Public Administration Courses

The Department of Public Administration and Policy is in the process of changing courses from 4 to 3 credits beginning Fall 2021.

Pad 500 Foundations of Public Administration (3)
This course focuses on tensions and trade-offs between important values in public administration and the institutional foundations of the public service in political, bureaucratic, and legal settings. Major topics include dimensions of the public sector, characteristics of institutional settings, history of the field, environmental context, and functions, roles, behaviors, and structures.

Pad 501 Public and Nonprofit Financial Management (3)
This course focuses on teaching students how to use financial information to make decisions in public and not-for-profit organizations.  The first half of the course focuses on developing, implementing and controlling agency financial plans.  The course covers an introduction to financial management, the development of operating budgets, tools for short-term decision-making, capital-budgeting decisions, and the analysis of long-term financial options.  The second half of the course focuses on summarizing, reporting on and analyzing an organization’s financial position, and the results of its operations.

Pad 502 Valuing People in Public and Nonprofit Organizations (3)
Employees and volunteers are important to the effective functioning of public and nonprofit organizations. This course explores the core values underlying effective human resources management, how these core values play out in relevant policy and legal debates, and how these core values are embodied in key management practices. Throughout the course we will emphasize 1) strategic management in a variety of human resources practices and 2) how the law and practice of diversity management are interconnected with different aspects of human resources management. Note: Students are strongly encouraged to take this course after successfully completing Pad 500.

Pad 503 Principles of Public Economics (3)
How do markets allocate resources in an economy?  How do firms operate in both the sort run and the long run?  What effect do taxes have on markets?  What are the key rationales for governments to intervene in the economy?  This class surveys microeconomic theory, with particular emphasis on principles most relevant for government and applications to policy or management. 

Pad 504 Data, Models, and Decisions (3)
This course introduces computer-based tools for planning, policy analysis, and decision making. Topics include evaluating the quality of data for decision making, database construction and information management, administrative and policy models in spreadsheets, making decisions with multiple criteria, an introduction to probability and decision trees, and the use of simulation models as test beds for policy making. Emphasis is placed on summarizing information meaningfully for policymakers and different stakeholders, and using standard spreadsheet programs likely to be encountered in the workplace.

Pad 505 Statistics for Public Managers and Policy Analysts (3)
The goal of this course is to develop a basic level of statistical literacy that will allow students to critically examine research evidence on important policy and public administration issues. This includes making students better consumers of news stories that cite empirical studies, reports by think tanks and other sources of policy analysis as well as original research studies published in academic journals. Topics include summarizing, presenting and cleaning data; sampling; study design; and data analysis including hypothesis testing and regression. In this course, students will also learn how to use a statistical package (Stata) to analyze and present data.

Pad 506 Foundations of Public Management (3)
An introduction to the theory and practice of public management. Topics include individual, group level, and organizational issues such as creating productive work environments, working within human resource systems, developing a learning organization, facilitating innovation, and managing across organizational boundaries. Cases and exercises will focus on practical applications of concepts covered.

Pad 508 Professional Applications II (2)
This continuation of Pad 507 develops key professional skills in project management, group work, writing (especially for different audiences), and managing the diversity of the workforce and of constituents. It is encouraged that MPA students take this course the semester after taking Pad 507. Prerequisite: Pad 507 Professional Applications I.

Pad 509 Capstone Portfolio (1)
Capstone Requirement.  Students registered in this course are required to assemble and obtain approval for their capstone portfolio.  This class will normally be taken during a student's last semester of enrollment prior to graduation.

Pad 512 Non-Profit Fundraising & Development Fundamentals (3)
This course examines excellent, ethical fundraising trends, strategies and techniques.  The course will explore topics, such as the history of philanthropy, making the case for support, annual funds, capital campaigns, planned giving, corporate and foundation giving, special events, and trends in donor behavior.  In addition, topics include uses of technology, successful leadership, organization and team-building, donor recruitment, retention and stewardship, accountability and budgeting, strategic planning, and the role of the development professional and volunteer, among others.

Pad 513 Topics in Information Resource Management (1-3)
Workshops provide students with an intensive focus on information resource systems, issues, practices and polices at the state and local levels of government. The emphasis will be on the most current research and practices in this rapidly changing environment. Individual workshop topics could include making information technology choices, managing records, information sharing, issues of intellectual property rights, information security, developing and managing web sites, and intergovernmental relationships in IT management.

Pad 516 (Hpm 516) Introduction to Health Policy and Politics (3)
Analysis and description of the health policy processes, with very strong focus on public health problems, including medical care; nature of the public policy process, especially for health issues; and employment in written work of differing models for analyzing health problems.

Pad 517 (Pos 517) Quantitative Research Methods (4)
Introduction to a variety of data-analysis techniques ranging in complexity from simple table construction and interpretation to causal analysis. Within this range are coding, scale and index construction, multidimensional scaling, levels of measurement, measures of association, correlation and regression, panel and cohort analysis, and Markov chains. Introduction to computer technology and functional software. Basic competence in statistics necessary.

Pad 521 Issues and Practices in Program Evaluation (1-3)
Workshops will be concerned with a range of program evaluation methods or tools that are currently practiced, debated, or endorsed in the field. The emphasis is on the most contemporary public service environments in which program evaluations are conducted. Individual topics will include performance measurement, stakeholder input, outcome assessment methods, data collection issues, and other factors in the comprehensive program evaluation process.

Pad 522 Politics and Policy (2)
Examination of the influence of political factors on the initiation, formulation and implementation of public policy. Considers the role of political institutions and forces in defining and shaping policy options and choices. Seeks to equip the student with the background necessary to operate effectively within the political environment of policy-making.

Pad 523 Central Issues in Health Policy (3)
An examination of some of the major issues confronting health policy makers in the areas of health systems, family and community health, and environmental and occupational health. Provides an overview of the impact of public policy on health status, with a more intensive study of a few specific problems such as the financing and organization of medical care for the elderly and mentally ill.

Pad 524 Systems Thinking and Strategy Development (3)
The course presents a set of concepts and tools for thinking through complex system-wide problems that challenge government managers’ ability to design and manage cross-agency and intergovernmental policies and programs. Students will learn to diagnose and solve complex system-level problems by applying systems thinking and strategic planning tools to case examples.

Pad 525 (Wss 525, Pos 525Q, Epl 525) Feminist Thought and Public Policy (3)
Examination of the implications of public policy research and implementation from a feminist perspective; the coherence or lack of it amongst different models of public policy formation, different perspectives on specific public policy issues, and different orientations within the women's movement.

Pad 526 (Pos 513) Field Seminar in Public Policy (3)
A survey of the substantive, methodological, and normative concerns found in the study of public policy. Offered jointly by the faculty in public policy.

Pad 527 (Int 527) Philanthropy and Civil Society (3)
From Andrew Carnegie's commitment to build libraries in the early 20th century in the United States to Bill and Melinda Gates' current efforts to eradicate disease in Africa, philanthropists have played an important role in the development of civil society. Philanthropists, big and small, fund the work of many kinds of local and international nonprofit organizations/NGOs. Philanthropists are an important source of capital in social movements, encouraging innovation and supporting the nonprofit/NGO and grassroots infrastructure that leads to positive social change. Nonprofit organizations/NGOs can become vehicles for philanthropists' social imaginations, which brings questions of accountability and democratic representation along with opportunity. As a result, effective management and leadership in the nonprofit/NGO sector requires an understanding of philanthropy and its role in the development of civil society. The purpose of this course is to examine philanthropic giving and how it affects the operations of nonprofit organizations/NGOs and civil society action. Using an experiential learning model called student philanthropy, the course provides students the opportunity to examine philanthropic behavior at global and local scales and advances a major debate in the field of philanthropy that compares the merits of giving locally versus giving internationally.

Pad 528 (Pln 528) U.S. Housing Policy (3)
United States housing policies since the New Deal, especially their distributional impact and their ability to expand housing production. Emphasizes policy options available to state and local governments and community organizations to expand affordable housing and revitalize inner-city neighborhoods.

Pad 529 (Pos 529) Law and Policy (3)
Examination of the role of the courts in the public policy process and in substantive policy fields; integrates the literature of law and policy and applies it to such areas as mental health care, corrections, human resources, education, and housing policy.

Pad 532 Government Contracting and Performance Management Fundamentals (3)
This course considers the practice of government's use of private (both for-profit and not-for-profit) service providers and how those contractual relationships are developed and managed. The focus of this course is on the managerial aspects of contracting, how contracts are developed, procured, and managed and how program performance is monitored and measured. For those who are new, relatively inexperienced, or require a supervisory understanding of governmental contracting and performance, this course will provide an overview that will familiarize the student with the governmental contracting process and provide a strong foundation on which to build greater subject-matter expertise. For those with some experience, the course will heighten knowledge, provide context, and sharpen issue awareness of the contracting process.

