their peers racialized and gendered as Latina/x and Polynesian girls. I investigate how they did so within an after-school space at a public charter high school that came to be known as the “Critical Feminisms Club.” Thinking about the space alongside the girls in the club, I reveal how they politically and pedagogically engaged love to (a) (re)author the stories of Black girls and (b) challenge the material and ideological misogynoir that circumscribed Black girls’ lives, possibilities, and futurities within their lives and schooling. They (re)narrated how they should be in relation with and responsible to each other as collective, co-relational, and interdependent beings, recognizing how Black womanness/girlness was a genre of being human that was specifically targeted for enclosure, exploitation, and elimination. Their love-politics engaged pedagogy to remake the world such that the safety and protection of Black girls and gender-nonconforming youth was a necessity and priority, which they saw in turn as bound to the safety and protection of the non-Black identified Latina/x and Polynesian girls who accepted this interdependence and mutual responsibility.

 

Reducing educational poverty and failure to study by observing educational justice in the education system

Masoumi, M., Mohammadi Naeni, M., & Faghihi, A. (2023). Reducing educational poverty and failure to study by observing educational justice in the education system. Journal of Adolescent and Youth Psychological Studies, 4(10), 77–86. 

Abstract: 

Background and Aim: Educational justice is the foundation of thought and culture in a society, forming a part of cultural justice, and facilitates individuals’ access to equal educational opportunities. The absence of educational justice slows the progress and development of human civilization and leads to the spread of class conflict, educational poverty, and school dropout. Therefore, this research compiles statistics on school dropouts and presents strategies to reduce poverty and dropout rates while maintaining educational justice.

Methods: This research adopts a descriptive methodology and documentary analysis approach. Data have been collected by card-indexing from documentary sources such as articles, books, and credible domestic and international websites, as well as high-level documents including the Fundamental Transformation Document of Education and Training.

Results: One of the essential indicators of justice-oriented policies is ensuring the opportunity for educational growth and equity for all people, regardless of gender, race, class, ethnicity, or color.

Conclusion: The necessity of providing free and quality education and training for all individuals of school age is a fundamental concern referred to as educational justice. The existence of various challenges and obstacles in achieving this goal has led to inequalities and injustices.

 

Evaluating a model program for improving law enforcement officers’ perceptions of and interactions with youth in a diverse urban setting

Burke, S. C., McPhee, J., Anjaria, N., DeYoung, L., NeMoyer, A., Perkins, E., Kina, F., Parker, L. E., April, K., McKitten, R., & Goldstein, N. E. (2023). Evaluating a model program for improving law enforcement officers’ perceptions of and interactions with youth in a diverse urban setting. Psychology, Crime & Law, 0(0), 1–24. 

Abstract: 

Negative and, at times, violent encounters between police and youth have received increasing attention in recent years, leading to calls for more targeted training of law enforcement. In Pennsylvania, legal stakeholders collaborated to create a manualized curriculum training designed to educate law enforcement on developmentally appropriate ways to interact with youth and generate conversation between police and young people (particularly youth of color) with the goals of reducing stereotyping and improving relationships between these two groups and, ultimately, reducing racial and ethnic disparities in youth arrest rates. The current study evaluated change in law enforcement perceptions from 24 trainings conducted in Philadelphia – a city populated predominantly with residents of color – which included both formal and informal interactions with young, predominantly Black, volunteers. Data from the Police-Youth Engagement Survey, completed both before and after trainings by 1,344 police recruits, indicated curriculum acceptability and recruits’ willingness to use information from the training in their future interactions with youth. Recruits’ attitudes towards youth and their perceptions of the relationship between police and young people also significantly improved. Results indicate that this training may be a promising initial intervention for improving interactions between law enforcement and youth, including youth of color.

November 2023

Promising Practices for Creating More Diverse, Equitable, Inclusive, and Racially Just Summertime Programs and Camps

Ricks, M., & Sibthorp, J. (2023). Promising Practices for Creating More Diverse, Equitable, Inclusive, and Racially Just Summertime Programs and Camps. Journal of Youth Development, 18(3).  

Abstract: 

LGBTQ+, racial/ethnic minorities, youth from low-income contexts, and youth with cognitive and/or physical disabilities often face constraints to access and participation based on social and structural inequality. Understanding access and inclusion in summertime recreation program and camp settings for LGBTQ+, racial/ethnic minorities, individuals from low-income contexts, and individuals with disabilities begins with examining promising practices and policies already applied in some of these settings. The purpose of this study is to compile current promising practices implemented by youth-serving summertime recreation programs and camps recognized for their work in diversity, equity, inclusion, and racial justice (DEIRJ). Representatives from both national organizations and more localized summertime programs and camps were interviewed to compile current promising practices implemented in programs recognized for their work with DEIRJ. The results include general recommendations as well as recommendations aimed at populations of interest.

 

Adolescent Domestic Violence Referrals and Adverse Childhood Experiences: Race and Sex Differences

Gilbreath, S., Cheng, Y., De Francisco Lopes, V., & Novak, A. (2023). Adolescent Domestic Violence Referrals and Adverse Childhood Experiences: Race and Sex Differences. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15412040231219996.   

Abstract: 

Following the implementation of mandatory arrest policies for domestic violence in the 1990s, the number of youth – particularly girls – referred to juvenile justice systems for domestic violence (DV) increased. Though adolescent DV perpetration and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) share many of the same outcomes, and youth DV perpetration is thought to occur more frequently in abusive home environments, the link between ACEs and DV referral for juveniles is under-examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ACEs and DV referral using data from the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, as well as identify gender and race/ethnicity differences in referral risk by ACEs. According to results, ACEs were associated with DV referral and this relationship was stronger for girls. Latino/a youth also experienced the greatest risk of referral relative to ACEs exposure. Implications for policy makers and practitioners are discussed.

 

Mental Health and the Intersectionality of Race and Gender of Crossover Youth

Freeman, J., DeBlanc, S., Yeldell, S., Williams, P., White-Taylor, C., & Toliver, J. (2023). Mental Health and the Intersectionality of Race and Gender of Crossover Youth. Journal of Family Strengths, 23(1).  

Abstract: 

African American youth and their kinship families engaged in dual systems of care (i.e., child welfare system and juvenile justice system) commonly known as “crossover youth” can become overwhelmed by the competing priorities of both systems. While one system purports to advance a best interests standard of children in out of home care, the other, is stated to be centered on tenets of restorative justice. Children and families simultaneously involved in systems that are incompatible can be very difficult to negotiate. In addition to the traditional developmental gaps in crossover youth development there are subsequent layers that contribute to the youth’s identity at the point of intersectionality. The presence of multiple selves and the lack of stability to navigate nuanced personas in these dual systems creates discourse relative to poly-victimization, serial victimization, and betrayal trauma.

October 2023

Parental Incarceration in Childhood and Adult Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Race/Ethnicity and Sex Differences

Lee, R. D., & Luo, F. (2023). Parental Incarceration in Childhood and Adult Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Race/Ethnicity and Sex Differences. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 50(11), 1661-1678. 

Abstract: 

Few studies have examined associations between parental incarceration (PI) and violence perpetration in adulthood. We used Wave I and Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate such associations with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Exposure to PI was found significantly associated with increased risk of all IPV perpetration behaviors in adulthood, except forced sex. The association of PI exposure with issuing threats, pushing, and throwing objects did not differ by race/ethnicity or sex. Associations of PI exposure with slapping, hitting, or kicking and injuring a partner were stronger for non-Hispanic White persons than for non-Hispanic Black persons. Differing patterns of elevated violence risk in adults with PI history suggest tailored preventive strategies may be of value.

 

Latent Profiles of Responding on the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-2 Subscale Scores by Race/Ethnicity among Juvenile Justice-Involved Boys and Girls

Jaggers, J. W., Modrowski, C. A., Kerig, P. K., Kilshaw, R., Cambron, C., & Allen, A. (2023). Latent Profiles of Responding on the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-2 Subscale Scores by Race/Ethnicity among Juvenile Justice-Involved Boys and Girls. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 21(4), 350–370. 

Abstract: 

The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI-2) is one of the most widely utilized screening measures for detecting mental health concerns among youth entering juvenile detention settings. Previous research has demonstrated clear patterns of sex differences in the severity of mental health symptoms among detained boys and girls. However, few studies have examined potential racial or ethnic differences in MAYSI-2 scores, which is a significant limitation. This study examined sex and racial/ethnic differences in patterns of youth responses on the MAYSI-2. Data were collected from a total of 5417 youth detained in a short-term detention facility in the Mountain West. Results of latent profile analyses demonstrated that, among both boys and girls, youths’ racial/ethnic identity was associated with distinct patterns of responding on the MAYSI-2. These findings have implications for informing screening in the juvenile justice system and increasing recognition and response to ethnic/racial and sex differences among detained youth.

 

A Statewide Analysis of the Impact of Restitution and Fees on Juvenile Recidivism in Florida Across Race & Ethnicity

Piquero, A. R., Baglivio, M. T., & Wolff, K. T. (2023). A Statewide Analysis of the Impact of Restitution and Fees on Juvenile Recidivism in Florida Across Race & Ethnicity. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 21(4), 279–308. 

Abstract: 

Whether the imposition of monetary sanctions is related to juvenile recidivism is explored overall and across race and ethnicity. Leveraging a statewide sample, logistic regression was used to predict fees and restitution assignment based on youth/case characteristics, hierarchical linear and logistic random-effects regression examined the association between neighborhood characteristics with fees and restitution, and propensity score matching examined whether fees and/or restitution are related to reoffending. No race/ethnic differences were found in the proportion of youth receiving court fees, yet when fees were administered both Black and Hispanic youth received higher fees. Neighborhood characteristics have minimal impact on whether (or the amounts) monetary sanctions were assigned. Post-matching, fees increased recidivism, as did being Black or Hispanic. Interactions between race/ethnicity and both fees and restitution showed Black youth with restitution had a higher recidivism likelihood. Monetary sanctions imposed on youth involved in the juvenile justice system has a potential deleterious impact on recidivism.

September 2023

Racial Bias in Criminal Records

Grunwald, B. (2023). Racial bias in criminal records. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 

Abstract: 

Government officials use criminal records as proxies for past conduct to decide who and how to investigate, arrest, charge, and punish. But those records may be racially biased measures of individual behavior. This paper develops a theoretical definition of bias in criminal records in terms of measurement error. It then seeks to provide empirical estimates of racial bias in official arrest records for a broad swath of offenses. I use official arrest and self-reported crime data from the Pathways to Desistance study to estimate Black-to-white and Hispanic-to-white crime ratios conditional on arrest. I also develop a novel, theory-based empirical test of differential reporting across racial and ethnic groups. Compared to white subjects with the same number of arrests, I estimate that Black subjects committed 53, 30, 23, and 56% fewer property, violent, drug, and DUI offenses, respectively, and that Hispanic subjects committed 19 and 46% fewer drug and DUI offenses. The analysis finds relatively little evidence of differential reporting that would bias my estimates upwards, with the possible exception of drug trafficking offenses. The results provide evidence that Pathways subjects’ arrest records are racially biased measures of their past criminal behavior, which could bias decisions of criminal justice officials and risk assessment algorithms that are based on arrest records.

 

The interaction of mental health and race and ethnicity in juvenile justice placement decisions

Margherio, S. M., Schmidt, A. T., Boekankamp, D., & Espinosa, E. M. (2023). The interaction of mental health and Race and ethnicity in Juvenile Justice Placement Decisions. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 74(3), 15–29. 

Abstract: 

We investigated the interaction of mental health needs and race and ethnicity on juvenile justice placement decisions. Mental health diagnoses and placement decisions were collected for a large (n = 9765) sample of justice-involved youth in the state of Texas from 2007 to 2008. Analyses revealed Black and Hispanic youth were overrepresented in secure facilities, although race and ethnicity were not predictive of disposition decisions beyond legal variables. Substance use interacted with race and ethnicity such that Black and Hispanic youth with substance use diagnoses were less likely than non-Hispanic White youth to be placed in secure settings. Youth with internalizing or externalizing mental health diagnoses received similar placement decisions regardless of race or ethnicity. Findings are in contrast to prior investigations of the interaction of race/ethnicity and mental health needs on placement decisions, perhaps due to the use of mental health diagnoses in the current study rather than other indicators of mental health need. Future research should investigate potential bias present within psychosocial evaluations and resulting mental health diagnoses within the juvenile justice system to inform their utility in the placement decision-making process, and how these social identities interact to influence each step along the juvenile justice system pathway to identify potential points of biased decision making that may compound the adverse effects of juvenile justice system involvement for youth.

 

Concern for Police Brutality, Societal Discrimination, and School Shootings and Subsequent Cigarette and Cannabis Use in Los Angeles County Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Youth: a Longitudinal Study

Hacker, K. J., Chen-Sankey, J., Leventhal, A. M., & Choi, K. (2023). Concern for police brutality, societal discrimination, and school shootings and subsequent cigarette and cannabis use in Los Angeles County Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White youth: a longitudinal study. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 0(0). 1-10. 

Abstract: 

[The objective is to] examine if concerns for police brutality, societal discrimination, and school shootings relate to subsequent cigarette and cannabis use among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) youth. Hispanic youth may be particularly vulnerable to such concern. Data are from the University of Southern California’s Happiness and Health Survey, a prospective cohort study, which followed Hispanic (N = 1007) and NHW (N = 251) students from ten inner-city and suburban high schools in Los Angeles County, starting from 2013 until 2019. Participants reported concern, worry, and stress levels regarding police brutality, societal discrimination, and school shootings. Four categories were created to indicate levels of each concern variable over time (consistently low, decreased, increased, and consistently high). Associations with past-30-day cannabis, blunt, THC-oil, and cigarette use in 2019 were assessed. Separate models for each racial/ethnic category were used. Among Hispanic participants, reporting consistently high concern about police brutality (vs. consistently low concern) was associated with higher odds to subsequently smoke cannabis (aOR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.18–2.40), smoke blunts (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.11–2.39), and vape THC-oil (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.14–2.44). Hispanic participants who reported consistently high concern for societal discrimination also had higher odds (vs. consistently low concern) to subsequently smoke blunts (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.04–2.29) and vape THC-oil (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12–2.43). Among NHW participants, increasing concern over school shootings (vs. consistently low concern) was associated with higher odds to subsequently smoke cannabis (aOR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.08–7.70). Concerns for police brutality, societal discrimination, and school shootings were associated with cannabis use especially among Hispanic participants. Providing Hispanic youth with healthy coping strategies may reduce cannabis use.

August 2023

Minority Threat in Schools and Differential Security Manifestations: Examining Unequal Control, Surveillance, and Protection

Payne, A. A., & Welch, K. (2023). Minority threat in schools and differential security manifestations: Examining unequal control, surveillance, and protection. Crime and Delinquency. 0(0).

Abstract: 

Using a recent nationally representative sample of schools, this test of Minority Threat Theory, which predicts greater use of punitive social controls in places with more people of color, is the first to use an empirically and conceptually based security typology that distinguishes among strategies intended to (1) control, (2) surveil, and (3) protect students at school. This study not only accounts for the way particular security strategies are often bundled, but also for differential objectives that are seemingly dependent on the racial and ethnic context of schools—essential considerations for understanding how minority threat manifests in school security programs. Ultimately, our results demonstrate the need for policymakers to recognize how disparate implementation of school security strategies may exacerbate inequality for youth of color.

