Educational Policy and Leadership Courses

Prior to Fall 2019, the course catalog subject area was listed as Aps.

Epl 500 United States Educational Governance, Policy and Administration (3)

Historical and current trends in educational governance, policymaking, and administration. Analyses of K-12 and higher education issues at the federal, state, and local levels. Special emphasis on education reform issues specific to New York State.

Epl 525 (R Pos 525Q, R Pad 525, A Wss 525) Feminist Thought and Public Policy (3-4)

Examination of the implications of public policy research and implementation from a feminist perspective; the coherence or lack of it amongst different models of public policy formation, different perspectives on specific public policy issues and different orientations within the women's movement.

Epl 550 Leading with Cultural Intelligence (1-6)

Using immersive and experiential learning techniques, students will develop: 1) their cultural intelligence (ability to cross boundaries and thrive in multiple cultures); 2) their leadership skills required to lead in situations where they have no formal authority; 3) their networks, locally and globally, with fellow students, contributors and regional employers; and 4) skills required to quickly understand and address complex issues. The course combines various methods of content delivery and interactive learning using visual media, articles, facilitated discussions, leadership exercises and anecdotes to facilitate structured reflection and group engagement. Emphasis is on development of leadership skills in an international context, diversity, innovation with regard to social change, and the development of collaborative relationships.

Epl 570 Introduction to Law and Education (3)

Covers the legal rights and responsibilities of professional personnel and students in K-12 American education, with emphasis on constitutional principles. Topics include: public-private distinction, freedom of speech, free exercise of religion, academic freedom and tenure, and due process and equal protection guarantees. Designed primarily for teachers, supervisors, and department chairs.

Epl 600 Introduction to Organizational Leadership (3)

Overview of concepts and theories essential to the understanding of educational organizations. Emphasizes organizational structure and processes. Includes topics such as structure, technology, goals, control, power, conflict, communication, leadership, motivation, environmental/interorganizational relations, effectiveness, and change.

Epl 601 Introduction to Social Analysis (3)

Examines the historical and social context of educational leadership. Identifies environmental factors that impinge upon the functioning of school, postsecondary, adult, and other educational leaders. Selected issues related to the economics, sociology, and politics of education are analyzed.

Epl 602 The Economics of Education (3)

The usefulness of economic analysis in the study of education and educational policy, including methods of economic analysis, determinants of economic and educational success, effects of education on equality, equity, and allocative efficiency, public vs. private production of education in a democratic society.

Epl 603 The Political Economy of Educational Planning and Development (3)

Applies the concepts and techniques of the economics of education to current issues concerning manpower planning and human capital development and utilization. Emphasizes planning issues in less developed as well as developed nations. Prerequisite: Epl 602 or consent of instructor.

Epl 604 (E Soc 631, A Soc 604) Macrosociology of Education and Educational Leadership (3)

The leadership of schools and school systems from the perspective of sociology. The relationships between education and other societal subsystems are treated in historical and comparative perspective. Particular attention is given to the nexus between schools, the economy, the polity, and systems of social stratification.

Epl 605 (E Soc 632, A Soc 603) Microsociology of Education and Educational Leadership (3)

Concepts and theories from sociology and social psychology selected for their relevance to organizational behavior. Stresses the relations between research findings and application to organizational problems. Topics include individual differences, attitude formation and change, perception, motivation, influence processes, and group formation as they affect both individuals and educational organizations.

Epl 606 (E Phl 606) Ethics and Education (3)

Relationships of ethical theories to education. Consideration given to absolutist and relativist ethical positions, the possibility of teaching people to be ethical, and contemporary theories of social justice.

Epl 607 Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining (3)

Introduction to the theory and practice of labor-management relations and collective bargaining in education. includes legal and social context, history, and process of bargaining in elementary-secondary and higher education. Relation of bargaining to administration and governance, impasses, strikes, administration of labor agreements.

Epl 608 Politics of Education (3)

Introduction to fundamental themes in the politics of education. Uses concepts from political science and leadership to help analyze the political side of contemporary issues in educational leadership and policy studies. Relates educational politics to broader political patterns.

Epl 609 Leadership for Cradle to Career Education Systems (3)

This seminar describes, explains, and evaluates cradle-to-career educational reform. Special emphasis is accorded to leadership for new systems that connect early education programs, K-12 school systems, and postsecondary education, including policy leadership.

Epl 610 Organizational Development (3)

The nature and practice of organizational development (OD) in formal organizations. Concepts, objectives, values, processes, techniques, design, and implementation of OD programs in educational settings.

Epl 614 Quantitative Methods in Educational Leadership (3)

Introduction to the basic methods of quantitative analysis for leadership and management in educational settings. Topics include methods for description, modeling, forecasting, inference, and presentation of data relevant to monitoring, assessment, and planning in education. Includes use of spreadsheet and other analytical tools.

Epl 618 Family and Community Partnerships (3)

Analysis of school improvement-oriented partnerships with families, community organizations, and neighborhood associations with special emphasis on health and social service agencies, youth development organizations, and local coalitions.