Pad 533 Leadership and the Uses of Power (3)
This course focuses on the critical skills needed by today's leaders in the public and nonprofit sectors. Among these are entrepreneurship, transforming culture, crisis management, and taking over a needy organization. None of these can be learned without knowing yourself as a leader, learning how to use power effectively, and developing your leadership style. Perhaps most important in today's organizations, leaders must cultivate their networks. This course will offer the opportunity to explore and develop all of these skills.

Pad 534 (Pln 535) Environmental Restoration & Brownfields Redevelopment (3)
Introduces students to the fundamental issues that confront stakeholders engaged in redeveloping brownfields. Risk analysis and communication, economic aspects, political and social constraints, and the role of public participation are central themes. Linked to brownfields are also smart growth, sustainable development, urban revitalization, and quality of life concerns. The nexus of these fundamental planning concepts and environmental quality will also be explored.

Pad 535 Law in Financial Market Regulation (3)
This course examines the rationales and main features of regulatory law in financial markets, focusing on banking, securities, futures, options, and other capital markets. It discusses approaches to regulating investor and customer protection, financial institutions, and market structure. It examines relationships among change in financial markets such as financial innovations and regulatory structure and practice. The course discusses the roles of federal and state regulation, self-regulatory organizations and private associations, and firms within the regulatory system. Prerequisites: Prior coursework in study of regulation and/or finance highly recommended.

Pad 536 (Acc 536) Technology in Financial Market Regulation (3)
The development, operation, and regulation of technological systems shape modern financial markets. These systems are developed and overseen by market centers, clearing organizations, and other market infrastructure organizations, as well as sell-side financial firms, institutional investors and other buy-side participants, corporations, technology providers, and public and private regulators. Market controls, technological development, and regulation shape this system individually and interactively. This course examines the central features of technology in financial markets and how market and regulatory controls and social and behavioral conditions produce and interact with them. Prerequisites: Prior coursework in study of regulation and/or finance highly recommended.

Pad 538 U.S. Health Reform at the Crossroads (3)
US health policy is experiencing one of the most unstable periods of any major policy issue in American history, having just undergone one major revision and now facing the immediate prospect of a complete change in direction. This course will have two major parts: (i) exploring the Affordable Care Act’s main elements, political history, economic rationales, and major impacts and (ii) examining current policy, to the extent that clear policy initiatives have emerged or been passed. At least three weeks of the course will be spent on the Affordable Care Act; how much time is spent on more recent policy changes will depend on the clarity and detail of those changes. The professor will update the course as events unfold, even over the course of the term. Note: this course is offered entirely on-line. Prerequisite: Introductory statistics at the level of RPAD505.

Pad 539 (Int 533) Global Non-profit Management (3)
This course explores the critical tasks associated with managing international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working primarily in the international development, humanitarian assistance and human rights domains. It will examine internal operational efficiency, strategic management, program performance, and sustainability of NGOs, and introduce a set of analytic and management tools. Features of NGO management are compared and contrasted with the public and private sectors and issues such as funding, scale of operations, accountability, local participation, comparative advantage, and effectiveness. It analyzes NGOs' roles as project implementers, technical assistance providers, intermediaries, partners, and advocates.

Pad 540 Public Policy Analysis (3)
This course is a survey of public policy analysis.  It builds on the statistical and analytic skills that have been developed in students' prior microeconomics and data analysis courses.  The principal objective of this course is to strengthen problem solving, analytic, and professional writing skills that will enhance students' understanding of the policy process, and increase students' ability to identify problems, enumerate solutions, evaluate alternative policies, and communicate results to clients. 

Pad 541 Managing Diversity and Inclusion in Public and Nonprofit Organizations (3)
In public and nonprofit organizations, people are constantly interacting with peers, managers, and stakeholders with different backgrounds and experiences. It is important to leverage this diversity to achieve the mission of the organization and ensure equity and fairness in the workplace. This course covers the concept of diversity, theoretical perspectives on diversity and inclusion, the benefits and challenges associated with diversity, and how to manage those differences to build the inclusive workplace and advance organizational performance. Cases and exercises will focus on practical applications of concepts, theories, and frameworks covered. Students who receive credit for Pad 441 cannot receive credit for this course.

Pad 542 (Pos 546)  Comparative Public Policy (3)
Why do countries differ in their policy choices? Why do some countries provide health care and education through the public sector, while in others the provision is mostly private? Why do some countries borrow extensively while others keep their budgets in balance? Why do some countries pay unemployment benefits indefinitely, while others barely pay such benefits at all? This course answers such questions by exploring the nature of social conflicts surrounding policy-making, the differences in national policy-making institutions, changing ideas about the desirable goals and best types of policies and the influence of the international economic and political environment on national policy-making.

Pad 545 (Cybr 545, Ehc 545) Principles and Practices of Cyber Security (3)
This course provides a broad introduction to cyber security and the way in which cyber security is viewed, studied, or executed by professionals in industry, government, the military, and academia. For students that approach the topic from a policy or management perspective, this class will enhance your understanding of the interaction between social, technical, policy, and management factors that affect the creation and management of secure cyber infrastructure. A brief introduction to the technical side of cyber security will be provided. The course will offer technically advanced students an opportunity to better understand the management, policy, and political equities involved in cyber security. Students approaching the subject from either the technical or policy/management perspectives will be equipped to take a more advanced technical courses in a multitude of disciplines that make up cyber security.

Pad 546 (Ehc 546) Homeland Security Risk Analysis and Risk Management (3)
This course looks at the various risks that homeland security professionals and researchers are forced to grapple with, including the various threats, vulnerabilities and consequences associated with these risks.  It examines important homeland security policy areas through a risk analysis framework, with an emphasis on issues like infrastructure protection and resilience, cybersecurity, terrorism, and the implications of catastrophic disasters (both naturally occurring and human-caused disasters).  In each of the policy areas of concern, the class will discuss both the risks that exist, but also risk mitigation strategies; including the building of capabilities for preparedness, prevention, protection, response, and recovery.  Prerequisites: Pad 554 or permission of instructor.

Pad 548 Environmental Policy (3)
This course will explore how environmental policy is shaped and implemented. It will draw on the strengths of Rockefeller College, including faculty expertise in public policy analysis, development and implementation; the role of nonprofit organizations in the development and execution of environmental policy; the relationships between environmental laws, rules and regulations, policy and politics; the institutional framework for advancing environmental goals; and the proximity of New York State government agencies, policymakers, environmental organizations and key advocates. States have always been the incubators of environmental policy and as federal officials withdraw, this role has become a more important opportunity for states to act. Environmental Policy is a unique area of public policy. It combines the disciplines of political science, economics, other social sciences and the law and how public institutions (primarily government organizations) address society's needs. Beyond these, however, other forces influence the formation and application of environmental policy, including: its basis in the hard sciences; the critical and historic role and involvement of nonprofit organizations; engagement at all levels of government (local, regional, state, national and global) - and the lack of borders between those levels; the breadth of the defined "constituency" (to be protected or to benefit), which goes beyond human beings living today; very high stakes (the consequence of failure); and the challenges and opportunities inherent in taking action.

Pad 549 (Ehc 549, Cybr 549) Cyber Security: Long Term Planning and Risk Management (3)
The goal of this course is to equip decision makers with the principles and methods that will allow for more informed budget decisions as it relates to Cyber Security. First this class will review budgeting basics as well as the core of budgeting for Information Technology and Cyber Security. We will then examine Risk Management as a total program component of Cyber Security as well as applying it to the budgeting process. Finally this class will take a comprehensive approach to managing IT/IS projects from a risk management, budgeting, and procurement point of view. Students who have received credit for Cybr/Ehc/Pad 449 cannot receive credit for this course.

Pad 550 Strategic Management of Information Technology (3)
Do you know how emergent technologies and data are shaping government organizations and how government organizations can strategically use technology and data to improve policies and programs? This course focuses on the ways that strategic information and technology management affect government functions, democratic processes, and public programs in the digital era. It introduces students to the interaction of policy, management, data, and technology in the design, operation, and evaluation of government programs, citizen engagement, and public services in multiple contexts and policy domains. Case studies illustrate sophisticated information systems and technology strategies at work in single organizations and in different kinds of inter-organizational settings. 
Students who have received credit for RPAD450 cannot receive credit for this course.

Pad 551 (Crj 648) Terrorism, Public Security, and Law Enforcement (3)
This course reviews the role of domestic law enforcement in homeland security, including the prevention of and response to terrorism. Consideration of strategic issues that arise with respect to specific forms of terrorist threats, and of managerial issues, including the collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence, risk assessment and resource allocation, intergovernmental and interagency cooperation and conflict, and investigative authority and civil liberties.