 

 

Stress Biomarkers in Black Youth: Exploring Psychological, Behavioral, and Socio-Ecological Correlates

Foell, A., Amano, T., Newransky, C., Nebbitt, V., Lombe, M., Yu, M., Horton, D., Enelamah, N., Riffer, A., Villodas, M. L., & Tirmazi, M. T. (2023). Stress biomarkers in black youth: Exploring psychological, behavioral, and socio-ecological correlates. Journal of Urban Health. 0(0). 

Abstract: 

Exposure to chronic stress is a major public health concern. Black youth are vulnerable to chronic stress exposure given their overrepresentation in urban neighborhoods characterized by socio-ecological stressors. We contribute to this emerging body of knowledge by (1) investigating stress-induced variability in cortisol response patterns among Black youth, and (2) examining risk and protective factors associated with physiological stress responses. Salivary cortisol was collected from a community sample of 123 low-income Black youth ages 13 to 21. Latent class analysis (LCA) and logistic regression were utilized to identify discrete groups based on cortisol reactivity, and psychological, behavioral, and socio-ecological correlates of class membership. LCA supported a 2-class model of cortisol reactivity. Youth in class one were indicative of a normative stress response with mean cortisol awakening response of 0.38 μg/dL (SD = 0.19), 0.48 μg/dL (SD = 0.20) at time 2, and 0.44 μg/dL (SD = 0.20) at time 3. Youth in class two exhibited a blunted stress response with mean cortisol awakening response of 0.20 μg/dL (SD = 0.11), 0.21 μg/dL (SD = 0.09) at time 2, and 0.18 μg/dL (SD = 0.08) at time 3. Delinquent peer exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms were negatively associated with blunted stress responses, while greater depressive symptoms were positively associated with blunted stress responses. Black youth displayed distinct physiological stress reactivity patterns. Interventions are needed to assist youth in coping with stress while transforming the upstream factors that give rise to adverse community conditions.

 

 

Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Citizenship Status, and Self-Rated Health Among Immigrant Young Adults
Tsuchiya, K., Schulz, A. J., Niño, M. D., & Caldwell, C. H. (2023). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, citizenship status, and self-rated health among immigrant young adults. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 0(0). 

Abstract: 

Both racial/ethnic discrimination and citizenship status are manifestations of racism. Few empirical studies have examined the role of multiple stressors and how both stressors are interlinked to influence health among immigrant young adults. Informed by the theory of stress proliferation, the current study seeks to examine the interplay between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and citizenship status on health. We used the third wave of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) to examine the influence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and citizenship status on self-rated health (SRH) among immigrant young adults (N = 3344). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was initially associated with SRH. After adjusting for both predictors, those experiencing perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and non-citizen youth were less likely to report better health than youth who did not report perceived racial/ethnic discrimination or citizen youth. In fully adjusted multivariate regression models, racial/ethnic discrimination remained significant, while citizenship status was no longer associated with SRH. To test stress proliferation, an interaction term was included to assess whether the relationship between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and SRH varied by citizenship status. The interaction term was significant; non-citizen young adults who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination were less likely to report better health in comparison to citizen young adults and those who did not report perceived racial/ethnic discrimination. Results suggest that the interplay between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and citizenship status may be influential for health among immigrant young adults. These findings underscore the need for further assessment of the role of stress proliferation on immigrant young adults’ health.

July 2023

Youth exposure to gun, knife, and physical assaults: assessing PTSD symptoms across types of assaults, race, ethnicity, sex, and context

Allwood, M. A., Robinson, J. N., & Kim, H. (2023). Youth exposure to gun, knife, and physical assaults: assessing PTSD symptoms across types of assaults, race, ethnicity, sex, and context. Journal of interpersonal violence.

Abstract: 

This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to physical assaults and weapons-related victimization, as well as the moderating roles of demographic characteristics and the context of victimization. The sample consisted of 910 racially and ethnically diverse adolescents and young adults from an urban commuter college in the Northeast U.S. Findings include significant sex differences and racial differences in reported victimization and symptoms. Men reported significantly more physical assaults, gun victimizations, and knife victimizations than women. Black participants reported significantly more gun victimization than all other groups, and Black, White, and Asian participants reported significantly more physical assault experiences than Latinx participants. Individuals victimized by physical assault or by gun victimization were more than twice as likely to report clinically significant PTSD symptoms than individuals without such experiences, even after adjusting for demographic differences. In addition, for gun victimization in the community, a two-way interaction (gun victimization by race) and a three-way interaction (gun victimization by race by sex) were significantly associated with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Gun victimization in the community, which disproportionately impacts Black men, was the only context in which PTSD symptoms were highest for men compared to women. The overall finding of lower PTSD symptoms among men suggests that clinical practice must include an intentional focus on violence victimization, including the use of weapons, as well as the various ways that distress might manifest among men. In addition to symptoms of PTSD, other symptoms of distress, including substance use, anger, and retaliatory aggression, should be considered. Public policy and public health must also direct attention to the use of weapons in violence victimization and the proliferation of weapons violence. 

 

 

Critical consciousness as a protective factor for Black youth

Gale, A., Johnson, N. C., Golden, A., Channey, J., Marchand, A. D., Anyiwo, N., & Byrd, C. M. (2023). Reflecting on change: Critical consciousness as a protective factor for Black youth. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

Abstract: 

The previous decade has seen an abundance of scholarship on the benefits of critical consciousness (CC) for racial and ethnic minority youth. However, it is unclear whether CC is a buffer against the negative effects of racial discrimination on Black adolescents’ outcomes. The present study examined whether three CC dimensions buffered against the negative effects of racial discrimination on academic attitudes. Method: A total of 205 Black adolescents (Mage = 15.10) reported racial discrimination and CC. We conducted multiple regression analyses for each component of CC to test for their direct and protective effects on academic attitudes. Results: Our results revealed associations between CC dimensions and academic attitudes. Critical reflection and critical action also buffered against racial discrimination’s negative effects. Conclusions: Implications for research on the nature and impact of CC dimensions on racial discrimination and academic attitudes are discussed. 

 

Integrative Antiracism and the Salience of Intersectional Assets for Black and Latinx LGBTQ Youth

Nelson, L. E., Reeves, J., & Lopez, D. J. (2023). Integrative Antiracism and the Salience of Intersectional Assets for Black and Latinx LGBTQ Youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(5), 647-648.

Abstract: 

The concept of positive youth development emerged from an intellectual and programmatic context in which the dominant behavioral theories did not sufficiently explain the observed variation in thriving among youth. These dominant frameworks did not give serious attention to the social-environmental factors that were contributors to youth thriving. Moreover, most of the literature on the topic of youth thriving excluded highly marginalized youth, such as LGBTQ Black and Latinx youth. In addition, many of these frameworks were mainly deficit-centered and advanced negative concepts that pathologized and stigmatized LGBTQ Black and Latinx youth. In contrast, the Developmental Assets Framework posited that there was an inventory of social and emotional assets that, if nurtured, would increase the odds of positive life outcomes in adolescents. School, communities, faith-based services, and families are key sources of these assets. There are decades of research on positive youth development and the Developmental Assets Framework and its benefits in supporting youth thriving in multiple domains including physical, emotional, and psychosocial health. Nonetheless, due to systematic oppression and discrimination, it has long been understood that these assets are not evenly distributed or made equally accessible across social and demographic groups of youth. Today, there is a growing appreciation for and recognition of racial and ethnocultural diversity among LGBT youth; however, until now, we have not had much information on the presence and performance of developmental assets among Black and Latinx LGBTQ youth. 

June 2023

Disparities in youth arrest across racial and ethnic subgroups 

Lehmann, P. S., & Meldrum, R. C. (2023). Disparities in Youth Arrest Across Racial and Ethnic Subgroups. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.

Abstract: 

An extensive body of research suggests that youth of color are more likely to experience an arrest than their White counterparts. Theoretically, these findings have been understood, at least in part, as the result of the differential deployment of law enforcement to areas with higher Black and Hispanic concentrations as well as stereotyped attributions of dangerousness and threat implicitly assigned to these suspects by police before and during encounters. However, previous studies typically have employed conventional racial/ethnic categorizations, which might obscure potential nuances in arrest disparities across subgroups. Using data on a statewide representative sample of adolescents from the 2018 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey (N = 54,611), these analyses reveal that the likelihood of a self-reported arrest is greatest among Haitian, West Indian/Caribbean, Dominican, and non-Hispanic Black youth. Further, Mexican and Puerto Rican adolescents have a higher risk of experiencing an arrest than members of other Hispanic subgroups. 

 

 

Racial/ethnic disparities of the PACT in predicting recidivism and court dispositions for justice-involved youth 

Li, N., Hein, S., Quintana, D., Shelton, M., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2023). Racial/ethnic disparities of the PACT in predicting recidivism and court dispositions for justice-involved youth. Law and Human Behavior, 47(3), 422–435.

Abstract: 

Responding to the concern about racial/ethnic disparities (R/ED) in the use of risk assessment instruments (RAIs) in justice systems, previous research has overwhelmingly tested the extent to which RAI scores consistently predict recidivism across race and ethnicity (predictive bias). However, little is known about R/ED in the association between RAI measures and court dispositions (disparate application) for justice-involved youths. This study investigated predictive bias and disparate application of three risk measures—criminal history, social history, and the overall risk level—produced by the Positive Achievement Change Tool (PACT) for White, Black, and Hispanic justice-involved youths. Hypotheses: Given the mixed evidence in existing research for predictive bias and lack of evidence for disparate application, we did not make any specific hypothesis but conducted exploratory analyses. From a clinical perspective, however, we anticipated little or no evidence to support predictive bias and disparate application of the PACT among White, Black, and Hispanic youths in the jurisdiction we examined. Method: The sample consisted of 5,578 youths (11.4% White, 43.9% Black, and 44.7% Hispanic) who completed the PACT while in the Harris County Juvenile Probation Department, Texas. The outcome variables included recidivism (general and violent reoffending) and court dispositions (deferred adjudication, probation without placement, and probation with placement). We ran a series of moderating binary logistic regression models and moderating ordinal logistic regression models to evaluate predictive bias and disparate application. Results: Race and ethnicity influenced how the criminal history score related to violent recidivism: This compromised the validity of the score as a predictor of recidivism. Moreover, evidence showed that the overall risk of reoffending was associated with harsher sanctioning decisions for Black and Hispanic youths than for White youths. Conclusion: Ensuring that RAI results are consistently interpreted and used in informing decisions is as important as ensuring that RAI scores function equally well in predicting recidivism regardless of race and ethnicity. 

 

 

 

Social identity threat is related to ethnic minority adolescents’ social approach motivation towards classmates via reduced sense of belonging 

Froehlich, L., Bick, N., Nikitin, J., & Martiny, S. E. (2023). Social identity threat is related to ethnic minority adolescents’ social approach motivation towards classmates via reduced sense of belonging. Social Psychology of Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-023-09800-3 

Abstract: 

The integration of ethnic minority youth can only be successful if they are motivated to establish and maintain social relationships in important institutions such as school. At the same time, worries about negative stereotypes about one’s ethnic group can undermine ethnic minority students’ motivation to approach others. In the present study, we tested whether social identity threat predicts ethnic minority adolescents’ social approach motivation via reduced sense of belonging. We also examined whether multiple social identities (i.e., high endorsement of ethnic and national identity) buffer against the negative effects of social identity threat. In a sample of 426 ethnic minority students from 36 9th -grade classes in Germany, social identity threat was indirectly related to social approach motivation via reduced sense of belonging to the school and class. The interplay of students’ ethnic and national identity moderated the relationship of social identity threat and sense of belonging. The relationship was particularly negative for students who endorsed either ethnic or national identity. However, it was less negative for students with integrated multiple social identities and non-significant for students who identified neither with the ethnic nor the national group. Results generalized for social approach motivation towards ethnic majority and minority classmates. These patterns were only found for social approach motivation in face-to-face contact situations, but not in online situations. We discuss these findings in light of the literature on social identity threat and multiple social identities. Practical implications include measures to foster students’ sense of belonging and to reduce social identity threat. 

May 2023

Ethnic differences in treatment outcome for children and young people accessing mental health support 

  • Ruphrect-Smith, H., Davies, S., Jacob, J., & Edbrooke-Childs, J. (2023). Ethnic differences in treatment outcome for children and young people accessing mental health support. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 

Abstract: 

Children and Young People (CYP) from minoritized ethnic backgrounds experience structural inequalities in Children and Young People’s Mental Health Settings (CYPMHS). This mixed methods study explores whether CYP’s ethnicity is associated with their treatment outcomes (operationalised as ‘measurable change’) from CYPMHS. A multilevel multi-nominal regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, referral source, presenting difficulty, case closure reason, suggests that CYP from Asian backgrounds (OR = 0.82, CI [0.70, 0.96]) and Mixed-race (odds ratio (OR) = 0.80; 95% CI [0.69, 0.92]) are less likely to report measurable improvement in mental health difficulties compared to White British CYP. Three themes from a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 CYP from minoritized ethnic backgrounds focused on views and experiences of ending mental health support are also presented. CYP view personalized support and the right therapist as conducive to good endings and valued a range of outcomes pertaining to empowerment. Experiences of stigma and inequalities may begin to explain the less positive outcomes experienced by Asian and Mixed-race CYP found in the regression analysis. The implications of these findings and future areas of research are suggested. 

 

 

Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Offense Severity: An Examination of the Liberation Hypothesis for Juvenile Case Outcomes at Final Disposition 

  • Bryson, S. L., & Peck, J. H. (2023). Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Offense Severity: An Examination of the Liberation Hypothesis for Juvenile Case Outcomes at Final Disposition. Crime & Delinquency, 00111287231175039.

Abstract: 

Prior research on juvenile court processing indicates that legal and extralegal factors impact outcomes at judicial disposition. Less is known, however, if the combined effects of certain characteristics influence decision-making. Applying the liberation hypothesis, this study investigates the interactive effects of a juvenile’s age, race/ethnicity, and offense severity on dispositional outcomes. Using all adjudicated complaints from North Carolina between 2011 and 2018, results suggest that irrespective of a juvenile’s age, youth of color had greater odds of receiving residential placement than community-based sanctions. Regardless of offense severity, Black youth were treated more punitively than Hispanics and Whites. Findings underscore the importance of acknowledging disparities in case outcomes and creating programming options within juvenile justice to meet the needs of youth of color. 

 

 

What advice do parents give their children about plea bargains? Understanding the role of parent race, attorney race, and attorney recommendations 

  • Birnbaum, A., & Haney-Caron, E. (2023). What advice do parents give their children about plea bargains? Understanding the role of parent race, attorney race, and attorney recommendations. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 1–28.

Abstract: 

This study examined parent acquiescence to attorney recommendations in plea bargain decisions, and the effect of racial similarity between an attorney and their juvenile client’s parent. Scholarship indicates that youth are vulnerable to the influence of authority figures in plea-bargaining, leading to a reliance on parental and attorney input for plea decisions. Parents read a vignette with attorney’s race manipulated, imagining they are participating in the plea-bargaining process and the attorney is giving them recommendations regarding how to plea. Results show White parents were more likely to take a plea and had more trust in the attorneys. Black attorneys were found to be most trustworthy, especially for White parents. Parent race impacted plea advice acquiescence more than attorney/parent racial similarity. 