Epl 619 Supervisory Leadership (3)

Examines the context, purposes, concepts and uses of instructional supervision from the perspective of the school leader. Stresses application of models and methods of evaluation for accountability and quality control and for professional development. Includes practical experience through classroom observation, analysis of portfolios, and case-based methods.

Epl 621 Administration of the Elementary School (3)

Application of the basic principalship responsibilities to the administration of the modern elementary school. Prerequisite: Epl 500 or equivalent.

Epl 622 Administration of the Secondary School (3)

Literature, research, concepts, and skills related to leadership, staff development, decision-making, communication, evaluation, and in-service education at the secondary level. Emphasizes principal's leadership role as well as current issues affecting the conduct of the secondary school.

Epl 623 School Board and Community–School Relations (3)

Practices, issues, and principles of district-level leadership with regard to school board, intergovernmental relations, and effective communication with the community. Emphasis is placed on school district leaders working effectively with school board members and with senior school district managers in developing and implementing district policies and managing district affairs.

Epl 630 Financial and Human Resources in Education (3)

Fundamental concepts of management of financial and human resources, as applied to schools and school districts. Stresses the application of principles of budgeting, human resource deployment, and the utilization of facilities. Topics include planning, budget development and administration, recruitment, appointment and assignment of staff, and regulations concerning personnel administration.

Epl 631 (R Pad 669) Economics of Education II (3)

This course examines K-12 education policy from an economic perspective. Economic principles are applied to issues of resource allocation, finance, and the behaviors of key stakeholders. Topics include: models of student achievement with particular focus on the role of resources, school finance, teacher labor markets, and the effect of various forms of school choice. Prerequisites: Pad 503, Epl 602, or permission of instructor.

Epl 632 Current Best Practices in School Business Management (1)

Series of seminars by field practitioners on selected current topics in school business management. Includes recent legislation, school-banking relations, negotiations for noninstructional personnel, self-insurance, and OSHA regulations. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Epl 641 (E Tap 641) Continuous Quality Improvement in Education and Human Services (3)

Introduction to concepts and practice of continuous quality improvement in education and the human services using improvement science principles as a guiding framework. Emphasis will be on issues and procedures in designing improvement initiatives, reporting results, and using results in iterative cycles. Crafted for Masters and Doctoral students interested in improvement science and its applications in educational and human services settings. Prerequisite: Instructor permission required.

Epl 642 Seminar in Adult and Continuing Education (3)

Problems of scope, organization, program initiation, leadership, coordination, and integration with community development. Prerequisite: Preparation and experience in adult education programs.

Epl 643 Introduction to International Education Management (3)

An in depth survey of major issues in international education management. Topics include institutional strategy, program development, curricular internationalization, cross-border mobility and articulation, transnational delivery and branch campuses, research consortia, and alumni development, and more.

Epl 644 Educational Entrepreneurship (3)

An introduction to educational entrepreneurship, including social entrepreneurship, non-profit and for-profit entrepreneurship, and intrapreneurship. Topics include history of educational entrepreneurship, emerging trends, capital flows, regulation, and policy issues.

Epl 649 Administration of Athletics in Higher Education (3)

Introduction to the theory and practice of athletics administration in U.S. higher education.  Includes history and current context, regulations, ethical issues, and relationship to academic programs. 

Epl 651 Administration of Institutions of Higher Education (3)

Analysis of controls in higher education: internal organizational patterns, roles of trustees, administrative personnel, and faculties. The impact of teaching, research, criticism, and sanctions on the differentiation of institutional goals. Prerequisite: Consent of department chair.

Epl 652 College Student Affairs (3)
An introduction to the roles and functions of student affairs in American higher education, including historical origins, philosophical underpinnings, and current issues facing student affairs administrators.

Epl 654 Community Colleges (3)

Social,  historical, and economic contexts; leadership; and policy pertaining to the community college in the United States and its international dimensions. Consideration of purposes, developments, and trends in the organization and control of the community college.

Epl 655 Administration of College Staff Policies (3)

Procedures and practices related to recruitment, selection, orientation, promotion, compensations, grievances, leaves, negotiations, and retirement. Staff and trustee participation in college governance.

Epl 656 Sociology of Higher Education (3)

Application of the methods and findings of sociology to universities and other institutions of higher education. Special emphasis on the social and intellectual consequences of forms of academic organization and the social backgrounds and cultures of students and faculty.

Epl 657 History of Higher Education (3)

Development of institutions of, practices in, and ideas about higher education from their medieval European origins to contemporary universities and other institutions of higher education in the United States and in comparative perspective.

Epl 658 Politics of Higher Education (3)

Political aspects of higher education. Focus on contemporary policy issues. Emphasizes relationships between institutions and external actors, especially governments. Political relationships within institutions. Concepts from political science are used to investigate who governs, autonomy-accountability balances, public interest, and power distribution.

Epl 659 Assessment and Accountability in Higher Education (3)

An examination of accountability, including accreditation and quality assurance in higher education.  Topics include development and use of rankings, assessment methods, program reviews, external accountability and linkages to planning and budgeting. 