Pad 552 (Crj 655) Crime, Criminal Justice and Public Policy (3)
Analysis and evaluation of crime control policy and criminal justice. Overview of concepts of policy analysis and principles of evaluation research as applied to crime and criminal justice problems. Consideration of deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and prevention as policy objectives, and intensive examination of selected policy initiatives. Analysis of the criminal justice policy process.

Pad 553 (Ehc 553)Topics in Homeland Security and Terrorism (3)
This course examines an array of topics related to homeland security, terrorism, responses to terrorism, and the role of terrorism in public policy problems.  Depending on the semester, the course will focus on a subset of issues in this field and may include both substantive and methodological topics relevant to the study of homeland security and terrorism. Course may be repeated with topic change.

Pad 554 (Pos 554, Int 543, Ehc 554) Political Violence, Insurgency and Terrorism (3)
This course examines the relationships among, and differences between the following activities in the international political system: political violence, insurgency, and terrorism.  The course will include a consideration of the causes of these activities, their effects on national and international politics, and an evaluation of governmental responses to them.

Pad 555 (Ehc 555) Disaster, Crisis and Emergency Management and Policy (3)
This course studies the policies, statutes, and priorities established by federal, state, and local governments to plan and prepare for emergencies, disasters, and catastrophic events caused by nature, technology, or humans. The course’s scope will include all mission areas established by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and prioritized by the New York State Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services as an example of State policies. The course will rely heavily upon primary source documents, and will involve simulations.

Pad 556 (Ehc 556) Homeland Security Intelligence (3)
This course examines Homeland Security Intelligence at the Federal, State, and local levels.  We begin with an overview of the US foreign intelligence community, its mission, history, structure, and capabilities.  We examine how this community’s composition and structure have changed as its mission was fundamentally altered twice, first with the end of the Cold War and then with the rise if terrorism.  Next, we look at the capabilities of new producers of terrorism related intelligence at federal law enforcement agencies and at the Department of Homeland Security.  The main thrust of the course is intelligence at the State and local levels. The federal government has worked with the states to create significant intelligence capabilities outside the beltway since the events of 9/11/2001.  This course identifies and discusses the State and local customers for homeland security intelligence and examines the degree to which these intelligence requirements are being met.

Pad 559 (Ehc 559) Homeland Security: Building Preparedness Capabilities (3)
The short but significant history of the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will serve as the starting point for this course which will provide a comprehensive and functional approach to understanding this department and its role.  The preponderance of time will be spent in developing an understanding of the nation’s effort, led by DHS to develop preparedness capabilities to prevent, protect from, respond to, and recover from high consequence events caused by acts of terrorism, natural disasters, and accidents.  The course will rely heavily upon scenario-based activities and case studies to guide the student through the DHS maze and the nation’s preparedness efforts at the federal, state, and local levels.

Pad 560 Public Communication: Making Policy Easy to Understand (3)
Too many on the inside of making public policy get bogged down in the minutiae of their work and can’t quite find the right way to explain it in a way the general public can understand. This class will help you understand how to synthesize policy speak into people speak.

Pad 561 (Pos 523, Pln 523) Urban Community Development (3)
Examination of policies and programs designed to reduce social and economic distress in U.S. communities. Focuses on local and neighborhood-based efforts to address problems of inadequate housing, unemployment, lack of community services and facilities, crime etc. Considers role of government, private sector, and nonprofit organizations in community revitalization.

Pad 562 (Pln 562) Plan Implementation and Development Management (3)
Examines a wide range of tools for managing development and implementing plans.  Methods of public infrastructure finance and capital budgeting are examined in terms of their effects on land use and the pace, direction, nature and density of development.  Alternative ways of paying for infrastructure, including methods for privatizing and shifting costs to private developers, are also scrutinized and compared to more traditional financing methods.  In addition, regulatory, financial, legal, and programmatic tools, as well as tax policies, that influence development and can help put plans into action are examined.  Finally, mechanisms for managing publicly owned real estate, and for acquiring, managing, packaging and disposing of tax-forfeit, abandoned properties are evaluated.  Prerequisite: Pln 505 or Permission of Instructor.

Pad 563 (Pln 529, Lcs 529) International Development Planning for Jobs, Housing and Community Service (3-4)
Reviews the potential for community development and the improvement of physical, social and economic conditions in the poor urban neighborhoods of countries characterized by mass poverty. Focuses on shanty-town upgrading, sites and services, job-creation programs, and micro-enterprise promotion. Discusses the roles of local and national governments, community participation, business, non-profits, and international aid.

Pad 566 (Pln 540, Pos 540, Soc 540) Urban Policy in the United States (3)
A research seminar on federal, state, and local policies toward the contemporary city. Evaluation of alternative conceptions of federalism, government intervention vs. market processes, and the political economy of growth. Case studies of current policy issues.

Pad 567 (Pln 560) Local Economic Development Strategies and Techniques (3)
Discusses the theory and practice of economic development in urban, small town, and regional settings. Analyzes and evaluates federal, state and local programs. Examines how the community planning process can influence local economic development.

Pad 568 (Pos 568, Int 512) Human Rights (3)
This course examines the legal, political, and social dimensions of the modern human rights movement and its implications for international affairs.  It provides both an introduction to basic human rights philosophy, principles, instruments, and institutions, and an overview of several current issues and debates in the field.  The course also seeks to analyze the ways in which allegations of human rights violations are dealt with and to expose some of the limitations in the architecture of the international system.  Case studies will be used to illustrate contemporary debates regarding hierarchy among rights, conflicts between individual rights and societal priorities, human rights in single-party states, rights and transitions to democracy, amnesty for human rights violations, and the linkage between human rights and other national interests.

Pad 569 (Cybr 569, Ehc 569) Cyber Threats and Intelligence (3)
Cyber threats currently are posed by state and non-state actors whose motivations include financial gain, notoriety, social activism, espionage and even revenge. This course will examine cyber threats from different angles to introduce students to today's actors, motivations, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), and mitigation techniques, while providing insight into the impact of cyber crime on victim organizations and employees. A variety of case studies will be used to study how TTPs are applied, and aid students in understanding attack consequences, responding agency abilities, and the various protection, mitigation, and remediation measures. The course will also examine models of cyber activity, as well as how models from other fields can be applied to thinking about cyber threats. The objective of the course is to provide students with a foundation for leading their organization in prevention mitigation, and remediation of cyber attacks. Students who have received credit for CEHC/CYBR/RPAD469 cannot receive credit for this course.

Pad 570 (Int 531) Comparative Digital Government (3)
There has always been a connection between technology and context. From the first use of stone tools to the development of smartphones, technology has influenced context just as much as context has sparked advancements in technology. Digital government, widely conceptualized as the use of information technology in government, is not an exception. In this course, we will learn to think globally about information technology in public organizations, by developing comparative skills to make wise decisions about it. We will learn to understand the contextual and cultural differences in the conceptualization of digital government but, also, in the planning and implementation processes of digital government projects around the world and to analyze their similarities and differences. 
Students who have received credit for RPAD470 cannot receive credit for this course.

Pad 571 (Ehc 571) Military Forces in Support of Civil Authorities (3)
This on-line course provides a comprehensive strategic level examination of the Homeland Security Enterprise and the methodology for integrating Federal and State military forces in support of civil authorities during the planning, training and response phases of emergency operations. Federal, State and Local civilian authorities are responsible for preparing for and responding to natural and man-made emergency incidents and disasters. Emergency managers often include military forces in their emergency management planning and training programs as necessary to support potentially overwhelmed civilian first-responders during an incident. This course examines various agencies associated with homeland security and focuses on specialized military forces mission support sets such as Weapons of Mass Destruction, Critical Infrastructure Protection and defense of the homeland.

Pad 572 (Ehc 572) Disaster and Crisis Management in the Public, Private, and Nonprofit Sectors (3)
This course will examine how disaster and crisis management has evolved over time in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. We begin by identifying key issues and challenges facing emergency managers and other crisis management professionals. We will then systematically examine the similarities and differences across the various sectors and analyze contemporary trends and common challenges, to include risk management, crisis communication and crisis leadership. Through the use of conceptual models and real-world case studies, we will further explore the application of theory and practice within the field. We will examine specific events, how organizations responded to those events, and how those events changed and shaped the various organizations, and the discipline itself. 
Students who have received credit for CEHC472 cannot receive credit for this course. 

Pad 573 (Pln 573) Metropolitan Governance and Planning (3)
Physical, social and economic conditions in selected metropolitan areas in the U.S. are examined, and the role of institutions of governance and planning in producing and reinforcing current conditions is explored. Pros and cons of competing models of metropolitan governance are examined, and evidence that highly fragmented units of government intensify economic and fiscal disparities, and undermine regional competitiveness and efficiency, is scrutinized. Strategies capable of moving toward greater regional cooperation in planning and governance are considered.