April 2023

Black Adolescent Altruism: Exploring the Role of Racial Discrimination and Empathy

  • Fike, K. J., Mattis, J., Nickodem, K., & Guillaume, C. (2023). Black Adolescent Altruism: Exploring the Role of Racial Discrimination and Empathy. Children and Youth Services Review, 106990.

Abstract:

We examine whether empathy and racial discrimination occurring in schools and communities contribute to altruism among Black adolescents (n=1,362). Using R and multigroup structural equation modeling, we adjusted for school-level differences and examined: 1) gender differences on empathy, racial discrimination in schools and communities, and altruism, 2) the associations between empathy, discrimination, and altruism, 3) the potential moderating effect of empathy on the associations between discrimination and altruism, and 4) whether gender had a significant impact on all the examined associations. Black girls reported more frequent altruism and empathy, while Black boys reported more frequent racial discrimination. Empathy and community-based discrimination are positively related to altruistic behaviors. Empathy did not significantly moderate the relations between discrimination and altruism. Further, the model comparison suggested that gender did not moderate the associations between community-based racial hassles, school-based discrimination, and empathy with altruism. Empathy may be an important point of intervention to support prosocial behaviors among Black youth.

 

 

Developmental trajectories of conduct problems across racial/ethnic identity and neighborhood context: A systematic review

  • Weinberger, E. C. (2023). Developmental trajectories of conduct problems across racial/ethnic identity and neighborhood context: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 71, 101844.

Abstract:

Youth with conduct problems typically follow distinct developmental trajectories differentiated by varying risk factors and psychosocial outcomes. There is increasing evidence that neighborhood-level factors influence the onset and maintenance of conduct problem trajectories. Further, Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) are overrepresented in severe conduct problem pathways. However, little is known about the interaction between racial/ethnic identity and neighborhood context in differentiating developmental trajectories of conduct problems. The current study systematically reviewed 18 articles characterizing conduct problem trajectories by racial/ethnic identity and/or neighborhood context. Results revealed that BIPOC youth more likely belonged to an early-onset persistent conduct problem trajectory compared to White peers. The risk of severe conduct problem trajectories increased for youth living in structurally disadvantaged neighborhoods with exposure to community violence and deviant peers, and for youth who experienced racial discrimination. Some neighborhood social processes, including collective efficacy and neighborhood satisfaction, emerged as protective factors, particularly in structurally disadvantaged neighborhoods. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was poor; therefore, caution is warranted when interpreting the findings. Limitations notwithstanding, the findings guide recommendations for assessments and interventions that leverage ecological assets and positive racial identity development for BIPOC youth at risk of conduct problems.

 

Becoming Culturally Responsive: Equitable and Inequitable Translations of CRE Theory into Teaching Practice

  • D’Andrea Martínez, P., Peoples, L. Q., & Martin, J. (2023). Becoming Culturally Responsive: Equitable and Inequitable Translations of CRE Theory into Teaching Practice. The Urban Review.

Abstract:

Research on Culturally Responsive Education (CRE) to date has mostly focused on identifying the aspects of education that already work for Black, Indigenous, and Students of Color. Building on this important literature base, this qualitative study examines the implementation, rather than the identification, of CRE practices. The seven New York City public schools that participated in the study were making school-wide changes for CRE as part of a program for Competency-Based Education (CBE) for personalizing learning for students. Both CRE and CBE are employed in schools to address common issues associated with educational inequities such as irrelevant lessons, teacher biases, one-size-fits-all instruction, and systemic racism. Based on interviews with teachers at the study schools, our findings demonstrated that teachers translated CRE theory into their CBE practice in three key ways: (1) deficit practices, where instructional choices were treated as neutral; (2) access practices, where instruction was differentiated but was not culturally responsive; and (3) transformative practices, where student agency challenged traditional structures. We argue that for schools and educators to meaningfully grapple with the issues of power they seek to address by engaging in CRE, they must embrace and nurture a more radical CRE imagination that leads to deeper school transformation.

February 2023

Adolescent substance use at the intersections of foster care, sexual orientation and gender identity, racial/ethnic identity, and sex assigned at birth.

  • McCurdy, A. L., Gower, A. L., Rider, G. N., Thomas, D., Watson, R. J., Eisenberg, M. E., & Russell, S. T. (2023). Adolescent substance use at the intersections of foster care, sexual orientation and gender identity, racial/ethnic identity, and sex assigned at birth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 137, 106042.

Abstract:

Using an intersectional lens, the current study investigates differences in foster care placement and variation in substance use at the intersections of foster care and sexual orientation, gender identity, racial/ethnic identities, and sex assigned at birth.

 

Racial disparities in youth pretrial detention: a retrospective cohort study grounded in critical race theory. Health & Justice.

  • Wen, A., Gubner, N. R., Garrison, M. M., & Walker, S. C. (2023). Racial disparities in youth pretrial detention: a retrospective cohort study grounded in critical race theory. Health & Justice, 11(1), 14.

Abstract:

Pretrial detention makes up 75% of juvenile detention admissions and contributes to the disproportionate contact of minoritized youth in the juvenile carceral system. Given that prior evidence largely examines differences between Black and white youth, this study expands research on disproportionate contact in the pretrial detention setting to Hispanic/Latinx, Indigenous, and Asian youth. With a sample of over 44,000 juvenile cases in a northwest state, we used a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the effect of individual level characteristics while accounting for the random effect of differences at the county level. Additionally, we utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) in formulating our theoretical model and predictions and apply CRT in our analysis and discussion of our results. In doing so we hope to build upon its application in public health discourse for naming and deconstructing processes that lead to unjust social and health stratification.

 

Assaults on belonging: how Dutch youth without ‘blue eyes, cheese, and clogs’ experience everyday racism in educational contexts.

  • Kennedy, B. L., Habraken, M., & Melfor, S. N. (2023). Assaults on belonging: how Dutch youth without ‘blue eyes, cheese, and clogs’ experience everyday racism in educational contexts. Race Ethnicity and Education, 0(0), 1–21.

Abstract:

Minoritized students’ ethnic backgrounds and racial appearances influence their academic opportunities and belonging experiences, and limit their access to safe and equal learning environments. In the Netherlands, limited research has focused on minoritized students’ experiences. In this study, we drew upon a theoretical framework focused on Othering and belonging as well as macro-/micro- connections related to racism to investigate the contemporary educational experiences of students from nondominant backgrounds. Participants experienced everyday racism and Othering in the: continuous centering of Whiteness and marginalization of the non-White Other; persistent obstacles perpetuated by educators that prevented parental participation; and consistent underestimation of students’ abilities by teachers and peers. As a step toward more just schooling, participants suggest that educators become more aware of minoritized students’ backgrounds and create spaces of belonging.

January 2023

Universal, School-Based Mental Health Program Implemented Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Youth Yields Equitable Outcomes: Building Resilience for Healthy Kids

  • Chandrasekhar, J. L., Bowen, A. E., Heberlein, E., Pyle, E., Studts, C. R., Simon, S. L., Shomaker, L., & Kaar, J. L. (2023). Universal, School-Based Mental Health Program Implemented Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Youth Yields Equitable Outcomes: Building Resilience for Healthy Kids. Community Mental Health Journal. 

Abstract:

Although suicide is a leading cause of mortality among racial and ethnic minority youth, limited data exists regarding the impact of school-based mental health interventions on these populations, specifically. A single-arm pragmatic trial design was utilized to evaluate the equity of outcomes of the universal, school-based mental health coaching intervention, Building Resilience for Healthy Kids. All sixth-grade students at an urban middle school were invited to participate. Students attended six weekly sessions with a health coach discussing goal setting and other resilience strategies. 285 students (86%) participated with 252 (88%) completing both pre- and post-intervention surveys. Students were a mean age of 11.4 years with 55% identifying as girls, 69% as White, 13% as a racial minority, and 18% as Hispanic. Racial minority students exhibited greater improvements in personal and total resilience compared to White students, controlling for baseline scores.

 

Latinx LGBTQ Youth, COVID-19, and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

  • Abreu, R. L., Barrita, A. M., Martin, J. A., Sostre, J., & Gonzalez, K. A. (2023). Latinx LGBTQ Youth, COVID-19, and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 0(0), 1–16.

Abstract:

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, Latinx youth report high rates of negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety and depression. Similarly, research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth have documented increased negative mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the current literature has yet to systematically uncover the intersectional experiences of Latinx LGBTQ youth during this time. We conducted a systematic review to uncover the experiences of Latinx LGBTQ youth during the pandemic. Our systematic review resulted in 14 empirical studies that explored the challenges, stressors, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Latinx LGBTQ youth. Findings revealed that most studies include cisgender, gender binary, heterosexual, Latinx youth. Findings across studies include: (a) impact from school closures, (b) pandemic stressors, (c) impact from online media, (d) family and Latinx cultural values as a source of support and stress, and (e) the implementation and evaluation of interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. We provide recommendations for clinicians working with Latinx LGBTQ youth including expanding their knowledge about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on these communities, considering the experiences of Latinx LGBTQ youth as multifaceted, and considering the role of heterogeneity in the mental health of Latinx LGBTQ Youth.

 

Examining the Association between Racial Disparities in Exclusionary Discipline Practices and Academic Gains

  • Johnson, A., Kuhfeld, M., Soland, J., & Davison, M. (2023). Examining the Association between Racial Disparities in Exclusionary Discipline Practices and Academic Gains. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 0(0), 1–25.

Abstract:

Previous literature reported that Black students receive out-of-school suspensions (OSSs) and expulsions at disproportionately higher rates and have lower test scores than White students. This study provides recent evidence on the relation between racial disparities in discipline and in achievement, with particular focus on achievement gains, in schools across the nation. We link school-level discipline data in 2017–2018 from the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) to student-level assessment data from NWEA. Leveraging assessment data in the fall, winter, and spring for 1,308,004 students in grades 6–8 in 6,841 schools, this is the first study to estimate the association between exclusionary discipline and within-year academic gains. We report two main findings. First, Black-White suspension gaps and achievement gaps persist (correlation= .15 for math, .19 for reading) in the vast majority of schools in 2017–2018 despite the announcement of many reforms in school discipline practices. Second, Black-White disparities in exclusionary discipline rates are associated with lower learning rates during the school year for Black students in math but there is no association for reading. These findings point to discipline disparity as a key factor contributing to the expansion of Black-White achievement gaps during the school year reported in the extant literature.

December 2022

Differences in Adverse Childhood Experiences and Coercive Control among Native American and Non-Native American Justice-Involved Women

  • Jones, M. S., Worthen, M. G. F., Heim, M., Sharp, S. F., & McLeod, D. A. (2023). Differences in Adverse Childhood Experiences and Coercive Control among Native American and Non-Native American Justice-Involved Women. Victims & Offenders, 18(1), 51–76.\

Abstract:

The purposes of the current study are two-fold. First, we examine how ACEs influence being a victim of IPV coercive control among Native American (n = 92) and non-Native American (n = 263) justice-involved women using data from the 2014 Oklahoma Study of Mother’s and Their Children. Second, because little research exists on these relationships, we explore how these patterns may vary among Native American and non-Native American women. Our findings suggest that there is not only a clear link between ACEs and coercive control among justice-involved women, but also that these relationships vary between Native American and non-Native American women.

 

Inequality among the Disadvantaged? Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Earnings among Young Men and Women without a College Education

  • Oh, B., Mackin Freeman, D., & Shifrer, D. (2022). Inequality among the Disadvantaged? Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Earnings among Young Men and Women without a College Education. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 23326492221141650.

Abstract:

Despite the rapid expansion of higher education, many young adults still enter the labor market without a college education. However, little research has focused on racial/ethnic earnings disadvantages faced by non-college-educated youth. We analyze the restricted-use data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 to examine racial/ethnic earnings disparities among non-college-educated young men and women in their early 20s as of 2016, accounting for differences in premarket factors and occupation with an extensive set of controls. Results suggest striking earnings disadvantages for Black men relative to white, Latinx, and Asian men. Compared to white men, Latinx and Asian men do not earn significantly less, yet their earnings likely differ substantially by ethnic origin. While racial/ethnic earnings gaps are less prominent among women than men, women of all racial/ethnic groups have earnings disadvantages compared to white men. The results call for future studies into the heterogeneity within racial/ethnic groups and the intersectionality of race/ethnicity and gender among non-college-educated young adults.

 

Associations of School Diversity with Students’ Race-based Victimization and School Connectedness: A Combined Influence of Student and Teacher Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Socioeconomic Diversity

  • Chan, M., Sharkey, J. D., Nylund-Gibson, K., & Dowdy, E. (2023). Associations of School Diversity with Students’ Race-based Victimization and School Connectedness: A Combined Influence of Student and Teacher Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Socioeconomic Diversity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 52(1), 44–60.

Abstract:

School diversity has been shown to be associated with students’ school experiences. However, most studies have focused solely on student racial/ethnic diversity, in spite of the multifaceted nature of diversity. This study assessed how the combined influence of student and teacher racial/ethnic diversity and socioeconomic diversity were related to race-based victimization, school connectedness, and racial/ethnic disparities of these outcomes. The participants were Asian, Black, Latinx, and White students (n = 100,408; 46.2–53.5% female) in Grade 7 to Grade 12 attending 278 public schools in California. The participating schools’ diversity contexts were categorized into four latent profiles differentiated by varying levels of student and teacher racial/ethnic diversity and socioeconomic diversity. Race-based victimization was the least prevalent in schools with low student racial/ethnic diversity, low socioeconomic diversity, and moderate teacher racial/ethnic diversity. The magnitude of racial/ethnic disparities in race-based victimization differed across the four latent profiles; racial/ethnic disparities were minimal when there were similar numbers of students in each racial/ethnic group. School diversity’s relation with school connectedness was minimal. White students perceived higher school connectedness than other racial/ethnic groups across profiles, but the White-Latinx gap was smaller in profiles with schools having a homogeneous Latinx student population. The findings underline the importance of understanding school diversity’s interaction with students’ characteristics, particularly racial/ethnic identity, on students’ school experiences.

November 2022

“You Take the Punches”: Native Youth Experiences of School Pushout.

  • Johnston-Goodstar, K., Boucher, L., & Shirt-Shaw, M. R. (2022). “You Take the Punches”: Native Youth Experiences of School Pushout. Equity & Excellence in Education, 0(0), 1–14.

Abstract:

Research suggests a crisis in Native American education. Disparities in academic success are well-documented and have persisted despite myriad intervention efforts. Utilizing a decolonial Youth Participatory Action Research methodology and mixed-methods design, a team of youth researchers and adult collaborators conducted iterative rounds of participatory education, data collection, and analysis. Through this process, we generated evidence of Native-specific school pushout practices or what we call “punches” delivered by the institution: schooling designed for dispossession, curricular harm, disproportionate discipline, and microaggressions/racism. Collectively, our findings support alternative interpretations of the crisis in Native American education and suggest the institution itself must be placed at the epicenter; schools must be accountable to their co-creation of this crisis. We recommend strategies to address these structural factors and pursue educational justice for Native youth.

 

Contribution of School and Family Factors to Racial Disparities in Bullying Involvement

  • Low, S., & Liu, L. (2022). Contribution of School and Family Factors to Racial Disparities in Bullying Involvement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 02724316221142247.