Pad 574 Urban Innovation and Creative Problem Solving (3)
This joint Albany Law School and Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy shared instructional course is focused on developing interdisciplinary approach to addressing urban and community challenges. With city governments and nonprofit organizations serving as a “living labs,” students will work in cross-institutional teams to identify and design innovations aimed at bringing real change to the community. Through a project-based approach, students will have the opportunity to work with government and civic leaders to address the policy, management, legal, and technology considerations of proposed innovations. This course, developed in partnership between Albany Law School, CTG UAlbany, and the Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, at the University at Albany, will provide practical and interdisciplinary experiences for students from all disciplines. The class requires weekly in-class time as well as meetings with policymakers and officials during normal business hours.

Pad 575 Understanding Energy Policy and Climate Change: A Federal, State and Local Government Perspective (3)
The study of energy policy and climate change reflects an intricate interplay of political (domestic and international), economic, legal, regulatory, technological, environmental and ethical dimensions. This course will explore these dimensions encouraging class discussion of critical energy policy issues and the analysis of approaches to a clean, secure and equitable energy future. 
Students who have received credit for RPAD475 cannot receive credit for this course.

Pad 576 The Justice System in the 21st Century: Management, Innovation, and Emergent Technologies (3)
In the 21st century, innovation and emergent technologies such as artificial intelligence, advanced data analytics, and big data are deeply transforming the justice system. This transformation is impacting the courts, lawsuits, trials, procedures, but also how some tasks performed and the very nature of certain roles such as judges, clerks, attorneys, lawyers or citizens. More and more experiences in the world show that the adoption of information technologies in the justice system is achieving important transformations and has profound implications in the way that justice is administered. It takes us to a 21st century justice, a modernization of justice where -It does not matter the role, institution, level of law, task or procedure- the transformation is everywhere. The range of changes takes us from the paperless courts, electronically signed digital petitions or courts’ processes automation, to the use of big data, artificial intelligence, and other emerging technologies that are being recently adopted in the justice system.

Under this perspective, this course focuses on the transformation of the justice system through innovation strategies and the adoption of emergent technologies, analyzing different elements that will take us to understand concepts such as electronic justice, digital justice, smart justice, and open justice. We will identify and analyze some of the key factors to achieve a successful transformation and modernization of the justice system. This will be done through the critical review of cases, best practices, and literature focus on public policies, legal requirements, strategies, data, and information technologies.

Pad 579 Motivating Public and Nonprofit Employees (3)
The aim of this course is to introduce students interested in public and nonprofit organizations to the history, theories, and principles of work motivation. Work motivation is a multifaceted psychological construct that explores the underlying processes that initiate, direct, and maintain human behavior and action in organizations (e.g., employee commitment, turnover, and performance). Students will examine work motivation from a variety of orientations, including physiological, psychological, social, and public service perspectives.

Pad 581 Comparative Defense Policy (3)
Examines how different countries tailor grand strategy and military doctrine to their conception of national security. Draws from cases in Europe, North America, and Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Pad 583 (Pos 583, Int 501) Global Governance (3-4)
This course examines the organization of world politics in the context of globalization and provides an overview of international organizations, such as the United Nations, and regional organizations, such as the European Union. The course reviews the historical evolution of the international system and the basic concepts of international relations. It then examines international cooperation beyond the confines of formal organizational structures with particular emphasis on international regimes, institutions and norms that govern state practices in particular issue areas - from trade and weapons proliferation to the environment and refugees. The course also examines transnational relations of non-state actors such as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations as well as transgovernmental relations of sub-national governments and government agencies that shape policymaking at a global level.

Pad 586 (Hpm 586) Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges.

Pad 587 The Welfare State (3)
From the 1960s, governments in developed countries progressively widened the scope of their involvement in the life of citizens. The state assumed responsibility for the welfare of people not only through public pensions, health care, education, unemployment benefits and the like, but also through interventions in the economy to smooth out business cycles, stimulate growth and mitigate unemployment. By the 1980s, the tide turned and many countries attempted to retreat from the path of the ever-growing welfare state. The order of the day became retrenchment, privatization and market principles. This course studies the politics of both processes, with special attention to the cross-national differences within the general patterns. It seeks to explain the driving forces behind the expansion of the welfare state from the 1960s and the differential success of countries in reversing that trend since the 1980s.

Pad 588 (Pos 588) The Science and Art of Political Campaigns (3)
If 2016 taught us anything it's that political campaigns can't be run on science alone. There is an art to running a campaign and to being a candidate. There's also a great deal of technology (science) that goes into campaigns as well. This course will be a hands-on, real life/real time course on managing campaigns, candidates and credibility. From campaign planning to message development to field operations to cutting-edge technology to Get Out the Vote, this course will cover how to run a campaign and what a candidate can expect.

Pad 590 (Cas 601) Seminar in College Teaching (0-1)
An overview of the scholarship of teaching and learning, students will develop and practice teaching skills. Course will be taught in conjunction with the Institute for Teaching, Learning, and Academic Leadership. Emphasizes the skills and knowledge necessary to design and teach a course that effectively facilitates student learning. Topics include: student learning styles, encouraging critical thinking, assessing student learning, designing assignments, active learning & group work, course design, efficient grading, how to run a lecture, and the use of writing in the classroom. Prerequisites: Admission to a terminal degree program and permission of instructor.

Pad 591 (Cas 602) Preparing for the Professoriate (0-1)
Students will develop a working knowledge of the American system of higher education, an understanding of what it means to be a professional academic, and the processes common to tenure-track academic positions. This course will be taught in conjunction with the Institute for Teaching, Learning and Academic Leadership. Topics include: Transitioning from Student to Professional, Understanding Institution Types, The Academic Job Market, What Successful New Faculty Know, Understanding the Tenure Process, Balancing Faculty Commitments of Research, Teaching and Service, Movements in Institutional Change to Improve Learning, Department and Institutional Assessment. Prerequisites: Admission to a terminal degree program; CAS 601 or PAD 590; and permission of instructor.

Pad 592 (Cas 603) Becoming a Reflective Teacher: The Teaching Portfolio (0-1)
Students will build on the skills developed in CAS 601 or PAD 590 as well as gain a familiarity with scholarship and techniques to help them develop as reflective teachers. Students will construct a teaching portfolio that can be used as part of a job search and as the foundation of a professional portfolio which can be used as a part of the tenure process. This course will be taught in conjunction with the Institute for Teaching, Learning and Academic Leadership. Topics will include: The Teaching Portfolio and Teaching Statement as Formative and Summative Document; Peer Evaluation Training; Designing Courses for Significant Learning; Teaching Materials—Activities and Assignments; Coaching Students as Learners; The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning; Teaching Evaluations; and From Teaching Portfolio to Tenure File. Prerequisites: Admission to a terminal degree program; CAS 601 or PAD 590; and permission of instructor.

Pad 603 (Pos 509) Political Participation and Public Policy (3)
Widespread engagement - both in and outside formal politics - plays a crucial role in securing support for public policies and institutions. This course examines historical and contemporary controversies about who counts as a political subject, what actions are deemed 'participation,' and the implications for democracy. Using an intersectional framework, we'll explore how race, class, gender, sexuality, physical ability, and/or migration status shape the experience of political engagement.

Pad 604 (Pos 604, Wss 604) Inequality and Public Policy (3)
This course addresses the formulation and implementation of public policies that seek to end inequalities based on gender, race, class, sexual identity and/or other categories of marginalization.  Theoretical and case study readings focus on the challenges, paradoxes and successes of a variety of social change initiatives.  Prerequisite: Wss 525 (Feminist Thought and Public Policy) recommended.

Pad 605 (Pos 605, Int 605) Politics of Migration and Membership (3)
Surveys dilemmas faced by local, national and international policymaking bodies addressing population movement.  Attention on the political and policy dimensions, including debates about national identity, immigration policy, political rights of immigrants, and integration (assimilation) policies.  U.S., international and comparative contexts examined.

Pad 607 Non-Profit Governance (3)
This course examines the governance environment where boards and the leadership volunteers that serve on them operate, including what boards and volunteers do and how they do it to maximize nonprofit organization effectiveness.  The aspect of the course that covers the “what” is the formal roles and responsibilities of boards whereas the “how” refers to the non-formal approach taken to carry out their roles vis a vis the organization’s management.  The course utilizes a series of written reflections and Academic Service Learning (ASL) to explore the concept of board effectiveness in a real world context (e.g. students are matched to local boards to assess governance effectiveness).  ASL, which is an intellectual process (academic) and product (service) of learning, is an ideal pedagogy for the theme of the course – exploring ways nonprofit boards and the volunteers that sit on them add positive value to nonprofit organizations.

Pad 608 Readings in Legal and Political Environment (3)
Individual directed reading program in selected topics and problems of the legal and political environment.

Pad 610 Managing Behavior in Public and Nonprofit Organizations (3)
This course uses social science theories and methods to understand human behavior in organizations.  It explores such important areas as decision-making, perception, communication, group dynamics, and such managerial issues as organizational politics, organizational culture, and organizational change.  Students employ case studies and exercises to develop skills in organizational analysis.

Pad 611 Decision Making in Government and Administration (3)
Rational decision theory and decision-making practice as illustrated by case materials. Topics covered may include: the economic concept of utility and maximization; the analytic problems of modeling and uncertainty; the psychological considerations of individual preferences and risk-taking behavior; the organizational and political context of decisions and its effect on agency choice; and current trends in public decision-making structures.

Pad 612 Nonprofits and Public Policy (3)
This course examines the intersection of nonprofit organizations and public policy. Issues include: government-nonprofit policy relationships; tax policy related to tax exemption, market-based commercial activities, and charitable contributions; and current policy debates such as the role of nonprofits in policy advocacy and the role of faith based organizations in social service provision.

Pad 613 Foundations of Not-for-Profit Management (3)
This course serves as an introduction to the voluntary sector and the broad range of management skills and issues relevant to not-for-profit organizations. Topics include, but are not limited to: differences between public, private, and not-for-profit management; governance and boards of directors; strategic planning and human resource issues in not-for-profits; resource development; sector convergence and competition; and the government/voluntary sector relationship.

Pad 614 Managerial Leadership in the Public Sector (3)
This course focuses on managerial leadership in the public sector from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Participants will have opportunities to explore their strengths and weaknesses as managerial leaders and to develop skills in these areas. In addition, several current theories of leadership will be examined as the basis for determining the requisite skills of managerial leaders. Prerequisite: Pad 610.

Pad 615 Strategic Planning and Management (3)
Public and nonprofit organizations are surrounding by increased uncertain and interconnected environments, to which they have to respond in different ways. First, they have to think strategically, more than they have in the past. Second, they must translate their insights into effective strategies to cope with their environment. Third, they must develop the rationales necessary to lay the groundwork for adopting and implementing their strategies. The goal of this class is therefore to help students, who are current or future leaders of public and nonprofit organizations, to think and act strategically. As a result, during this course, students will learn about concepts, techniques, procedures, and tools that may assist them to think strategically. Among other, the course will address the different steps to set up a strategy (which include environmental scanning, organizational assessment, and goal setting) as well as the issues that need to be taken into account when implementing a strategy (such as leadership, resources and competencies, organizational change, stakeholders, and partnerships). The course will use several types of sources and, in particular, it will be broadly based on real case studies. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites to take this course, although students are encouraged to take Pad 500 prior to this class.

Pad 616 Public Policy, Advocacy and Social Change (3)
This course addresses the role of nonprofit organizations (and other advocates) in doing policy advocacy and engaging in the public policy process to create social change. The course will focus primarily on the structures, strategies and tactics that nonprofit organizations and other advocates can and do use to shape public policy at different levels and scales. Theoretical and case study readings focus on the challenges, paradoxes and successes of a variety of policy advocacy initiatives, considering both professional and grassroots forms of advocacy. Through class discussions and exercises, students will learn to apply lessons about advocacy in diverse institutional settings and policy domains. Topics covered include such things as advocacy strategy, recruitment and public mobilization, coalition building, tax status and advocacy, framing issues for diverse audiences, and using social media.

Pad 617 Equal Employment Opportunity (3)
Equal employment opportunity and affirmative action (EEO-AA) from historical, legal, administrative as well as normative perspectives. Primary emphasis placed on EEO-AA in the public sector employment. Prerequisites: Pad 500 and Pad 506.

Pad 618 Public Personnel Administration (3)
An overview of the legal and political context of public personnel management and key activities.  Students will use theory to inform the practice of key personnel functions, including such topics as merit staffing, classification and compensation, performance appraisal, managing diversity, and labor-management relations.  Both federal and New York State personnel systems are covered.  Prerequisites: Pad 500 and Pad 506, or permission of instructor.

Pad 624 (Itm 624) Business Dynamics: Simulation Modeling for Decision-Making (3-4)
Explores the use of computer models to understand, diagnose, and experiment with organizational policy and design options. Students will learn about simulation-based analysis, employ a simulation tool, and apply their knowledge to problems of current importance.

Pad 625 (Pos 626, Int 626) Bargaining and Negotiation (3)
Survey of theories of bargaining and negotiation, with emphasis on the use of analytic and quantitative methods to help understand and facilitate negotiation processes. Extensive use of simulation, exercises, role playing, and cases.

Pad 626 Evaluation of Public Sector Programs (3)
This course will help students develop concrete skills to design, conduct, and interpret evaluations of public sector programs. For students training to be public managers, this course will provide the skills needed to be critical consumers of evaluation reports and interact with evaluation research teams. For students training to be analysts, this course will provide a solid analytic framework to supplement with advanced methods courses. Topics include: types of evaluations, program logic models, quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods, data collection, the political and social context of evaluation, and working with stakeholders. Prerequisite: Pad 505 or an equivalent introductory statistics course at the graduate level.

Pad 628 Readings in Research Methodology (3)
Individual directed reading programs in selected topics and problems of research methodology.

Pad 630 Topics in Information Management for Nonprofits (1-3)
This course covers unique issues faced by nonprofit organizations related to emerging technology issues. Students will examine policy, management, and technical requirements related to the development and use of information technology to support nonprofit organizational management. In addition to studying the conceptual underpinnings of information management in the nonprofit sector, participants will be trained in specific technology and management tools to enhance organizational effectiveness.

Pad 631 Cost Management for Government and Nonprofit Organizations (3)
This course will focus on issues of management-control systems, cost measurement for reporting and cost analysis for decision making. Topics will include the elements of management-control structures, cost definitions, product costing, cost allocation, standard costing, activity-based management, economic value added, the use of statistical and operations research models in financial management and other current issues in managerial finance and resource management. Prerequisite: Pad 501.

Pad 635 Health, Safety and Environmental Regulation (3)
Presents a political and economic assessment of risk regulation policies as they have developed for air and water pollution, work place risks, auto safety, drug regulation and nuclear power. Prerequisite: Hpm 501 or consent of instructor.

Pad 637 Social and Organizational Networks in Public Policy, Management, and Service Delivery: Theory, Methods, and Analysis (3)
The concept of "network" has become central to many discussions of public policy, management, and service delivery but is rarely studied systematically. This course is designed to explore the theoretical underpinnings of network analysis, introduce basic network analytic methods, and examine and compare insights gained through network analysis with other forms of analysis. Prerequisites: Completion of required statistical courses for the Master's or Ph.D. program; permission of instructor.

Pad 638 Readings in Administrative Systems and Behavior (3)
Individual directed reading program in selected topics and problems of administrative systems and behavior.

Pad 640 Nonprofit Financial Management (3)
An examination of financial management techniques for the nonprofit organization. Practices to be studied include fiscal planning, legal requirements, IRS regulations, pricing, operational planning and control, strategic planning, fund raising, and marketing.  Prerequisite: Pad 501.

Pad 641 Basic Governmental Accounting (3)
Survey of governmental accounting principles and procedures for persons without prior formal instruction in accounting. Included are such topics as account classification, cash and accrual accounting, appropriation and program accounts, cost estimation from accounts, development and analysis of financial statements, and the uses of accounting information for managerial decision making. Prerequisite: Pad 501 or permission of instructor.

Pad 642 Public Budgeting (3)
This course will involve a detailed examination of the processes and analytical techniques involved in developing and managing public budgets.  Extensive attention will be put on budget processes and politics, the analysis of public revenue sources, and the techniques of budget analysis.  The course will include considerable analysis of public budgets as well as a detailed examination of current issues, controversies and research in public budgeting. 

Pad 643 Economics of Public Policy (3)
This course provides students with tools and theoretical models from economics to analyze public policy challenges. Students will apply these tools and models across multiple policy domains, including education, health, social welfare, criminal justice, and the environment. Through problem sets, current event analyses, and team projects, students will navigate questions such as: How does policy design incentivize individual behaviors and choices? How should we weigh the potential benefits of regulation against the costs? What are the promises and pitfalls of market-based reforms in government? And, how can public programs effectively dismantle, rather than re-enforce, structural inequalities in society? Prerequisites: Pad 503 or other graduate economics coursework.

Pad 644 (Hpm 648) Health Care Finance (3)
Examines major policy and implementation issues in the financing of health care, particularly the poor. Among the topics addressed are health cost containment, Medicaid, long term care, AIDS, and the provision of care to the uninsured. Prerequisites: Pad 503 and Pad 505 (or equivalent).