Abstract:

Limited research attention has been devoted to disparate vulnerabilities to social-ecological risk factors and how these may explain group differences in bullying by race. To address this gap, the present study used data of early adolescent respondents (Mage = 11.2 years) from 36 public middle schools (N = 2701) to assess the nexus of race, social-ecological risk factors, and bullying perpetration. Multilevel modeling was employed to quantify the racial gap in bullying as well as the race-specific effects of social-ecological risk factors. Data revealed that Black students engaged in the highest levels of bullying perpetration, relative to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. School belonging exerted an amplified protective effect on Black and Hispanic youth, relative to White youth, and diminished the Black-White bullying perpetration gap. The link between exposure to family conflict and bullying perpetration was also race-specific. Findings yielded significant implications for bullying intervention and prevention.

 

Working-class Latina/o youth navigating stratification and inequality: A review of literature

  • Canizales, S. L., & Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (n.d.). Working-class Latina/o youth navigating stratification and inequality: A review of literature. Sociology Compass, n/a(n/a), e13050.

Abstract:

Reflecting broader systems of stratification and inequality, sociological research shows that working-class Latina/o immigrant families experience multiple marginalizations that require their children and youth to transcend the bounds of normative childhood by prematurely taking on roles and responsibilities typically thought of as reserved for adults. Still, the work kids do is largely studied in isolation and treated as exceptional. This paper brings together empirical research on poor and working-class immigrant Latina/o youth and families to show that, in the face of stratification and growing inequality, these youth's labor is commonplace, spanning across multiple spheres of society, and that it is so because these youth's labor is essential to their personal and familial stability in the short-term and mobility in the long-term. Through this review, we conclude that Latina/o immigrant youth's financial, legal, cultural, and emotional labor must be considered when assessing the social forces that determine youth's socioeconomic and socioemotional outcomes in adulthood. We offer this analysis to advance scholarship on Latina/o stratification, immigration, and children's and youth's role in their individual and familial life outcomes.

September 2022

Troubling Secondary Victimization of Bullying Victims: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity 

  • Carrera-Fernández, M. V., Almeida, A., Cid-Fernández, X. M., González-Fernández, A., & Fernández-Simo, J. D. (2022). Troubling Secondary Victimization of Bullying Victims: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(15–16), NP13623–NP13653.

Abstract:  

Bullying is a severe public health problem, and bystanders’ reactions are a key variable in its perpetration and maintenance. This study aimed to assess the level of secondary victimization of bullying victims as a function of the student’s sex and the victim’s category (nonnormative vs. normative) in three experimental conditions (feminine, masculine, and ethnicity) from a socioecological perspective. Specifically, two dimensions of secondary victimization were evaluated: avoidance and devaluation/blaming of the victim. A sequence of mixed-design ANOVAs was performed with a sample of 553 Spanish (53.3%) and Portuguese (46.7%) students, aged between 14 and 19 years. Results show that nonnormative victims, those who transgress feminine and masculine gender stereotypes, and those who belong to a minority ethnic group (gypsies) are avoided more than normative victims; and that boys perpetrate more secondary victimization than girls. These results reveal the situation of vulnerability suffered by adolescents who transgress the gender norm as well as those who belong to minority ethnic groups and highlight that the motivations concealed by the secondary victimization of bullying victims originate in the group processes of identity construction and categorization that configure the boundaries of “legitimacy” and are strongly influenced by social beliefs about normative and nonnormative identities. This socioecological approach could guide prevention strategies, so generic antibullying policies that do not explicitly address biases about gender, sexual, and cultural identity can be overcome to reduce the high levels of stigma occurring in the schools through critical and culturally responsive pedagogy. 

 

The Cumulative Prevalence of Congregate Care Placement for U.S. Children by Race/Ethnicity, 2019 

  • Covington, C. C., Sernaker, S., & Wildeman, C. (2022). The Cumulative Prevalence of Congregate Care Placement for U.S. Children by Race/Ethnicity, 2019. Child Maltreatment, 10775595221125456.

Abstract: 

Congregate care placement is among the most consequential forms of foster care placement that youth can experience, as it means a removal from both the family of origin and a family setting more broadly. Unfortunately, little research has estimated how common this intervention is. In this article, we use data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System (AFCARS) and synthetic cohort life tables to show what proportion of children ever placed in foster care will ever be placed in congregate care, what proportion of children in the entire population will ever be placed in congregate care, and how these proportions vary by state of residence and race/ethnicity. Our results support four main conclusions. First, roughly 15% of all children ever placed in foster care will experience congregate care placement. Second, among children who will ever be placed in foster care, the risk of congregate care placement peaks at age 16. Third, congregate care placement is highly stratified by race/ethnicity. Finally, there are vast geographic differences in both congregate care placement and ethno-racial disparities therein. Taken together, these findings enhance our understanding of the demography of the child welfare system with implications for research, policy, and practice. 

 

Community disadvantage, family socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnic differences in maltreatment reporting risk during infancy 

  • Putnam-Hornstein, E., Prindle, J. J., & Rebbe, R. (2022). Community disadvantage, family socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnic differences in maltreatment reporting risk during infancy. Child Abuse & Neglect.

Abstract:

Children are reported for maltreatment during infancy at elevated rates; research has established persistent racial/ethnic differences in the likelihood of reporting to the child protection system (CPS). [We found that] infants born in neighborhoods with the most concentrated disadvantage were reported to CPS at 7 times the rate of children born in the most advantaged neighborhoods (12.3% vs. 1.8%). After adjusting for individual-level covariates, we found that both Black and Hispanic infants born on public insurance were significantly less likely than White infants to be reported for maltreatment overall — and Black and Hispanic infants had a statistically equivalent or lower likelihood of reporting at the two extremes of neighborhood disadvantage. Among privately insured families, Hispanic infants continued to have a lower likelihood of reporting, but Black infants were reported at higher rates than White infants. This Black-White difference persisted in the most advantaged neighborhoods, but disappeared in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. 

August 2022

Troubling Secondary Victimization of Bullying Victims: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity 

  • Carrera-Fernández, M. V., Almeida, A., Cid-Fernández, X. M., González-Fernández, A., & Fernández-Simo, J. D. (2022). Troubling Secondary Victimization of Bullying Victims: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(15–16), NP13623–NP13653.

Abstract:  

Bullying is a severe public health problem, and bystanders’ reactions are a key variable in its perpetration and maintenance. This study aimed to assess the level of secondary victimization of bullying victims as a function of the student’s sex and the victim’s category (nonnormative vs. normative) in three experimental conditions (feminine, masculine, and ethnicity) from a socioecological perspective. Specifically, two dimensions of secondary victimization were evaluated: avoidance and devaluation/blaming of the victim. A sequence of mixed-design ANOVAs was performed with a sample of 553 Spanish (53.3%) and Portuguese (46.7%) students, aged between 14 and 19 years. Results show that nonnormative victims, those who transgress feminine and masculine gender stereotypes, and those who belong to a minority ethnic group (gypsies) are avoided more than normative victims; and that boys perpetrate more secondary victimization than girls. These results reveal the situation of vulnerability suffered by adolescents who transgress the gender norm as well as those who belong to minority ethnic groups and highlight that the motivations concealed by the secondary victimization of bullying victims originate in the group processes of identity construction and categorization that configure the boundaries of “legitimacy” and are strongly influenced by social beliefs about normative and nonnormative identities. This socioecological approach could guide prevention strategies, so generic antibullying policies that do not explicitly address biases about gender, sexual, and cultural identity can be overcome to reduce the high levels of stigma occurring in the schools through critical and culturally responsive pedagogy.

 

Juvenile Court Outcomes for Retail Offenders: An Examination of Offense Type, Sex, and Race/ Ethnicity 

  • Elligson, R. L., Peck, J. H., & Ray, J. V. (2022). Juvenile Court Outcomes for Retail Offenders: An Examination of Offense Type, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity. Crime & Delinquency, 68(9), 1427–1461.

Abstract:  

Using all delinquency referrals in a Northeast state, the current study examined how youth charged with retail offenses differed from other offense types across multiple juvenile court outcomes (i.e., petition, adjudication, and disposition). The individual and joint effects of a juvenile’s sex and race/ ethnicity were also investigated to determine whether these extralegal factors conditioned the relationship between offense type and juvenile system processing. Findings indicate that at each decision-making stage, retail offenders were significantly more likely to be treated with leniency compared to other offense types. The results also reinforced the continued impact of sex and race/ethnicity on shaping judicial outcomes at each stage. Implications regarding the processing of juvenile retail offenders and the influence of juvenile characteristics on juvenile court decision-making are discussed. 

 

Racial residential segregation shapes the relationship between early childhood lead exposure and fourth-grade standardized test scores 

  • Bravo, M. A., Zephyr, D., Kowal, D., Ensor, K., & Miranda, M. L. (2022). Racial residential segregation shapes the relationship between early childhood lead exposure and fourth-grade standardized test scores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(34), e2117868119.

Abstract:  

Racial/ethnic disparities in academic performance may result from a confluence of adverse exposures that arise from structural racism and accrue to specific subpopulations. This study investigates childhood lead exposure, racial residential segregation, and early educational outcomes. Geocoded North Carolina birth data is linked to blood lead surveillance data and fourth-grade standardized test scores (n = 25,699). We constructed a census tract-level measure of racial isolation (RI) of the non-Hispanic Black (NHB) population. We fit generalized additive models of reading and mathematics test scores regressed on individual-level blood lead level (BLL) and neighborhood RI of NHB (RINHB). Models included an interaction term between BLL and RINHB. BLL and RINHB were associated with lower reading scores; among NHB children, an interaction was observed between BLL and RINHB. Reading scores for NHB children with BLLs of 1 to 3 µg/dL were similar across the range of RINHB values. For NHB children with BLLs of 4 µg/dL, reading scores were similar to those of NHB children with BLLs of 1 to 3 µg/dL at lower RINHB values (less racial isolation/segregation). At higher RINHB levels (greater racial isolation/segregation), children with BLLs of 4 µg/dL had lower reading scores than children with BLLs of 1 to 3 µg/dL. This pattern becomes more marked at higher BLLs. Higher BLL was associated with lower mathematics test scores among NHB and non-Hispanic White (NHW) children, but there was no evidence of an interaction. In conclusion, NHB children with high BLLs residing in high RINHB neighborhoods had worse reading scores. 

July 2022

The Culture of Control in Schools: How Punitive and Disadvantaged Spaces Impact Race-Specific Suspension Rates.

  • Hughes, C. (2022). The Culture of Control in Schools: How Punitive and Disadvantaged Spaces Impact Race-Specific Suspension Rates. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 10439862221110984.

Abstract:

Across American societal institutions, a punitive culture of control and surveillance has manifested in a variety of ways, including exponential growth in incarceration rates and school suspension rates over the last four decades. To date, much of the scholarship exploring the relationship between criminal justice outcomes and school-based outcomes has focused primarily on how school punishment is consequential for future involvement in the justice system. What remains unclear, however, is whether an alternative relationship exists. That is, does a culture of control foster an environment where punitiveness in the criminal justice system is mirrored by punitiveness within schools? Drawing on carceral perspectives and place-based stratification theories and analyzing a random sample of Florida middle and high schools combined with school district data, several key findings emerge. Specifically, Black and Hispanic students are more likely to be suspended in places with higher incarceration rates; all students are more likely to be suspended in places with greater concentrated disadvantage; and Black and Hispanic students are significantly more likely to be suspended when attending schools in places with high incarceration rates and greater concentrated disadvantage. These findings highlight the interconnectedness of place and social control in the school setting.

 

The Consequences of School Suspension at Different Developmental Stages: The Relationships Between Age, Race, Suspension, and Justice-Related Outcomes.

  • Novak, A. (2022). The Consequences of School Suspension at Different Developmental Stages: The Relationships Between Age, Race, Suspension, and Justice-Related Outcomes. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 00938548221107568.

Abstract:

School suspension is associated with increases in delinquency and arrest and is disproportionally experienced by youth of color. Limited research has examined the outcomes of suspension experienced at different developmental stages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between suspension, delinquency, and arrest, as well as if and how these relationships differed among youth first suspended in childhood and youth first suspended in adolescence and whether suspension experiences differed by race/ethnicity. Results indicated that suspension was more likely to be experienced by Black and Hispanic youth. Results also indicated suspension in adolescence was associated with increases in delinquency, and suspension in childhood and suspension in adolescence were associated with increases in arrest. Suspension in adolescence was associated with increases in delinquency, while suspension in childhood was associated with greater increases in arrest. Results suggest policy makers and practitioners should consider alternatives to suspension to prevent delinquency and arrest.

 

School Mental Health Professionals’ Knowledge of Stereotypes and Implicit Bias Toward Black and Latinx Youths.

  • Liu, F. F., McRee, E., Coifman, J., Stone, J., Lai, C. K., Yu, C., & Lyon, A. R. (2022). School Mental Health Professionals’ Knowledge of Stereotypes and Implicit Bias Toward Black and Latinx Youths. Psychiatric Services, appi.ps.202100253.

Abstract:

Clinician bias is a contributor to health care inequities, but research on racial-ethnic bias among mental health professionals, especially toward minoritized youths, is limited. This column describes two studies involving mental health clinicians in schools, where most youths access mental health services. Study 1 used a mixed-methods approach to identify stereotypes about Black and Latinx youths salient to clinicians (e.g., academic failure; anger and aggression). In study 2, the authors developed four Implicit Association Tests to assess clinicians’ implicit prejudice and stereotyping of Black and Latinx youths and found pro-White and anti-Black/Latinx bias at levels similar to those of other health care providers and the general population.

June 2022

 

An Exploration of the Effects of Sexual Assault Victimization among Justice-Involved Youth: Urbanity, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex Differences.

  • Dembo, R., Wareham, J., Schmeidler, J., & Wolff, J. (2022). An Exploration of the Effects of Sexual Assault Victimization among Justice-Involved Youth: Urbanity, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex Differences. Victims & Offenders, 17(4), 491–512.

Abstract:

Childhood sexual assault is a traumatic experience with negative consequences and correlates. Little research has examined the prevalence of self-reported childhood sexual assault among justice-involved youths across urbanity, sex, and race/ethnicity. This study utilized data collected at intake from two juvenile assessment centers (JACs) for 4,336 adolescents. This exploratory study examined the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and correlates of marijuana use, sexually transmitted infection (STI), number of sexual partners, sexual orientation, and depression across twelve subgroups based on urbanity, sex, and race/ethnicity. Results indicated 7-8% of the sample reported experiencing sexual assault across the urban and rural JAC locations. The prevalence of sexual assault varied significantly across the subgroups, with White, females in both urban and rural locations reporting higher rates, compared to Black or Hispanic males and females. Sexual assault victimization was particularly related to depression, number of sexual partners, and sexual minority orientation. Implications regarding public health concerns are discussed.

 

Segregation, Securitization, and Bullying: Investigating the Connections Between Policing, Surveillance, Punishment, and Violence

  • Iwama, J., Irizarry, Y., Ernstes, A., Ripepi, M., Peguero, A. A., Bondy, J. M., & Hong, J. S. (2022). Segregation, Securitization, and Bullying: Investigating the Connections Between Policing, Surveillance, Punishment, and Violence. Race and Justice, 21533687221105904.