Pad 645 Psychological Economics and Policy (4)
Economic analyses are usually rooted in assumptions of perfect rationality, perfect selfishness, and perfect self-control.  Real human beings do not meet these assumptions.  How do real people respond to economic policies?  How can traditional analyses be adapted to use more psychologically realistic assumptions?  How can policy makers use experiments to help design and evaluate programs?  In the past few decades, economists in the fields of Behavioral Economics and Experimental Economics have explored how to draw on the methods and insights of psychologists.  That work has become increasingly relevant in policy circles.  This class surveys the theories, methods, and evidence of these fields and discusses their relevance for designing and implementing public programs.  Readings will consist primarily of professional journal articles.  Prerequisites: Pad 503, Pad 505.

Pad 647 Capital Markets, Risk and Governments (3)
This course will examine related concepts of risk and return, the impact of diversification on risk, and the fundamental concepts that underlie derivative products in both equity and debt markets.  It will explore these concepts in the context of regulation, government borrowing, hedging and pension investment activities.  It will include an examination of topics such as: risk premiums, the impact of diversification on portfolio risk, the pricing and expected return on equity investments, the role of derivatives in investments, the pricing of both debt and equity derivatives and the relationship between these concepts and capital requirements.  The course will also examine the basic structure of taxable and tax-exempt debt, the various kinds of issuers (including public authorities), and the pricing of debt in primary and secondary markets.  Prerequisites: Strong spreadsheet modeling skills and Pad 501, Pad 504 and Pad 505.

Pad 648 Economics of Government Revenues (3)
How do governments collect revenues, and what are the effects on the economy?  Who bears the costs of taxation?  Why do many countries have several layers of government (federal, state/province, local) and why do different layers collect different types of taxes and perform different types of services?  What are the effects of welfare programs like TANF and the EITC?  This class surveys the economics of taxation (especially in the U.S.), tax evasion, poverty relief programs, fiscal federalism, local public finance.  The class looks at both theory and empirical research.  Emphasis is placed on reading professional academic sources.  Prerequisites: Pad 503 (or equivalent familiarity with microeconomics) and Pad 505 (or equivalent familiarity with statistical regressions).

Pad 650 Enabling Innovation in the Public Sector (4)
This course provides students with an experiential learning opportunity to explore the complexities of public sector innovation and information technology decision making and to a set of analytical tools and techniques for identifying and managing those complexities. The course provides an overview of the management, policy and technology challenges faced by organizations engaging in information technology innovation and it introduces a formal methodology for exploring and ultimately making IT investment decisions. The methodology includes tools and techniques for problem definition, stakeholder analysis, process analysis, best and current practices research, technology awareness, and business case development. Students will also be exposed to current relevant digital government research. Students will engage in a field project with a government partner and conduct business analysis of the information or information technology problem they are exploring, write an executive briefing and present their findings to their government 'sponsor' agency. Recommended Prerequisite: RPAD 550 (PUB 550) Foundations of Government Information Strategy and Management or permission of instructor.

Pad 651 Labor Relations in the Public Sector (3)
Examination of historical, legal and political aspects of labor relations in the public sector. Different facets of labor relations, including collective bargaining, arbitration, equal employment opportunity; particular attention is given to the nature and appropriateness of unionism in the public sector. Prerequisite: Pad 500 and Pad 506, or permission of instructor.

Pad 652 Leading Transformation in the Digital World (3)
This course provides students with the opportunity to build practical understanding of a set of emerging issues, topics and theories in information and communication technology innovation in the public sector through a series of readings, video presentations and online discussions. Topics for the last few years include smart cities, intelligent vehicles, leadership and organizational transformation, open data, and e-government for sustainable development. Guest instructors who have or currently hold executive positions in ICT and program areas in NYS government, the US Federal Government and international organizations provide students with a wide range of experiences and perspectives on selected topics. Students will build understanding of the transformative potential of information and information technology in the public sector and engage with instructors and each other on a range of issues, opportunities and strategies and the policy, management and technology innovations driving government transformation. The instructor and each guest instructor will provide a set of video presentations and discussion questions for each topic along with a set of readings, as well as links to other context including videos, blogs, and other content.

Pad 653 (Hpm 651) Public Health Politics and Policy: Domestic and Global Perspectives (3)
This course examines major political factors that shape health policy decisions and the government response to various diseases and health conditions. Specific questions include: Why are some diseases more likely to get on the public agenda domestically and internationally? Why is it so hard to incorporate clinical and economic evidence into public health policy decisions? What public policy tools are available to target health conditions, and what are the legal constraints on public health intervention? When should public health campaigns employ fear and scare tactics versus positive social messaging? This course explores how policy is used as a tool to further public health goals both domestically and globally. The course is designed to introduce students of policy and politics to concepts and debates specific to the field of public health. Likewise, the course is also designed to introduce students of public health to public policy concepts and approaches. The course will draw on readings examples both from high-income and low- and middle-income countries and will explore similarities as well as differences in theories of the policy process pertaining to each.

Pad 654 Your Money or Your Life: Economics of Health Policy (3)
Why is health care so expensive?  Why do health care markets tend to be inefficient and unjust?  What are major psychological biases in health care behavior?  What incentives does the American health care system create for the different actors in the system?  How can we evaluate health care outcomes?  This course examines major topics in the economics of health care policy, including selection, moral hazard, bargaining power, adoption of new technologies, valuing health, consumer behavior, provider behavior, and psychological health economies.  Prerequisites: Pad 503 and 505, or equivalent exposure to microeconomics and statistics.

Pad 655 Information and Public Policy (3)
Analysis and evaluation of public policies affecting the production, dissemination, and access to information at the national and international levels, in order to better understand their rationale, effectiveness, and appropriateness with regard to their intended role in society. Topics may include concepts of intellectual freedom, the public's right to be informed, freedom of information and privacy legislation, policies on dissemination of information in non-print formats, open government, national security classification, privatizing of government information, issues of equity, and related policy matters.

Pad 656 Health Care Financial Analysis (3)
Examines the use of health care reimbursement as a policy tool and the manner in which health care providers such as physicians and hospitals respond to financial incentives.  Course involves considerable hands-on exposure to the design and operation of various reimbursement systems including prospective rate setting, managed care, and bundled payment systems.

Pad 657 (Hpm 501) Health Policy Analysis (3)
This course introduces students to policy analysis and management by examining issues in the health sector. It fosters an appreciation of the complexity of policy problems and provides the basic tools used in policy design, implementation and evaluation.  Prerequisite: Hpm 500 or permission of instructor.

Pad 658 Readings in Public Finance (4)
Individual directed reading program in selected topics and problems of public finance.

Pad 659 Managing Public Service Organization Finances (3)
This course focuses on the tools and techniques of managing government and non-profit budgets and financial decision-making within public service organizations.  Topics include payroll projection and management, purchasing and procurement, contracting for services, budget analysis and planning, budget management and reporting, fund and revenue management, and the importance of internal controls and financial control systems.  Prerequisite: Pad 501.

Pad 661 (Int 506) International and Comparative Public Management (4)
This course focuses on tensions and trade-offs between important values in public administration and the institutional foundations of public service in cross-national political, bureaucratic, and legal settings. It examines management within the administrative structures, international organizations and agencies of the UN system and the foreign ministries of UN member states as well as functional agencies of national governments and sub-national governments (e.g. provinces and cities) engaged in trans-governmental relations. Major topics include dimensions of the public sector, characteristics of institutional settings, environmental context, and functions, roles, behaviors, and structures.

Pad 665 (Bio 530B, Pln 539) Biodiversity and Conservation: Policy Issues (4)
Survey of approaches to environmental planning and public policy analyses that directly pertain to biological conservation. Students will review economic, political, and legal approaches to policy analysis. In discussions, they will explore strategies for introducing ecological information and conservation needs into the public policy forum. This is a companion course for Bio 530A. Two lectures plus one discussion per week. Prerequisite: Graduate standing or permission of instructor. Students may choose one course Bio 530B, Pad 665 or Pln 539 for credit.

Pad 666 (Pos 666/Int 513) Global Environment: Politics and Policy (3)
This course examines the theory and practice of international environmental politics to better understand why the international community has been successful at solving some international environmental problems but not others. It considers policies that aim to address transnational issues such as climate change, ozone depletion, overfishing, deforestation, and species extinction. Theoretical approaches applied to these problems will consider not only the central role of states, but also the ways in which non-state actors, such as non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations, and transnational networks of cities, are becoming important players in managing these problems.

Pad 668 Readings in Comparative and International Public Administration (3)
Individual directed reading program in selected topics and problems of comparative and international administration.

Pad 669 (Epl 631) Economics of Education II (3)
This course examines K-12 education policy from an economic perspective. Economic principles are applied to issues of resource allocation, finance, and the behaviors of key stakeholders. Topics include: models of student achievement with particular focus on the role of resources, school finance, teacher labor markets, and the effect of various forms of school choice. Prerequisites: Pad 503, Epl 602, or permission of instructor.

Pad 671 Managing Public Sector Performance (3)
A survey of major theoretical perspectives on managing performance at the organizational and individual level in the public sector.  The course will review motivation theory, measurement methods and challenges, individual performance appraisal, and models of organizational performance.  Understanding the politics, psychology, and culture of performance measurement will also be discussed.  Prerequisite: Masters students must obtain permission of instructor.

Pad 672 Information Technology and Change Management in the Public Sector (3)
Public policy goals and programmatic approaches will change over time, but information technology (IT) will forever be an integral part of any solution. This course will focus on the key elements of an IT change management strategy necessary to effectively implement and execute an IT change or transformation in the public sector. The course will draw on change management experiences from public sector entities across the globe. At times, IT changes are driven out of necessity and at other times by the desire to do more with less. This course will examine IT change management as a tool to improve the lives of those in need and those driven by limited resources. The course will examine the different roles of individuals in an organization on the change process and the impact this has on business processes used day-to day to achieve broader policy goals.

Pad 674 (Tap 645) Education for Civic Engagement and Learning (3)
The course aims to strengthen educators' knowledge and skills for fostering students' civic engagement and learning. We explore theories, research, and practical strategies involved in helping young people become engaged, competent participants in the civic sphere. Course readings and multimedia materials are drawn from diverse scholarly fields, including political science, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and education. Assignments during the course will require students to examine key ideas from these materials (e.g., the challenges and opportunities of leading discussions about controversial public issues), clarify how these ideas relate to their own experiences, and demonstrate their understanding through practice-based projects.

Pad 675 Topics in Women's Leadership (3)
What does it mean to be an effective leader? Are there particular skills/competencies one needs to be an effective leader? What does empirical research say about differences between women's and men's leadership, e.g., are there areas where women have greater strengths, are there areas where women have greater difficulty? Do people evaluate women's and men's leadership using different criteria? What challenges do women face in attempting to achieve leadership positions? How do these challenges differ across women with different backgrounds and/or in different leadership positions (e.g., across levels of organizational hierarchy, different types of organizations, etc.)? This course addresses each of these questions, and is designed to enable participants to gain a better understanding of issues and controversies associated with women as public service leaders. The course will examine non-gendered theories of leadership as well as theories and research related to women's leadership and why women's leadership matters. In addition to learning about women and leadership, there will also be an opportunity for participants to link theory and practice, and to develop their own leadership competencies. Over the course of the semester, we will focus on a variety of leadership competencies and, through case studies, role plays, and other experiential exercises, supplemented by small and large group discussions, participants will be able to practice their leadership skills in the safe environment of the classroom. Note: This course is one of three courses required for participants in the Fellowship on Women and Public Policy. 

Pad 676 Data Science for the Public Good (3)
More than ever, public and non-profit organizations find themselves awash with data. They also face an increasingly complex array of societal problems. This course aims to help students learn tools from the fields of data science and machine learning to effectively translate collected data into practical solutions. Using Python as the core programming language, the course will begin with demonstrating how to manipulate and analyze data. We will highlight data visualization techniques and strategies for interacting with complex databases. The course will then cover a range of machine learning algorithms for making predictions with data. The course will provide an overview of other computational skills, such as web scraping, text analysis, and network analysis, that can help to investigate the nature of public policy problems. Finally, students will discuss and understand the wider social impacts and potential unintended consequences of the application of computational tools for policy making. Prerequisites: Itm 572 and Pad 505.

Pad 677 The NYS Public Policy Process (3)
This course is designed to provide a practical understanding of  New York State government and the public policy process. The major topics will include an overview of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches, the State budget process, the role of advocacy and interest groups as well as the media in the public policy process.  The course objectives are for each student to develop an understanding of New York¿s political and governmental institutions and processes and those factors that influence and impact the development of public policies. The readings and course lectures will be supplemented by guest speakers who will provide a real-world illustration of how these pieces fit together and are designed to offer an overview of the inner workings of state government.  The guest speakers will also give an understanding of how leadership influences the development and implementation of public policy in New York State.  Note: This course is one of three courses required for participants in the Fellowship on Women and Public Policy.

Pad 678 (Wss 678) Advocacy for Social Change (3)
The purpose of the course is to deepen understanding of the theoretical and applied dimension of nonprofit advocacy and the critical role that nonprofit advocacy organizations play in democratic governance.  The course focuses on strengthening knowledge and skills of influencing public policy as nonprofit actors including applying theories of public policy advocacy to real life cases; analyzing social issues, using policy analysis techniques to identify policy solutions, planning and implementing advocacy campaigns using different strategies and tactics.  Note: This course is one of three courses required for participants in the Fellowship on Women and Public Policy. 

Pad 683 Program Seminar in Managing Local Government (3)
Student research on problems and processes of managing local governments. Topics may include human resources for financial management and design or evaluation of public service programs. Research involves field studios in municipal or county governments and builds on courses previously taken in management and urban policy areas. Public officials are invited to discuss and critique student projects.

Pad 684 Local Government Administration and Finance (3)
This course will cover a full spectrum of local government issues, with a particular focus on financial management.  In addition to gaining an understanding of local government responsibilities and operations, topics of discussion will include the various sources of revenues used by local governments, municipal budgeting, capital planning, and local officials as stewards of taxpayer dollars.  We will also look at the relationship between local governments and the state and federal government, including state and federal mandates and state aid to local governments.  Additional topics will include home rule and local government powers, local government transparency including ethics and "open government," and employee relations.  While the focus will be on New York's local governments, comparisons will be made to local government systems in other states.  Students will gain practical insights from several leading practitioners at both the state and local government levels who will serve as guest speakers.

Pad 685 Culture and Public Policy: Developing Creative Communities (3)
From the days of being isolated in museums and concert halls, culture in America is becoming integral to community life and public policy as many communities work to embrace and attract “the creative class”.  This course will use an overview of the story of cultural life in America’s local governments to examine the specific opportunities and examples of cultural influences in education, community development, economic development, downtown development, historic structures stabilization, community revitalization, nonprofit fundraising, cultural diversity and public dialogue.  The class will be aimed at building the capacity for public administrators to engage with and utilize community cultural resources and individuals to build healthy communities.

Pad 688 Statistical Programming Workshop (1)
This workshop introduces students to programming in the statistical package STATA, useful for doctoral research, with special emphasis on how to write code that is automated, easily modified, and readable.

Pad 689 (Pos 689, Crj 689) Scholarly Writing (0)
This course is designed to help graduate students further develop their scholarly writing skills, with a particular focus on using and citing source material, synthesizing ideas and information from different sources, and finding one's own voice in scholarly writing.

Pad 690 Regulatory Administration (4)
The reasons for the growth of administrative regulation, regulatory agencies and processes, the nature of their formal legal and informal powers, organization, and procedures, and of their relationships with legislatures, chief executives, courts, and interest groups, including consumer interests. Emphasizes the constitutional, legal, administrative, and political issues raised by the growth and nature of regulatory administration and agencies, and proposals for change as reflected in critiques and recommended reforms in major studies made under private, and federal and state governmental auspices.

Pad 691 Independent Research in Public Affairs (1-12)
Individual work in preparation for required essay. Prerequisite: Consent of program director or program advisor.

Pad 692 Special Topics in Public Administration and Policy (3)
Special topics in Public Administration and Policy will be selected for detailed examination.  Topics may vary from semester to semester.  May be repeated for credit.  Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

Pad 695 Readings in Public Management (3)
Individual directed reading program in selected topics, issues and problems in the area of public management.

Pad 696 Integrative Capstone (3)

The mission of the Rockefeller's MPA program is to develop leaders, managers, and advanced analysts who excel in public service within government and across sectors. The MPA curriculum emphasizes the development of technical and managerial skills toward the responsible and ethical uses of discretion in the pursuit exemplary personal and organizational performance. The MPA's mission and curriculum reflects the faculty's commitment to producing committed and engaged public servants whose actions embody public service ideals. Pad 696 is the culmination of this learning process. As such, during this course, students will both reflect on and continue to build the competencies, knowledge, and skills they have acquired throughout the program. Course assignments will require students to synthesize and apply material from across the MPA curriculum, individually and in teams. Students are strongly recommended to take this course in their last semester in the MPA program.

Pad 697 Guided Research (1-4)
Close individual guidance by a faculty member in the application of verbal and numerical research methods for the purpose of answering an administrative question, Students design a plan of research and gather, evaluate, organize, and report information on a substantive problem of interest to themselves and the faculty member. The resulting research is expected to be as nearly of professional quality in form and content as possible given the resources available and the background preparation of the student. In general, the research is reported in a colloquium open to all students and faculty. This course may be repeated. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Pad 702 Scholarly Foundations of Politics and Administration (4)
This course introduces students to the relationship between democracy, law, policy, and administration, and will present students with a variety of theoretical perspectives for understanding the external and internal political forces that shape public organizations. The course will cover foundational debates about the relationship between elected officials, the public, and administrators; Constitutional and legal issues and public administration; the role of public administration in the policy process; and emergent theoretical issues in contemporary public administration scholarship. Students should end the course with an understanding of a variety of theoretical lenses through which to view implementing and operating government programs in a democracy. The course will focus primarily on the U.S. context, but will incorporate comparisons to public administration in other democratic governments throughout the course. Prerequisite: Students not enrolled in the Public Administration and Policy doctoral program will need permission from the instructor.