Abstract:

Over the past twenty years, scholarly research on the disproportionate control, surveillance, and punishment of racial/ethnic minority students within U.S. public schools have indicated that these youth are subject to greater levels of violence and bullying. Many scholars have conceptualized the term “youth control complex.” This term references the hyper-criminalization of racial and ethnic minority youth across the U.S., which leads to greater levels of over-policing, surveillance, and punishment in U.S. public schools with large populations of racial and ethnic minority students. Using the 2015–2016 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) data, this study addresses two major research questions. First, do racially/ethnically segregated schools have higher rates of policing, surveillance, and punishment? Second, do policing, surveillance, and punishment within segregated schools moderate the rate of bullying? Our findings indicate that majority-Black and majority-Latina/o/x schools do in fact experience hyper-criminalization in U.S. public schools in comparison to majority-White schools. Yet, these increased crime control and punishment efforts in majority-Black and majority-Latina/o/x schools do not have a significant impact on the rate of bullying. Moreover, our findings highlight the educational inequities between majority-Black, majority-Latina/o/x, and majority-White schools.

 

Pathways Through Juvenile Justice: A System-Level Assessment of Cumulative Disadvantage in the Processing of Juvenile Offenders.

  • Zane, S. N., Welsh, B. C., Mears, D. P., & Zimmerman, G. M. (2022). Pathways Through Juvenile Justice: A System-Level Assessment of Cumulative Disadvantage in the Processing of Juvenile Offenders. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 38(2), 483–514.

Abstract:

Objectives: To test the cumulative disadvantage hypothesis—that system-level racial and ethnic disparities accumulate from intake to final disposition—by investigating relative and absolute disparities across different pathways through the juvenile justice system. Methods: Using a sample of 95,670 juvenile court referrals across 140 counties in four states, the present study employed multinomial logistic regression to examine racial and ethnic disparities across 14 possible combinations of juvenile justice outcomes (i.e., pathways), ranked from least to most punitive. We then estimated predicted probabilities and marginal effects of race and ethnicity for each pathway. Results: We found limited support for the cumulative disadvantage hypothesis. Racial and ethnic disparities were greatest for the most punitive pathways, but the findings do not point to extensive evidence of cumulative disadvantage. Specifically, neither relative nor absolute disparities accumulated from least to most punitive pathways, and some of the least punitive pathways were actually more likely for minority defendants. Conclusions: The results underscore the need for more careful measurement and analysis of disadvantage and disparities in the criminal and juvenile justice systems. In particular, more attention should be paid to early outcomes such as detention, where large differences between racial and ethnic groups were observed, as well as to relative and absolute differences in processing outcomes.

May 2022

Race and Ethnicity differences in police contact and perceptions of and attitudes toward the police among youth.

  • Foster, K., Jones, M. S., & Pierce, H. (2022). Race and Ethnicity Differences in Police Contact and Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward the Police Among Youth. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 49(5), 660–680.

Abstract:

While investigations examining the effects of direct and vicarious police stops on youth attitudes toward the police have been limited, even less research has explored how these processes vary by race/ethnicity. Thus, this study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine how race/ethnicity shapes: (1) the relationship between direct and vicarious police stops and youth attitudes toward police and (2) how the contextual nature of these stops (intrusiveness) influence youth perceptions of police. The results suggest that direct and/or vicarious police contact can generate negative attitudes toward police among black, Hispanic, and in some cases, white youth, though these effects vary across type of police stop and type of attitude. When a direct stop involved more officer intrusiveness, black youth reported less respect and more negative perceptions of procedural justice. As such, policymakers and criminologists should consider how race/ethnicity influences youth attitudinal responses to police encounters.

 

Race, Femininity, and School Suspension.

  • Green, C. (2022). Race, Femininity, and School Suspension. Youth & Society, 54(4), 685–706.

Abstract:

Research has suggested that the disproportionate number of Black girls subject to school discipline is not due entirely to their higher levels of misbehavior, but racial and gendered stereotypes surrounding Black girls' femininity. This study uses student-level data from two national longitudinal multi-site program evaluations, Teens, Crime and the Community/Community Works and the second evaluation of the Gang Resistance Educational and Training program to assess whether the relationship between self-report delinquent behavior and subsequent suspension differs for Black girls relative to other racial/gender groups. In doing so, I find some support for racial and gendered disciplinary experiences of Black girls.

 

Retaliatory Attitudes as Mediator of Exposure to Violence and Firearm Aggression Among Youth: The Protective Role of Organized Activity Involvement.

  • Lee, D. B., Schmidt, C. J., Heinze, J. E., Carter, P. M., Cunningham, R. M., Walton, M. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2022). Retaliatory Attitudes as Mediator of Exposure to Violence and Firearm Aggression Among Youth: The Protective Role of Organized Activity Involvement. Developmental Psychology, 58(5), 990–1002.

Abstract:

Firearm injury is a significant public health concern among youth living in the United States. Youth with exposure to violence (ETV) are more susceptible to carrying and using a firearm. Few researchers, however, have examined psychological mechanisms undergirding the association between ETV and firearm aggression. Retaliatory attitudes have been discussed as a potential mediator linking ETV with firearm aggression. Moreover, organized activity participation may disrupt direct and indirect pathways connecting ETV to firearm aggression. We tested: (a) the mediating role of retaliatory attitudes in the ETV-firearm aggression link, and (b) the moderating role of organized activity participation among 570 youth with past year illicit drug use and seeking emerging department care in an urban emergency department (ages 14-24; 58.8% males). Using multigroup path analysis, ETV indirectly influenced firearm aggression through retaliatory attitudes for youth not involved organized activities. Organized activities also buffered the association between retaliatory attitudes (mediator) and firearm aggression (outcome). Organized activities may, therefore, prevent firearm aggression by reducing retaliatory attitudes among youth contending with ETV

April 2022

Predictors of Diversion From the Criminal Justice System Among First Time Juvenile Offenders 

  • Johnson-Kwochka, A., Pederson, C., Schwartz, K., Monahan, P., & Aalsma, M. (2022). 36. Predictors of Diversion From the Criminal Justice System Among First Time Juvenile Offenders. Journal of Adolescent Health, 70(4), S20. 

Abstract:

First-time juvenile offenders are increasingly diverted from the justice system post-arrest. Although widely researched, programs frequently differ in how they define diversion, with two broad categories of program emerging in the literature: formal and informal diversion programs, which differ in the level of monitoring youth receive post-arrest. Reports on diversion programs frequently emphasize their relationships to recidivism, however, few describe differences between diverted and non-diverted youth. In this investigation, we 1) describe the characteristics of youth diverted after first arrest from a large, urban juvenile justice system over an 11-year span, and 2) describe demographic and criminal charge predictors of formal and informal diversion in this sample.

 

Mental health, welfare or justice: An introductory global overview of differences between countries in the scale and approach to secure placements of children and young people.

  • Souverein, F., Hales, H., Anderson, P., Argent, S. E., Bartlett, A., Blower, A., ... & Oostermeijer, S. (2022). Mental health, welfare or justice: An introductory global overview of differences between countries in the scale and approach to secure placements of children and young people. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. 

Abstract:

Estimates suggest that over a million children per year are deprived of their liberty across the world. Little is known about the types, ethos or distribution of secure beds in which they are detained. This study aims to provide quantitative data with background information, to explore similarities and differences across jurisdictions, and to inform critical inquiry into key concepts and practices. Data was obtained using an opportunistic sample of affluent countries, derived from an emerging academic/practice network of senior professionals. Depending on jurisdiction, data was already in the public domain or specifically requested. Data requests were related to the nature and size of health, welfare and criminal justice elements of secure beds and recent occupancy. Key professionals working in child secure settings, within jurisdictions, provided commentary on local approaches. Data was incomplete but allowed for comparisons between 10 jurisdictions. The proportions of the populations of children and young people detained varied by jurisdiction as did their distribution across variations of secure settings. Not all jurisdictions had all three kinds of secure settings. Definitions of secure beds varied depending on the use of relational, procedural or physical security. Findings are tentative but suggestion solely considering numerical descriptions of children's detention is misleading; our study highlights ways in which comparative studies may be improved. Within reported jurisdictions, the framework of health, welfare and justice was meaningful but this may not hold true with a wider international application of this method. Open interrogation of this data would be enhanced by the inclusion of children's perspectives.

 

Understanding juvenile pre-adjudicatory detention and front-end juvenile case processing: The moderating role of race 

  • Thomas, C., Wolff, K. T., & Baglivio, M. T. (2022). Understanding juvenile pre-adjudicatory detention and front-end juvenile case processing: The moderating role of race. Journal of Criminal Justice, 81, 101916.

Abstract:

The current study expands our knowledge regarding the effects of pre-adjudicatory detention by examining the moderating role of a juvenile's race/ethnicity on the association between pre-adjudicatory detention and juvenile court outcomes (e.g., dismissal, adjudication, or disposition outcome decisions). The current study draws on data from the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice and employs both logistic regression and an analysis of the resulting predicted probabilities to examine the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on the association between pre-adjudicatory detention and three distinct juvenile case outcomes. Results suggest that the relationship between pre-adjudicatory detention and the likelihood of case dismissal and adjudication differs significantly among Black, White, and Hispanic youth. When the analysis was limited to youth who had been adjudicated, however, the positive association observed between time spent detained and the restrictiveness of placement following disposition was equivalent among the groups examined. Since the effects of pre-adjudicatory detention on some front-end juvenile case processing outcomes vary by race, it is crucial to develop interventions/policies to reduce disparities in this type of detention, especially for Black youth. 

March 2022

Striving for equality in the court processing of youth: theoretical applications and empirical studies in Honor of Michael J. Leiber

  • Jennifer H. Peck & Maude Beaudry-Cyr (2022) Striving for equality in the court processing of youth: theoretical applications and empirical studies in Honor of Michael J. Leiber, Journal of Crime and Justice

Abstract:

As guest editors, we approached this special issue with a single objective in mind: how to best celebrate and honor Dr. Michael J. Leiber’s legacy and commitment to equality in juvenile court processing, the juvenile justice system, and issues surrounding juvenile delinquency following his unexpected passing in 2020. We present this special issue ‘Striving for Equality in the Court Processing of Youth: Theoretical Applications and Empirical Studies in Honor of Michael J. Leiber’ not only as an opportunity to highlights Mike’s empirical interests and contributions but most importantly with the hope to encourage through continued research, the furtherance of knowledge to effectively address racial/ethnic and social injustices in the juvenile and criminal justice systems.

 

Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) to Racial and Ethnic Disparities (RED) in Juvenile Justice: What does it Mean and Does it Matter?

  • McCarter, S., & Durant, T. (2022). Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) to Racial and Ethnic Disparities (RED) in Juvenile Justice: What does it Mean and Does it Matter?. JoFSW, 6(1), 57–76.

Abstract:

Youth of color have been overrepresented in the American juvenile justice system/juvenile court since its inception in 1899. Additionally, the court's philosophy has changed over time from a more informal and rehabilitative model to a more formal and punitive model. And minoritized and marginalized youth continue to experience disparate and more severe outcomes than their White counterparts; outcomes that cannot be explained by behavior/legal factors. Moreover, the nation's Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was not reauthorized from 2008 to 2018. On December 21, 2018, the JJDPA was reauthorized as the Juvenile Justice Reform Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-385). This article documents racial and ethnic overrepresentation over time, examines the philosophy shifts in juvenile justice and DMC/RED policy changes including the progression from DMC to RED, and provides evidence-based recommendations to reduce RED for all social workers.

 

Haitian and Haitian American experiences of racism and socioethnic discrimination in Miami-Dade county: At-risk and court-involved youth

  • Cela, T., Marcelin, L. H., Waldman, R., Dembo, R., Demezier, D., Clement, R., ... & Hogue, A. (2022). Haitian and Haitian American experiences of racism and socioethnic discrimination in Miami‐Dade county: At‐risk and court‐involved youth. Family Process.

Abstract:

We examine how juvenile justice-involved youth of Haitian descent in Miami-Dade County cope with structural racism and its impact on their mental health. Drawing on longitudinal ethnography, psychosocial assessment data, and a family-based clinical intervention funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, this article explores youth narratives of discrimination prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use critical race theory and theory of practice to understand youths’ perceptions as racialized bodies and stigmatized selves, highlighting the experiences and perspectives of a particular black immigrant group, ethnic beings caught up in the everyday practices of racialization, sociocultural marginalization, and racism. We frame these experiences as a variation of the complex continuum of structural racism and racial domination in the US. These experiences have caused anger, fear, anxiety, chronic anticipatory distress, and hopelessness among youth of Haitian descent. We conclude with some recommendations for therapeutic support that encourages youth to process their experiences, promotes their development of a positive self-concept, and provides them with mind-body techniques to attenuate the physical impacts of discriminatory events.

 

Potential Racial Threat on Student In-School Suspensions in Segregated U.S. Neighborhoods

  • Lee, J. (2022). Potential Racial Threat on Student In-School Suspensions in Segregated US Neighborhoods. Education and Urban Society, 00131245221076090.

Abstract:

Persistent disparities in school exclusionary policies by race and ethnicity have long been recognized as a major issue in student disciplinary practices and in unequal opportunities for education. Only limited research has been conducted to provide insight into the varying effects of race and ethnicity on the recently increasing implementation of student discipline. This study examines racial imbalances in in-school suspension rates within school neighborhoods, which are defined as school districts and five-digit zip-code areas. This research provides partial but significant support for the racial threat hypothesis by presenting that racially uneven school districts and communities present smaller differences in in-school suspension rates between African American and White students and between Hispanic or Latinx students and White students.

 

Individual and Contextual Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among Black Adolescents with Arrest Histories

  •  Quinn, C. R., Duprey, E. B., Boyd, D. T., Lynch, R., Mitchell, M., Ross, A.,  & Cerulli, C. (2022). Individual and Contextual Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among Black Adolescents with Arrest Histories. Children, 9(4), 522.

Abstract:

Black adolescents in the United States have experienced an increase in suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). Since Black adolescents are overrepresented in the youth punishment system, more research is needed to investigate correlates of STBs for this population. The purpose of this paper is to explore and establish correlates of individual, family, and community risk and protective factors and their relationship to lifetime STBs in a national sample of Black youth with arrest histories. Guided by an intersectional eco-behavioral lens, we investigated individual, family and contextual risk and protective factors for STBs among a national sample of justice-involved Black youth aged 12–17 with a history of arrest (n = 513). We used logistic regression models to test risk and protective factors for STBs. Among the sample, 9.78% endorsed suicidal ideation, and 7.17% endorsed a previous suicide attempt. Further, gender (female) and depression severity were risk factors for STBs, while positive parenting and religiosity were protective factors for STBs. School engagement was associated with lower levels of suicidal ideation. The findings suggest suicide prevention and intervention efforts should identify developmentally salient risk and protective factors to reduce mental health burden associated with STBs and concurrent alleged law-breaking activity of Black youth.

 

February 2022

Labeling and High-Risk Youth: the Influence of Arrest on Family Support 

  • Kopf, S., & Mowen, T. J. (2022). Labeling and High-Risk Youth: the Influence of Arrest on Family Support. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1-21. 

Abstract: 

"Scholarship has consistently examined the relationship between criminal justice contact and offending among youth; within this, a growing body of research has also begun to examine the collateral consequences of juvenile justice contact on longer-term outcomes such as educational attainment, employment, and mental health. The goal of this study is to examine how early and repeated juvenile arrest relates to changes in family relationships across time. Through the lenses of life-course and labeling theory, analysis of 11 waves of data from the Pathways to Desistance project (a multisite U.S study) demonstrates that neither age at first arrest nor frequency of subsequent arrest significantly relates to changes in family support across time. However, self-reported offending was strongly related to decreased levels of family support across time. Findings highlight that the “label” of arrest does not necessarily contribute to deleterious family outcomes among “high risk” youth."

 

Promoting Fair and Just School Environments: Developing Inclusive Youth 

  • Killen, M., & Rutland, A. (2022). Promoting Fair and Just School Environments: Developing Inclusive Youth. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9(1), 81-89. 

 

Abstract: 

"Incidents of prejudice and discrimination in K–12 schools have increased over the past decade around the world, including the United States. In 2018, more than two-thirds of the 2,776 U.S. educators surveyed reported witnessing a hate or bias incident in their school. Children and adolescents who experience prejudice, social exclusion, and discrimination are subject to compromised well-being and low academic achievement. Few educators feel prepared to incorporate this topic into the education curriculum. Given the long-term harm related to experiencing social exclusion and discrimination, school districts need to create positive school environments and directly address prejudice and bias. Several factors are currently undermining progress in this area. First, national debates in the United States and other countries have politicized the topic of creating fair and just school environments. Second, the COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted children's and adolescents’ education by halting academic progress which has particularly negatively affected students from marginalized and ethnic/racial minority backgrounds. Third, teachers have experienced significant stress during COVID-19 with an increase in anxiety around virtual instruction and communication with parents. Three strategies recommended to address these converging problems include creating inclusive and nondiscriminatory policies for schools, promoting opportunities for intergroup contact and mutual respect, and implementing evidence-based, developmentally appropriate education programs. It is anticipated that these strategies will help to reduce prejudice, increase ethnic and racial identity (ERI), and promote equity, fairness, and justice in school environments."

 

Exposure to online racial discrimination and traumatic events online in Black adolescents and emerging adults 

  • Maxie‐Moreman, A. D., & Tynes, B. M. (2022). Exposure to online racial discrimination and traumatic events online in Black adolescents and emerging adults. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 

Abstract: 

"Online racial discrimination and race-related traumatic events online have been linked to psychological distress in Black youth. The current study builds on extant literature by examining associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination, after controlling for gender identity and ethnic–racial setting of college in a sample of 245 Black youth. Additionally, this study examines the potential moderating effects of gender identity. This study is the first to examine the associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms specific to racial discrimination. Path modeling revealed positive associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination. No significant differences in models were found by gender identity."

January 2022

Residentially-placed youth and the adverse childhood experiences-recidivism relationship: Considering racial/ethnic and sex differences. 

  • Zettler, H. R., & Craig, J. M. (2022). Residentially-Placed Youth and the Adverse Childhood Experiences-Recidivism Relationship: Considering Racial/Ethnic and Sex Differences. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 1-15. 

Abstract: 

"Prior research has established a relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and juvenile justice-related outcomes, including residential placement and recidivism. Further, there is evidence that both the ACEs-recidivism and placement-recidivism relationship may vary by race/ethnicity and sex. While previous studies have examined these issues separately, no research to-date has examined how the ACEs-recidivism relationship varies by race/ethnicity and sex in a sample of youth who received residential placement for their first ever adjudication. The current study seeks to address this gap by identifying predictors of recidivism across demographic groups. In contrast to the prior literature, the results indicated that for the entire sample, ACEs failed to increase the likelihood of recidivism. Further, the racial/ethnic and sex-specific models revealed that the relationship between ACEs and recidivism was not significant. Implications of these findings are provided."

 

Beyond trauma exposure: Discrimination and posttraumatic stress, internalizing, and externalizing problems among detained youth. 

  • Mendez, L., Mozley, M. M., & Kerig, P. K. (2022). Beyond trauma exposure: Discrimination and posttraumatic stress, internalizing, and externalizing problems among detained youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(3/4), 1825–1851. 

Abstract: 

"According to the race-based traumatic stress model, racial discrimination is proposed to comprise a traumatic experience that results in posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems among youth. Accordingly, a significant body of research has emerged that supports the associations among these constructs. However, the majority of these empirical studies have not accounted for the potential role of traditionally defined traumatic events in these associations. This study investigated whether self-reported racial discrimination was related to posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms above and beyond the impact of other trauma exposures in a sample of 266 detained youth (79% boys, 60% identified as an ethnic minority). Results of hierarchical linear regressions demonstrated that, after accounting for youths’ other trauma exposures, racial discrimination accounted for significant variance in the models predicting delinquency and risk-taking but no other externalizing and internalizing problems, or posttraumatic stress symptoms. These findings indicate that racial discrimination may be particularly important for understanding offending behavior among detained youth."

 

Racial and Ethnic Disparities, Referral Source and Attrition From Outpatient Substance Use Disorder Treatment Among Adolescents in the United States 

  • Marotta, P. L., Tolou-Shams, M., Cunningham-Williams, R. M., Washington Sr, D. M., & Voisin, D. (2022). Racial and ethnic disparities, referral source and attrition from outpatient substance use disorder treatment among adolescents in the united states. Youth & Society, 54(1), 148–173. 

Abstract: 

"The following study examined the association between race, ethnicity, referral source, and reasons for attrition from substance use treatment in a sample of 72,643 discharges of adolescent youth in the United States from 2014 to 2016. Black and Hispanic adolescents were more likely to be discharged due to incarceration and termination by the facility compared to White adolescents. Adolescents referred by probation, diversion, other juvenile justice organizations, health care providers, community agencies, and individual referrals were significantly more likely to be discharged due to incarceration and terminated by the treatment facility compared to youth who were referred by schools. Findings suggest that enhancing linkage to treatment from systems in the social environment may play a role in attenuating racial and ethnic disparities in rates of attrition from substance abuse treatment among adolescent youth in the United States."

December 2021

Within-race variations in sentencing outcomes: Nationality and punishment among Asians in United States federal courts

  • Wu, J. (2021). Within-race variations in sentencing outcomes: Nationality and punishment among Asians in United States federal courts. Punishment & Society.

Abstract:

"There is robust evidence that Asians are not treated differently from Whites and receive greater leniency than Blacks and Hispanics in criminal punishment. Some research findings even suggest that Asians receive the most favorable sentencing outcomes among all racial/ethnic groups. This line of research, however, has not paid attention to Asian nationality groups. Particularly, it is unclear whether there is within-race variation among offenders from different Asian countries. Using the data compiled by the United States Sentencing Commission to examine whether and how an Asian's nationality affects criminal punishment, this study focuses on sentences imposed on offenders who are Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean, Pakistani, and Vietnamese nationals. Results from logistic, ordinary least squares, and Tobit regression analyses indicate that with legal and extralegal factors held constant, Asians of different nationalities face varying odds of incarceration or downward departures, and they receive dissimilar sentence lengths."

 

Explaining Latinx Youth Delinquency: A Gendered Test of Latinx General Strain Theory

  • Zavala, E., Perez, G., & Sabina, C. (2021). Explaining Latinx Youth Delinquency: A Gendered Test of Latinx General Strain Theory. Race and Justice.

Abstract:

"Recently, scholars have reintroduced a Latinx general strain theory in which it is suggested that ethnic-specific strains, including acculturation, are driving forces for criminal and delinquent behaviors among the Latinx population. Using data collected from the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) Study, this study investigated whether these ethnic strains influenced delinquency differently based on the respondent's gender. Results indicate that boys engaged in more delinquent behaviors than girls, whereas girls were more acculturated than boys. Depression, anxiety, and social support were more prevalent among girls than among boys. In addition, girls were more likely to be enculturated and perform better in school than boys. Acculturation did not significantly predict delinquency for either boys or girls. In contrast, polyvictimization was the only variable to consistently predict delinquency among boys and girls. Results provided partial support for the hypotheses, in that, while depression and anxiety varied by gender as predicted by the gendered general strain theory, the ethnic-specific strain of acculturation failed to predict delinquent behavior in this sample. Ultimately, this study highlights the need to examine other ethnic-specific strains to better understand delinquent behavior among Latinx youth."

 

Understanding Adverse Childhood Experiences and Juvenile Court Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Race and Ethnicity

  • Lockwood, A., Peck, J. H., Wolff, K. T., & Baglivio, M. T. (2021). Understanding Adverse Childhood Experiences and Juvenile Court Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Race and Ethnicity. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.

Abstract:

"Youth involved in the juvenile justice system have enhanced traumatic exposure including abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction compared to their non-involved counterparts. While prior research has conceptualized the role of trauma in predicting juvenile recidivism, the interrelated role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and race/ethnicity in informing juvenile court processing and outcomes is unaddressed. As such, we examine the moderating role of race/ethnicity with ACEs across court outcomes (e.g., dismissal, diversion, probation, residential placement) among juveniles after their first ever arrest (37.2% Black, 18.3% Hispanic). Higher ACEs were associated with (1) decreased adjudication likelihood, (2) case dismissal for Black and Hispanic youth, (3) deeper dispositions versus diversion for Hispanic youth, (4) residential placement versus diversion for White youth, and (5) residential placement versus probation, with no racial or ethnic differences. Policy implications and future research surrounding the treatment of justice-involved youth with childhood traumatic exposure across race/ethnicity are discussed."

November 2021

Racial Disparities in Crime Victimization during the COVID-19 Lockdown

  • Semukhina, O.B (2021). Racial disparities in crime victimization during the COVID-19 lockdown. American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Abstract:

"The study examines racial differences in crime victimization rates among Black, Hispanic and White individuals during the stay-at-home order in Dallas city, TX. The study is based on sample of 85,958 calls for service recorded by Dallas Police Department between February 13, 2019, and April 30, 2020, where victims have been identified and their race is known. The findings suggest that Blacks were less likely to experience unintended drop in crime rates during the lockdown and also less likely to see decline in crimes against property when compared to both White and Hispanic victims. At the same time Blacks were more likely to experience increase in crimes committed at the apartments during the lockdown with Black females experiencing higher increase than Black males. There were no differences in crime victimization for incidents occurred in public places and crimes against persons."

 

Examining the impact of racial/ethnic threat on juvenile court outcomes: a multi-level approach

  • Jordan, K. L. & Maroun, R. (2021) Examining the impact of racial/ethnic threat on juvenile court outcomes: a multi-level approach. Journal of Crime and Justice.

Abstract:

"The current study examines whether racial/ethnic threat theory can explain juvenile court outcomes. Specifically, we look at Black population threat and Latino population threat. We also introduce White population as a threat that can be incorporated into the theory. Using data from over 55,000 juvenile court cases in over 400 neighborhoods, we found mixed support racial/ethnic threat. Latino population threat had the greatest impact on juvenile court outcomes, while Black population threat and White population threat had less support and also findings that are inconsistent with the theory. Empirical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed along with directions for future research."

 

On Assessing the Scope of Missing Native Americans in Nebraska: Results From a State-Wide Study and Recommendations for Future Research: On Assessing the Scope of Missing Native American Persons: Results From a State-Wide Study and Recommendations for Future Research

  • Richards, T. N., Wright, E. M., Nystrom, A., Gilbert, S. L., & Branscum, C. (2021). On assessing the scope of missing Native Americans in Nebraska: Results from a state-wide study and recommendations for future research. Race and Justice.

Abstract:

"Recent legislation in multiple states has called for studies on the scope of missing Native American persons. Here we report on one such study from Nebraska by first describing the practical and methodological issues for researchers to consider when examining data on missing Native persons. Then, using data from four point-in-time-counts in 2020, rates of Native American missing persons as well as case contexts over the study period are reported. Findings show that Native Americans are disproportionately represented among Nebraska's missing persons, that reports often involve minor boys, and that cases are dynamic and most are resolved quickly. Relatedly, most Native missing persons cases are only listed on the state clearinghouse, not the national missing persons lists. The paper is concluded with a discussion of specific directions for future research and policy regarding missing Native Americans."

October 2021

Generalized Hate: Bias Victimization against Non-Asian Racial/Ethnic Minorities during the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Lantz, B. & Wenger, M.R. (2021). Generalized hate: Bias victimization against non-Asian racial/ethnic minorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Victims and Offenders.

Abstract:

"While much attention has been focused on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hate crime victimization among the Asian population, there is reason to expect that other racial/ethnic minorities may also be at risk of bias-motivated victimization. The current research examines the prevalence of discrimination, hate crime victimization, and fear of victimization among Black and Hispanic individuals during the pandemic. The results, obtained from a survey administered in May 2020 to roughly 1,400 non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic respondents, indicate substantial bias victimization among both groups during the pandemic. Additionally, results reveal important associations between victimization and pandemic-related circumstances."

 

Systemic Racism in Police Killings: New Evidence From the Mapping Police Violence Database, 2013–2021.

  • DeAngelis, R.T. (2021). System racism in police killings: New evidence from the mapping police violence database, 2013-2021. Race and Justice.

Abstract:

"This research note provides new evidence consistent with systemic anti-Black racism in police killings across the United States. Data come from the Mapping Police Violence Database (2013–2021). I calculate race-specific odds and probabilities that victims of police killings exhibited mental illness, were armed with a weapon, or attempted to flee the scene at the time of their killing. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression techniques are applied to further account for the victim's age, gender, year of killing, and geographical clustering. I find that White victims are underrepresented, and Black victims overrepresented in the database. Relative to White victims, Black victims also have 60% lower odds of exhibiting signs of mental illness, 23% lower odds of being armed, and 28% higher odds of fleeing. Hispanic victims exhibit 45% lower odds of being armed relative to their White peers but are otherwise comparable. These patterns persist regardless of the victim's age, gender, year of killing, or geographical location (state, zip code, and neighborhood type). Thus, the threshold for being perceived as dangerous, and thereby falling victim to lethal police force, appears to be higher for White civilians relative to their Black or Hispanic peers. Current findings provide empirical support for political initiatives to curb lethal police force, as such efforts could help to reduce racial disparities in deaths by police nationwide."

 

Exploring Race, Family, and Community Variation in Juvenile Institutionalization Through the Perspective of Symbolic Threat

  • Brubaker, S.J. & Lowery, P. G. (2021). Exploring race, family, and community variation in juvenile institutionalization through the perspective of symbolic threat. Journal of Crime and Justice.

Abstract:

"Prior research has established that family status, race, and community characteristics have a significant impact independently on the various stages of the juvenile justice process, particularly as it relates to ‘back-end’ decisions within the juvenile court. Despite this large body of the literature on ‘back-end’ decision-making in juvenile justice, limited research focuses on the impact of family function and structure through the lens of symbolic threat. Thus, the present study explores the effect of race, family status, and community characteristics – on juvenile institutionalization versus community placement outcomes. The results of the present study provided some support for symbolic threat; implications for theory, practice, and policy are discussed based on the outcomes of the study."

 

Examining the Impact of Racial/Ethnic Threat on Juvenile Court Outcomes: A Multi-Level Approach

  • Jordan, K.L. & Maroun, R. (2021). Examining the impact of racial/ethnic threat on juvenile court outcomes: a multi-level approach. Journal of Crime and Justice.