Pad 703 Economic and Financial Theory (4)
Examines the important theories in economics and finance relevant to public administration and basic tools of economics and finance needed to understand important public sector issues. Use of economic theory to analyze issues such as market failure, tax policy, equity and efficiency, and provision of public goods. Use of financial theory to understand the basics of financial management in the public sector such as cash and debt management and capital budgeting. Prerequisite: Admission to Ph.D. program.

Pad 704 Research Design (3-4)
This course prepares doctoral students to design and conduct research studies using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Topics include: different research orientations; how to articulate research questions and testable hypotheses; steps in the research process; basic features of various methodologies including surveys, interviews, experiments, and using secondary data; strengths and limitations of different research methods; and how to develop research proposals. Prerequisite: Pad 705 or equivalent graduate-level course on applied statistics.

Pad 705 Advanced Quantitative Analysis (4)
This course reviews ordinary least squares regression techniques, including the underlying assumptions that justify its use and the major consequences of violating these assumptions. The class will focus on cross-sectional data designs, but will also introduce students to panel data and times series data structures. Students will learn how to read and critique empirical analyses used in academic publications, what empirical techniques should be utilized given different situations, and how to perform detailed empirical analyses in STATA and interpret the results. Topics may include power analysis, bootstrapping standard errors, difference-in-difference analysis, working with survey data, and nonlinear approaches. Prerequisites: Students should have familiarity with ordinary least squares regression and interpretation, demonstrated by accomplishments such as passing the course placement exam or successful completion of an intermediate statistics course such as RPos 517, RCrj 687, or ASoc 609; contact instructor.

Pad 708 Organizational Behavior and Theory (4)
A survey of the major issues and theoretical perspectives in organization theory. Examination of evolution of the field of organization theory, and discussion of the contemporary research on behavior and structure within organizations, and on environmental factors in organization behavior.

Pad 709 Scholarly Foundations of Public Administration (4)
This course introduces students to the intellectual history of public administration scholarship, and lays the foundation for understanding the contemporary study of the field. Throughout the course we examine the tensions, values, and assumptions behind such core ideas as: bureaucracy vs. democracy, efficiency vs. equity, control vs. discretion, neutrality vs. responsiveness, and hierarchy vs. collaboration. By the end of the course, students should be aware of the key concepts in the field and able to integrate classic debates with current scholarly research. Prerequisite: Students not enrolled in the Public Administration and Policy doctoral program will need permission from the instructor.

Pad 720 Theory and Research on Nonprofit Organizations and the Nonprofit Sector (4)
This course provides an overview of the diverse theoretical perspectives that have been applied to nonprofit organizations and the nonprofit sector, and related empirical research. Drawing on foundational economic, sociological, political science and inter-disciplinary theories and frameworks, the course prepares doctoral level students for academic careers in nonprofit studies within public administration and related fields. Prerequisite(s): Students not enrolled in the Public Administration and Policy doctoral program will need permission from the instructor.

Pad 724 Simulation for Policy Analysis and Design (3-6)
Continued development of topics treated in Pad 624, Simulating Dynamic Systems, stressing advanced concepts in the formulation of feedback simulations of social systems. Organized around a single paper that requires students to formulate and construct a dynamic model for a public policy problem.

Pad 725 Quantitative Methods of Causal Inference (4)
This course addresses the ubiquitous challenge in quantitative research of navigating the path from cause to effect. Students will learn the theory and application of techniques such as: matching, difference-in-differences, instrumental variables, experiments, regression discontinuity, synthetic control, and event studies. However, the primary goal of this course is not to provide a ready-to-use "toolbox" of quantitative methods. It is to learn the more generalizable process of developing an identification strategy to answer public policy or public administration questions. By the end of the course, each student will complete an original empirical paper using analysis of pre-existing data. Prerequisites: RPAD 705 or similar coursework and statistical programming experience.

Pad 726 Advanced Qualitative Analysis (3-4)
This course explores a variety of approaches to the analysis of qualitative data. These approaches cover range of epistemologies and theoretical perspectives including positivism, interpretivism, constructionism, and critical theories of discourse. Students will develop skills in interviewing, observation, coding, case study development, grounded theory analysis, and reporting results. Students will complete assignments and a project involving the practice of these skills.

Pad 734 Seminar on Judgment and Decision Making (4)
Advanced seminar on theory, research, and methods in the study of judgment and decision making including formal analysis and descriptive research methods. Emphasis on application to administration and policy making and advanced research methods. Prerequisites: Pad 620 and Pad 634.

Pad 737 Contemporary Organization Theory and Management (4)
This seminar deals with contemporary issues in organization theory.  Students are exposed to the dominant schools of thought through the discussion, analysis, and comparison of representative work.  Among the areas covered are power, conflict, culture, organization/environment relations, and economic theories of organization.  Students will learn to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each of these diverse schools of thought and to compare their underlying assumptions.  Prerequisites: Pad 708 or another Ph.D. level course in organizational theory.

Pad 739 Contemporary Organization Behavior and Management (4)
This course examines selected recent contributions to the study of organizational behavior. Prerequisites: Pad 708 or another Ph.D. level course in organization theory.

Pad 747 Seminar in Public Finance (4)
Selected topics in public finance.

Pad 750 Theoretical Approaches to Information Technology in Organizations (4)
This course reviews social sciences perspectives to information technologies in public and private organizations. It starts with readings about the research assumptions underlying studies in technology and organizations as well as readings that discuss the similarities and differences between public and private organizations. The course then turns to readings that discuss a variety of theoretical frameworks developed to study technology in organizational settings. Finally, the course highlights empirical studies into particular phenomena associated with information technology in public and private organizations. Prerequisite: The course content presumes that you are familiar with some basic concepts and approaches from Public Administration, Public Management, and/or Organization Theory.

Pad 768 Methodological Epistemological Issues in the Study of Cooperative Public Administration (4)
Covers the research and theoretical concerns of social scientists involved in the study of comparative political and administrative systems. Includes a review of problems of comparison, theory building and the role of social scientists, tools and approaches to comparison.

Pad 777 Advanced Topics in Social Network Analysis (4)
This course is designed as an intensive seminar that will build students’ familiarity and facility with social network methods and theory. It is intended only for students who are strongly considering use of social network methods in their dissertation. Prerequisite: Pad 637.

Pad 797 Ph.D. Seminar - Selected Topics (0)
Ph.D. Seminar - selected topics will be selected for detailed examination. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit up to three times if topic differs. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

Pad 824 Advanced Topics in System Dynamics (1-6)
This course presents advanced topics in system dynamics for Ph..D. and advanced Masters Students. Topics and title can vary from offering to offering.

Pad 834 Proseminar on Judgment and Decision-Making (4)
Advanced seminar on theory, research, and methods in the study of judgment and decision making including formal analysis and descriptive research methods. Emphasis on research and teaching in decision science for public administration. Prerequisite: Pad 734.

Pad 881 Seminar in Doctoral Research and Professional Development (1)
First term of a two-year-long seminar for first and second year Ph.D. students in Public Administration and Policy that introduces them to doctoral research and the academic profession.

Pad 882 Seminar in Doctoral Research and Professional Development (1)
Second term of a two-year-long seminar for first and second year Ph.D. students in Public Administration and Policy that introduces them to doctoral research and the academic profession.

Pad 883 Seminar in Doctoral Research and Professional Development (1)
Third term of a two-year-long seminar for first and second year Ph.D. students in Public Administration and Policy that introduces them to doctoral research and the academic profession.

Pad 884 Seminar in Doctoral Research and Professional Development (1)
Fourth term of a two-year-long seminar for first and second year Ph.D. students in Public Administration and Policy that introduces them to doctoral research and the academic profession.

Pad 897 Independent Research in Public Administration (2-12)
Individual work in preparation for the qualifying examinations for the Ph.D. in public administration. A student registering for Pad 897 indicates the portion of the total semester-load devoted to it by listing an appropriate number of 'load equivalent units' instead of credits. Course grading is Load Only and does not earn credit. Prerequisite: Consent of department chair or departmental advisor to doctoral students.

Pad 899 Doctoral Dissertation in Public Administration (1)
Course grading is Load Only and does not earn credit. Appropriate for doctoral students engaged in research and writing of the dissertation.  Prerequisite: Admission to doctoral candidacy.