Abstract:

"The current study examines whether racial/ethnic threat theory can explain juvenile court outcomes. Specifically, we look at Black population threat and Latino population threat. We also introduce White population as a threat that can be incorporated into the theory. Using data from over 55,000 juvenile court cases in over 400 neighborhoods, we found mixed support racial/ethnic threat. Latino population threat had the greatest impact on juvenile court outcomes, while Black population threat and White population threat had less support and also findings that are inconsistent with the theory. Empirical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed along with directions for future research."

September 2021

Deservingness and Punishment in Juvenile Justice: Do Black Youth Grow Up “Faster” in the Eyes of the Court?

Abstract:

"The present study investigated whether race moderates the effect of age on juvenile court dispositions in ways that illuminate a subtler form of racial disparities than has been previously identified. Drawing on prior theory and research, we hypothesize that at young ages, virtually all youth are perceived as children and met with treatment-oriented responses. As youth grow older, however, we anticipate that Black defendants will be perceived as more culpable and more deserving of punishment than similarly-aged White defendants and that disposition patterns will reflect that differential perception. Using data from the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (N = 124,075), the present study examines a five-category disposition using a multinomial regression model with interactions between age and race variables. We found mixed support for the hypotheses. On the one hand, compared to similarly-aged White defendants, Black defendants became significantly less likely to be diverted—the most treatment-oriented disposition—and significantly more likely to be transferred—the most punitive disposition—as age increased. On the other hand, race did not moderate age effects for dismissal, probation, or commitment. There is thus some evidence that age may be racialized for some dispositions, but not others. Implications for research and policy are discussed."

 

Race differences in public satisfaction with and trust in the local police in the context of George Floyd protests: an analysis of residents’ experiences and attitudes.

Abstract:

"Measuring public opinions about the police is a mainstay of police–community relations because the police need to know how well they are doing in the communities they serve. To understand public attitudes toward the police in the aftermath of George’s Floyd’s killing, we analyze data from residents across seven cities located in Southeast Virginia. We find that, compared to whites and other racial groups, blacks were more likely to report both personal and vicarious experiences and were less trusting of and satisfied with police. In addition, blacks were less likely than whites and other racial groups to support the police’s handling of peaceful protests in the wake of George Floyd’s death. Other demographic differences are found and presented in light of prior research on public attitudes toward the police. The implications of our findings for improved police–community interactions, policy, and future research are discussed."

 

Critical Criminology and Race: Re-examining the Whiteness of US Criminological Thought

Abstract:

"Race and racism are defining features of criminal justice systems in the United States. Race is also a defining feature of criminological theory. There have been robust efforts to address racism within theories and institutional practices pertaining to crime, law, and institutions of formal social control, but whiteness remains at the core of criminological knowledge production. The current article provides empirical support for showing how whiteness conditions the academic discourses of criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) in the United States. CCJ research plays an important role in discussions of racial justice and public policy. By studying the racialized (that is, white) nature of the CCJ research industry, we can better understand where critical criminology ‘fits’ in the broader struggle for social, racial and epistemological justice."

 

Exploring How Interactions between Race and Social Bonds Influence Substance Use: Findings from a Predominately Black Juvenile Sample

Abstract:

"This study uses a social bonds framework to explore the main effects of race and five social bonds (attachment to peers, attachment to parents, school commitment, activity involvement) on adolescent substance use. We also explore whether social bonds have the capacity to enhance or mitigate the effects of race on substance use. We test this question using longitudinal data from a predominately Black sample of at-risk high school students (n = 783). Findings indicate that race exerts a strong main effect on substance where Black students experienced decreases in substance use over time relative to White students. The findings also suggest that race and social bonds do not interact to influence late-adolescent substance use."

 

Brief Note: Exploratory Examination of How Race and Criminal Record Relate to Housing Instability Among Domestic Violence Survivors

Abstract:

"Housing instability is a critical concern in the United States, and domestic violence (DV) survivors are a group at high risk for experiencing housing instability or of becoming unhoused. Prior research has also identified having a criminal record (CR) as being a major barrier to obtaining stable housing, and this is truer for Black and Latinx people compared to their White counterparts. No study has examined whether comparable trends exist among survivors of DV, a group also at elevated risk of having a CR, sometimes related to their experience of abuse. The current exploratory study included 305 unhoused or unstably housed female DV survivors who had sought out DV support services. Multivariate regressions explored if survivor race and CR were separately linked to greater housing instability. CR was then explored as a potential moderator in the relation between race and housing instability. Results revealed that DV survivors with a CR faced greater housing instability than those without a CR, Black and Latina survivors experienced greater housing stability than did White survivors, and CR did not moderate the relation between race and housing instability. The racial differences were unexpected and are discussed in light of methodological limitations. This is the first study to date to explore the role of CR possession on housing instability for DV survivors."

August 2021

Abstract:

"Despite its widespread use, school suspension is related to negative outcomes in adolescence, including delinquency and low academic attainment. However, it remains less clear how other sources of adversity affect the relationship between suspension and negative outcomes. Drawing on longitudinal data on a sample of at-risk youth, this study examines the roles of two sources of disadvantage—being a racial minority and experiencing high levels of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)—in the relationships between school suspension in childhood and arrest and high school dropout in adolescence. Results reveal that suspension increased odds of dropout and arrest regardless of race, even after accounting for high ACEs and other covariates. Among Black youth only, the impact of suspension on dropout was amplified for those with high ACE exposure. Findings shed light on the complex connections between sources of adversity and their relation to negative outcomes in adolescence."

Abstract:

"Research on when alternatives to incarceration are available – and for whom – is underdeveloped. In this study we introduce the concept of “salvageability” as a fourth focal concern guiding the decisions of court actors. In assessing salvageability, actors must consider the casual reasons behind offenders’ criminal involvement and the extent to which those causes can be ameliorated through rehabilitative programming. This process of causal attribution likely exacerbates racial disparity in sentences. We test whether offender race, gender, and prior histories of substance use affect assessments of salvageability as indicated by prosecutor decisions to pre-screen offenders for admittance into an intensive rehabilitation alternative sentence in Pennsylvania using linked data from the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing and the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. Results suggest that black offenders are substantially less likely to be referred for the rehabilitative program even if that referral would be an upward departure from a guidelines-conforming sentence."

Abstract:

"Race-related issues in criminal justice are often challenging topics to discuss in the classroom because of their sensitivity and complexity. The growing political polarization in the American public and its impact on college students has made the challenges more daunting in higher education. Using an online survey of criminal justice students, this study seeks to understand racial differences in students’ classroom experiences and perceptions of racial justice. Findings suggest that students of color are significantly more likely than their White peers to experience differential treatment in the classroom, express professors’ insensitivity to race-related issues, and indicate stereotypes of people of color in required readings. Non-White students are also more likely than White students to point out Blacks’ vulnerability in racial profiling and criminal punishment. We discuss the implications of these findings and provide suggestions for improving criminal justice education."

Abstract:

"Objective: The present study integrates several distinct lines of jury decision-making research by examining how the racial identities of the defendant and an informant witness interact in a federal drug conspiracy trial scenario and by assessing whether jurors’ individual racial identity and jury group racial composition influence their judgments. Hypotheses: We predicted that jurors would be biased against the Black defendant and would be more likely to convict after exposure to a White informant, among other hypotheses. Method: We recruited 822 nonstudent jury-eligible participants assigned to 144 jury groups. Each group was assigned to one of four conditions where defendant race (Black or White) and informant race (Black or White) was manipulated. Each group watched a realistic audio-visual trial presentation, then deliberated as a group to render a verdict. Results: Contrary to expectations, the conditions depicting a Black defendant yielded lower conviction rates compared to those with a White defendant—at both the predeliberation individual (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54) and postdeliberation group level (OR = 2.91)—while the informant race did not influence verdict outcomes. We also found that jurors rated the government witnesses as more credible when the defendant was White compared to when he was Black. Credibility ratings and verdict outcomes were also predicted by jurors’ own race, although juror race did not interact with the race conditions when predicting verdicts. Conclusions: Jurors are sensitive to defendant race, and this sensitivity appears to strengthen after deliberation—but in a direction opposite to what was expected. One potential implication of our findings is that juries may operate as a check on system bias by applying greater scrutiny to law enforcement-derived evidence when the defendant is Black."

Abstract:

"Effective as of October 2019, the Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Mandate requires states to address racial/ethnic disparities in their juvenile justice systems without reference to any numerical standards or a definition of disparity in empirical terms. Standards for assessing disproportionate minority contact have also gotten looser, as the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announced that states should evaluate DMC problems and interventions based on their own metrics of success. Understanding how states have examined minority overrepresentation and disparities in their systems in the past helps to structure what states might do in terms of DMC assessment in the near future. This study analyzes 39 state assessments on behalf of the DMC mandate from 1992 to 2019. A content analysis locates patterns in methods, racial/ethnic categories, decision-making stages, geographic coverage, and recommendations for future reform efforts. Frequent use of multivariate methods and qualitative techniques, such as surveys, focus groups, and interviews, suggests that assessments are empirically rich. Most assessments likewise contain directions for reform initiatives and analysis in subsequent DMC reports. Lessons are drawn for designing robust DMC assessments for states and illuminating racial/ethnic disparities in juvenile processing ahead."

July 2021

Abstract:

"Racial disparities in the U.S. juvenile justice system appear to be attenuated for people with sexual and violent versus drug and property offenses. Existing theories such as the racial threat hypothesis partially explain these racial disparities, but the definition of “threat” could limit our ability to explain juvenile justice outcomes across offense categories. Importantly, research often overlooks the different and unique threats associated with violent and sexual crimes. The present study examined impacts of racial threat and an expanded definition of “threat” associated with violent and sexual crime on (a) preadjudication detention and (b) dispositions of postadjudication confinement. Statewide archival court data were obtained regarding 212,274 male and female adolescents. In the full models, less severe violent (assault vs. homicide) and sexual offenses (indecent exposure and child pornography vs. sexual abuse) were associated with lower use of detention and secure confinement. This impact of specific violent and sexual offenses on court outcomes were observed in models run with Black adolescents and models separated by violent offenses and sexual offenses. Higher rates of county-level homicide prosecutions and White-to-Black unemployment were significantly and positively associated with detention and confinement, respectively. Racial threat and other theories aiming to explain racial disparities should be reexamined and modified to include markers of violent and sexual offense stigma and threat. Further, models testing racial disparities should include an expanded definition of “threat” in selecting indicators. Our suggested modified theory could better elucidate racial disparities in the juvenile justice system and presents important practice implications."

Abstract:

"Influenced by Dr. Michael Leiber, a body of juvenile justice research explores how legal, extralegal and institutional decision-making factors racialize the process of punishment. While this scholarship has indirectly considered the role of school-related factors for unequal court outcomes, an interdisciplinary body of work explores the relationship between schooling and criminal justice institutions directly, often under the framework of the school-to-prison pipeline. Building on juvenile justice research, and departing from the pipeline framing, we utilize the analytic framework of the school-prison nexus – which theorizes schools and the criminal justice system as fundamentally and symbiotically linked – to examine the role of school referral source and school enrollment status on differential court outcomes. Our findings highlight the structural and institutional processes behind the relationship between school enrollment and incarceration, and have implications for the ways in which the nexus between schools and juvenile courts entrench broader systems of inequality."

Abstract:

"Prior research has provided consistent evidence that minority students are more likely than White youth to experience punitive forms of discipline in schools. Scholars have theorized that these disadvantages are closely connected to gender and socioeconomic status, but little research has explored how these factors independently and jointly might moderate the effects of race/ethnicity. Using data from the 2012 to 2018 8th and 10th grade cohorts of the Monitoring the Future survey (N = 53,986), these analyses find that minority students are more likely than Whites to experience suspension/expulsion and office referrals, and this pattern is especially prominent among females. Further, racial/ethnic disparities are amplified for youth whose parents have higher levels of educational attainment, though some differences by gender also emerge."

June 2021

Abstract:

"Using all delinquency referrals in a Northeast state, the current study examined how youth charged with retail offenses differed from other offense types across multiple juvenile court outcomes (i.e., petition, adjudication, and disposition). The individual and joint effects of a juvenile’s sex and race/ethnicity were also investigated to determine whether these extralegal factors conditioned the relationship between offense type and juvenile system processing. Findings indicate that at each decision-making stage, retail offenders were significantly more likely to be treated with leniency compared to other offense types. The results also reinforced the continued impact of sex and race/ethnicity on shaping judicial outcomes at each stage. Implications regarding the processing of juvenile retail offenders and the influence of juvenile characteristics on juvenile court decision-making are discussed."

Abstract:

"The racial gradient hypothesis of comparative conflict theory predicts Black people perceive the greatest social injustices, followed by Latinx and white people, respectively. This study used nationally representative data collected prior to George Zimmerman’s arrest to examine whether racial groups (Black, Latinx, white) differed in their perceptions that Zimmerman was guilty of a crime against Trayvon Martin. Logistic regression results revealed Black participants were 98% more likely than white participants to perceive Zimmerman as guilty. Latinx perceptions of Zimmerman’s guilt did not significantly differ from those of Black or white participants. Findings suggest some Latinx individuals may not fully appreciate how the same U.S. racial hierarchy that harms Latinx communities also works to produce anti-Black violence."

Abstract:

"Adverse childhood experiences, which include child maltreatment, are a major public health issue nationally. Child maltreatment has been linked to poorer cognitive functioning, which can start in childhood and persist into adulthood. However, studies examining the potential disparities by gender and race/ethnicity are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the gender and racial/ethnic disparities in the association between child maltreatment and memory performance. Data were obtained from Waves III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,624). Weighted multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and child maltreatment score and memory. Models were stratified by gender, race, and ethnicity. Men who were exposed to sexual abuse, neglect and two or three child maltreatment types scored one to three points lower (β = –1.44; 95% CI: –2.83, –0.06; β = –2.41; 95% CI: –3.75, –1.08; β = –3.35; 95% CI: –5.33, –1.37; β = –2.31; 95% CI: –3.75, –0.86) in memory performance compared to men who did not report sexual abuse, neglect, or child maltreatment, respectively. Black respondents who were exposed to sexual abuse scored two points lower (β = –1.62; 95% CI: –2.80, –0.44) in memory performance compared to Black respondents who did not report sexual abuse. Among Other race and Hispanic respondents, those who reported neglect scored four points lower (β = –4.06; 95% CI: –6.47, –1.66; β = –4.15; 95% CI: –5.99, –2.30) in memory performance, respectively, compared to their counterparts who did not report neglect. Gender- and racial/ethnic-responsive memory performance interventions addressing child maltreatment may be beneficial for affected populations."

May 2021

Abstract:

"Previous research has suggested that younger justice-involved youth are generally viewed as less blameworthy, less cognitively developed, and more likely to respond to treatment or services by the juvenile justice system than their older youth counterparts. As a result, younger juveniles may be more likely to receive lenient treatment at several juvenile court stages compared to older youth (i.e., ‘youth discount’). However, less research has investigated if the ‘youth discount’ is equally applied across racial groups and youth charged with different offenses (i.e., status versus delinquent). Using all individual referrals in a Southern state from 2010–2016, the current study investigates the individual and joint effects of a juvenile’s age, race, and the handling of status offenders across petition and dispositional case outcomes. Results indicate that the youth discount applied at the petition stage but not disposition. The findings also suggest that race and offense type are more predictive of decision-making than the age of the juvenile. We discuss these findings and their implications for understanding the complexities of juvenile justice decision-making."

Abstract:

"Objectives: The Police Districting Problem concerns the definition of patrol districts that distribute police resources in a territory in such a way that high-risk areas receive more patrolling time than low-risk areas, according to a principle of territorial fairness. This results in patrolling configurations that are efficient and effective at controlling crime but that, at the same time, might exacerbate racial disparity in police stops and arrests. In this paper, an Equitable Police Districting Problem that combines crime-reduction effectiveness with racial fairness is proposed. The capability of this model in designing patrolling configurations that find a balance between territorial and racial fairness is assessed. Also, the trade-off between these two criteria is analyzed. Methods: The Equitable Police Districting Problem is defined as a mixed-integer program. The objective function is formulated using Compromise Programming and Goal Programming. The model is validated on a real-world case study on the Central District of Madrid, Spain, and its solutions are compared to standard patrolling configurations currently used by the police. Results: A trade-off between racial fairness and crime control is detected. However, the experiments show that including the proposed racial criterion in the optimization of patrol districts greatly improves racial fairness with limited detriment to the policing effectiveness. Also, the model produces solutions that dominate the patrolling configurations currently in use by the police. Conclusions: The results show that the model successfully provides a quantitative evaluation of the trade-off between the criteria and is capable of defining patrolling configurations that are efficient in terms of both racial and territorial fairness."

Abstract:

"There is a significant gap in reentry programming that is tailored to the needs of young adults ages 18 to 26 who are in a unique developmental life stage that involves ongoing maturity in their neurobiology, cognitive development, and social and financial transitions to adulthood and independence. This article describes the structure and approach of a 6-month health-focused reentry program designed for racial/ethnic minority young adult (YA) probationers in Southern California. The UCSD RELINK program includes service navigation and an optional psychoeducation health coaching program to build health literacy, problem-solving, and executive functioning skills relevant across multiple life domains. We describe participant characteristics and service needs at intake. Between 2017 and 2019, 122 YA probationers ages 18 to 26 responded to interviewer-administered baseline surveys. Participants needed basic services including housing, nutrition assistance, employment, and educational/vocational training. Depression and anxiety symptoms, Adverse Childhood Events, trauma, and unmet physical and mental health care needs were pervasive. Given the dearth of research on reentry programming for YA, this article documents the approaches taken in this multi-pronged health-focused reentry program to ensure that the program was tailored to YA reentrants’ comprehensive needs. These data serve to concretely illustrate the range of needs and how YA reentrants view their own health and social needs in the context of multiple competing demands; such data may be useful for program planners and policymakers seeking to advance service delivery for YA minority reentrants."

April 2021

Abstract:

"Overrepresentation of youth of color in the juvenile justice system has been well-documented. Although prior research has frequently drawn on attribution theory to explain the sources of racial and ethnic disparity in juvenile court outcomes, the key mechanisms (negative internal and external attributions) put forth by this theory have seldom been directly empirically tested. Using juvenile probation file content (N = 285) that quantitatively captures court officials' perceptions of youth this study examines whether negative attributions differentially influence diversion decisions for Black, Latino/a, and Native American youth. Findings reveal that youth of color are more likely to be linked to negative internal attributions in comparison with white youth. Importantly, negative internal attributions, in turn, decrease the probability of receiving diversion. Analyses demonstrate that negative stereotypes play an important role in how juvenile court officials form perceptions of youth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed."

 

Abstract:

"Crime rates and criminal justice responses to them are unevenly distributed across communities in the United States. When court officials review a new case, they consider whether the alleged offender and incident fit the "normal" profile of a case from a community. Neighborhoods and their conditions. such as economic disadvantage, crime rate, and racial/ethnic composition, may have understudied impacts on disparities in incarceration sentencing. This study evaluates whether the conditions in areas where defendants live and where they offend affect racial differences in incarceration sentences. Doing so allows us to estimate whether sentencing disparities are differentially affected by neighborhood type. Relying on the Gelbach decomposition method to estimate the size and sources of Black-White disparities in incarceration sentencing decisions, the study reveals that economic disadvantage in a defendant's neighborhood of residence increases the likelihood of incarceration and lengthens sentences for Blacks. Conversely, economic affluence in neighborhoods of criminal incident reduces racial differences in sentencing by producing harsher sanctions for whites. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating neighborhood contexts into assessments of sentencing disparities."

Abstract:

"Indigenous migrants in American custody often speak neither English nor Spanish. This leaves them at risk for family separation, deportation, and due process violations. In this article, I discuss the challenges which indigenous migrants face in American immigration. Examining linguistic variations, this manuscript illustrates that American immigration policies have not adjusted to the linguistic diversity at the border -or in the immigration courts. Despite the growing number of indigenous migrants seeking asylum, most are assumed to speak only Spanish. This assumption neglects the wide linguistic diversity of immigrants and directly impacts their experience through the immigration bureaucracy. For indigenous migrants, linguicism or the exclusion of native languages can have life or death consequences -especially if they are unable to secure interpreters or relay crucial aspects of their case. As such, linguicism perpetuates an unequal justice system which fails to provide an understanding of the asylum process for those who speak indigenous languages."

 

Abstract:

"Sentencing scholars have established the importance of examining how contextual-level factors influence judicial decision-making. Several studies have tested whether the presence of or change in, minority populations -indicators of racial threat -impact disparate treatment of racial/ethnic minorities. Relying on these conceptualizations, however, ignores other important nuances of racial threat. The current study addresses this methodological limitation by employing a newly established comprehensive conceptualization of racial threat. More specifically, data from the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing (FY2013-2015) are used to examine whether Black absolute status, a measure that taps into the sociopolitical position of Black citizens, influences the nature of racial disparities. Findings suggest that Black/White sentence disparities may be moderated by the extent of Black absolute status at the country level."

 

Abstract:

"The Underrepresentation of Black Americans as graduate students and faculty in Criminology and Criminal Justice programs is well-recognized. This essay discusses some of the dynamics of the academy that potentially contribute to the lack of Black representation at the highest levels of the academy. Through the sharing of various experiences, this essay sheds light on how the dearth of Black men in the academy creates challenges for the few Black men that do exist in the academy."

March 2021

Abstract:

"Anti-discrimination legal efforts are evolving in an effort to address pervasive racism that continues to infect our social institutions. With our society transitioning away from the acceptance of "first-generation" (i.e. overt and deliberate) racism, we still have to contend with "second-generation" racism that exists in the structures of social programs, such as juvenile detention. Structural racism involves social practices and patterns of interaction that are harder to target with rule-based adjudication or command and control legislation. There is an emerging movement toward a more experimentalist approach, which induces actors to engage in investigation, information sharing, and deliberation to address complex problems. This Note explores the efforts of an experimentalist juvenile justice regime known as the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI), which was created in response to innovative amendments to the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA). Specifically, this Note measures JDAI's progress in addressing disproportionate minority contact in juvenile justice through the lens of New Jersey, JDAI's first statewide model jurisdiction. Lastly, the Note evaluates whether lessons from experimentalist responses to workplace discrimination and child welfare reform can be applied to the juvenile detention context."

 

Abstract:

"There are persistent racial ad ethnic disparities in the juvenile justice system. The current paper reviews how and whether public and private strategies have effectively reduced such disparities and bias within the juvenile justice system. The review initially provides a description of the overrepresentation and continuous presence of racial and ethnic minority youth in the juvenile justice system. Next, two traditional explanations for these juvenile justice disparities are discussed (i.e. differential offending perspective, selection bias perspective). The current paper then focuses on reviewing three primary initiatives aimed at reducing racial/ethnic disparities in juvenile justice settings, discussing barriers and successes to each practice. These include the Federal Disproportionate Minority Contact mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiate model, and the Models for Change initiative. Overall, our review indicated that efforts to reduce racial and ethnic minority youth overrepresentation and selection bias are often ineffective, though some practices do have mixed support. Finally, our review concludes with an integrated discussion of how the politico-legal environment can impact both racial and ethnic disparities in the juvenile justice system and the ability to enact change."

 

Abstract:

"The Current Study examined the prevalence and mental health associated with physical and sexual dating violence among adolescents using an intersectional analysis. Data were obtained from 88,219 adolescents in the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance Survey. Gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and experiences with teen dating violence were measured for each youth. Tested two- and three-way interaction demonstrates varied outcomes by social identification and emphasizes the need for an intersectional approach in dating violence research. Adolescent dating violence was most prevalent among girls (10% physical, 13% sexual); adolescents were racially identified as Native North American (13% physical, 10% sexual) Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (12% physical, 14% sexual), or multiracial (11% physical, 12% sexual), and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning their sexual orientation (LGBQ) adolescents (19% physical, 20% sexual). The intersectional groups with the highest rates of physical and sexual dating violence included Latinx GBQ boys (26% physical, 26% sexual) and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander GBQ boys (29% physical, 32% sexual). Among girls, the highest rates were observed among Hawaiian/Pacific Islander LBQ (24%physical, 23% sexual). Externalizing symptoms associated with physical dating violence were most robust for risky sexual behavior (OR = 4.0), followed by physical fighting (OR = 3.0), and weapon carrying (OR = 2.5); they were also associated with sexual dating violence (ORs = 1.9-2.2). Internalizing symptoms were comparably associated with both types of dating violence (ORs = 2.6-2.9 physical and ORs = 2.4-2.8 sexual). Findings suggest first that an intersectional approach is especially informative in teen dating violence prevention and intervention and second that teen dating violence interventions and prevention programming should use a trauma-informed, gender-responsive, culturally sensitive, and LGBQ inclusive approach."

February 2021

Abstract:

"This work argues that the War on Drugs and policies that deny convicted felons equal access to employment, housing, education, and public benefits create a permanent under-caste based largely on race. As the United States celebrates the nation's "triumph over race" with the election of Barack Obama, the majority of young black men in major American cities are locked behind bars or have been labeled felons for life. Although Jim Crow laws have been wiped off the books, an astounding percentage of the African American community remains trapped in a subordinate status - much like their grandparents before them. In this incisive critique, a former litigator-turned-legal-scholar Michelle Alexander provocatively argues that we have not ended racial caste America: we have simply redesigned it. Alexander shows that, by targeting black men and decimating communities of color, the U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control, even as it formally adheres to the principle of color blindness. The New Jim Crow challenges the civil rights community -  and all of us - to place mass incarceration at the forefront of a new movement for racial justice in America."

 

Abstract:

"A punitive legacy of the responses to school shootings in the United States is the expansion of the exclusionary discipline. Black girls have disproportionately experienced this form of punishment as compared to white girls and non-Black girls of color. A small, but growing, body of research has examined the patterns and cause of this disparity. Current studies have made suggestions for possible solutions to address this disparity, but these recommendations are not readily accessible in a single location. A catalogue of these ideas could provide a useful foundation for policy development and evaluation. The present research note seeks to generate this resource by conducting a systematic review to identify and categorize recommendations aimed at reducing the discipline disparity experienced by Black girls. Based on this review, four categories emerged that center around: (1) culturally competent school programs, (2) enhanced teacher training, (3) spaces at school for empowering Black girls, and (4) trauma-informed student policies. This research note discusses these categories of recommendations using an intersectional framework and concludes with a summary of the next steps to guide future research and policy work to address the disproportionate use of exclusionary discipline against Black girls."

 

Abstract:

"The current study examined how adverse family events (i.e, adult family incarceration, adult family substance use, and adult family mental illness) were associated with adolescent bullying perpetration. More specifically, this study examined whether levels of future orientation mediated the link between adult family incarceration, substance use, and mental illness, and bullying perpetration. A sample of 637 African American adolescents from the southside of Chicago was used for this study. Adult family incarceration, substance use, and mental illness were all found to be positively associated with bullying perpetration. Also, adult family substance use and mental illness were positively associated with low levels of future orientation, which was significantly related to bullying perpetration. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding how adverse family events are related to adolescents bullying. Implications for future research are discussed."

January 2021

Excerpt:

"Within the context of the United States system of incarceration, there is a growing consensus upon which both sides of the political spectrum can agree: there are far too many people in American prisons (1). It is well known that minority populations are overrepresented within the criminal justice system (2). Many scholars trace the current state of discrimination against minorities to their histories as oppressed groups. For example, criminal law scholar Michelle Alexander compares the current state of black incarceration to the Jim Crow South saying that both are "radicalized system(s) of social control" and that today's system of mass incarceration condemns millions of blacks to "a hidden underworld of legalized discrimination and permanent social exclusion"(3)."

Abstract:

"This research tests two potential explanations of school disciplinary responses: minority threat hypothesis and prisonization of schools. Data from the Arizona Safe and Drug-Free Schools (SDFS) survey and Arizona Youth Survey (AYS) are analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions Findings demonstrate that the percentage of Black, Hispanic, and Native American students was not associated with exclusionary responses to school misconduct, but was linked to decreases in mild and restorative disciplinary practices. Findings support the hypothesis that minority threat reduces access to mild and restorative disciplinary responses. Although, further research is needed on the roles of mental health professionals and counselors in school disciplinary procedures to better guide policy and school administrator expectations."

Abstract:

"This study argues that the under-diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactive disorder in Black children is a result of racism that is structurally and institutionally embedded within school policing policies and the tendency to not recognize Black illness. The purpose of this research is to examine how micro-processes lead to structural inequality within education for Black children. It seeks to better understand how institutional racism and flawed behavior ascriptions lead to the under-diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in Black children and how that may also contribute to their over-representation in the "school-to-prison pipeline." The goal of this study eas to review ethnographic, empirical data and examine the ways (1) how racism within some schools may contribute to the under-diagnosis of ADHD in Black children, (2) how their under-diagnosis and lack of treatment leads to their over-punishment, and (3) how they are over-represented in today's school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon, possibly as a result of such disparities."

December 2020

Abstract:

"Queer and trans youth of color are disproportionately imprisoned in U.S. juvenile detention facilities where they are especially vulnerable to experiencing violence, isolation, neglect, and discrimination. While the figures of their overrepresentation are just emerging, regulation of youth sexuality and gender norms have been embedded in the logics of the juvenile court since its inception. Pathways and pipelines to incarceration have become popular metaphors in research and advocacy to explain how failed safety nets and multiple sites of punishment produce gendered and racialized patterns of criminalization; however, the overrepresentation of queer and trans youth of color has been virtually ignored within these conceptualizations. This article builds on a queer antiprison framework in examining the experiences of formerly incarcerated queer and trans youth of color in New York. Life history interviews were conducted as part of a larger community based participatory research(CBPR) project with 10 participants, ages 18-25. Findings expose the overlapping role of families of origin, foster and adoptive families, schools and child welfare and juvenile justice systems, in a constellation of exposures to interpersonal and state violence. An alternative metaphor of a revolving door is proposed, and implications for social work are addressed."

Abstract:

"In the current U.S. sociopolitical climate marked by rising racial tension and civil unrest, social work students and educators are engaged in dialogues throughout the country regarding the role of the profession in combating injustice. The emergence of the Movement for Black Lives as well as numerous high-profile police shootings of unarmed Black men prompted the exploration of praxis-based pedagogical approaches in social and work education. This article provides an overview of a co-curricular student orientation developed by a group of social work students and educators in an effort to promote racial justice. Through the emergent planning process, principles of critical race theory and liberation theory were infused throughout the orientation event and related curriculum content."


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