Epl 660 Introduction to Educational Management (3)

Organizational planning and decision making in K-12 and postsecondary levels. Using a systems framework, topics relate to environmental conditions, the description and analysis of basic alternative planning and model, the design of information systems, and mechanisms of control. Students are involved in planning and decision-making projects.

Epl 662 Survey Research Methods (3)

The course provides an introduction to modern survey methodology through current literature and links to in-practice surveys that offer an overview of both the theoretical and practical aspects of survey research.  Students practice developing questions, designing questionnaires and conducting mini-small-scale surveys.  Particular attention is paid to decision-making processes in designing a survey as well as to research in cognitive psychology that informs questionnaire development.  Beyond designing and conducting survey research, the course covers organizing data, interpreting results and writing reports.

Epl 663 (Tap 663) Networked Communities: Building A Culture of Practice Improvement (3)

This course will introduce students to how improvement science can be used to foster the creation of networked improvement communities (NICs). We will learn how such communities improve the pace, scope, and capacity for learning. In particular, we will focus on cultural elements that such NICs share across sectors (be that medicine, industry, social systems or education) such as their capacity to encourage vulnerability, sharing, transparency, and create a shared purpose and vision among its team. With this in mind, we will also focus some of our attention and readings on how "the hive mind" works - that is how communities of thinkers can be brought together for the purpose of innovation and diffusion of ideas, drawing on some of the most recent scholarship in the field (on sociology, psychology, and educational researchers among others) to learn how humans can better work, think, and collaborate together to solve today's most wicked problems.

Epl 664 (Tap 664) Theories of Change and Action Science for Innovation and Improvement (3)

This seminar connects theories of change and organizational action science with improvement science, emphasizing innovations in professional education, leadership practice and policy, program evaluation, and implementation research. Priorities include organizational learning and improvement; strategies for knowledge generation, dissemination, and use; error detection and correction mechanisms; and the special roles of change agent/facilitators in professional development programs and improvement-oriented initiatives in education systems.

Epl 666 Comparative Education (3)

A study of the forces influencing the development of education in modern industrialized nations. Special emphasis on comparative methodology in research dealing with the social economic, and political causes and consequences of the structure of education systems.

Epl 667 Seminar on the Global Politics of Educational Quality (3)

The course seeks to explore the global and local agencies, institutions and structures that promote and embody international policy instruments concerned with educational quality and the ways in which they define quality. The course draws from different literatures and conceptual frameworks to through light on the issues examined, and spans both basic and higher education.

Epl 670 Analysis for Educational Policy and Leadership (3)

Production and use of analysis to inform educational decisions and policies. Acquaint students with the nature and methods of applied inquiry in education and to help them develop skills for conceptualizing fundamental educational problems, frame problems for analysis, develop recommendations for action, forecast potential consequences of implementing such recommendations.

Epl 671 Current Research on Educational Leadership & School Reform (3)

This course explores school reform and educational policy by investigating current school improvement models and education initiatives focusing on their relation to educational leadership and instructional practice. 

Epl 672 Educational Public Relations (3)

Principles of educational information service. Constructive method of continuous community education. Sociological basis of public relations. Analysis of current educational reports and publications. Practice in the production of public relations materials.

Epl 673 Advanced Human Resources Policies in Education (3)

Definition and determination of staff needs. Policies for recruitment, selection, assignment, salary planning, promotion, grievances, professional development, evaluation, benefits, and services. Concepts and practice of labor-management relations and collective bargaining in education, with attention to legal and social context, bargaining process, and relation of bargaining to leadership and governance.

Epl 674 Educational Leadership in Federal and State Governments (3)

Administration of education by state and federal governments, internal organization and coordination of agencies and bureaus, changing roles and relationships of government as they affect educational leadership.

Epl 675 Programs and Services for the Disabled (3)

The legal, political, social, and educational implications of current federal and state statutes and court rulings concerning the education of pupils with handicapping conditions. Planning, implementation, and monitoring of programs for the handicapped within these legal mandates.

Epl 676 Law and Special Education (3)

Federal and selected state statutory provisions and administrative regulations relevant to educating special needs students. Particular emphasis is given to recent judicial, legislative, and policy developments. An overview of the legal basis of education, the structure and function of the judicial system, and the import of the U.S. Constitution is provided.

Epl 677 Organization and Administration of Literacy Programs (3)

Examines organizational/administrative issues at three levels (societal/government, district/school, and classroom).  Covers these topics: historical perspectives on literacy, current philosophies/theories, federal and state regulations, supervision techniques, district- and school-level reform (professional development, selection of materials/strategies, curriculum reform, assessment, etc.); classroom organization for literacy instruction (materials, grouping practices, etc.), evaluation of literacy initiatives.

Epl 680 Seminar in Education Policy and Leadership (3)

This course is designed to facilitate participants' research and writing of a capstone research project in which students demonstrate the knowledge and skill to conduct independent inquiry in the areas of educational policy and leadership. The course is intended for students at the completion of their master’s program.

Epl 687 Institute in Education (1-9)

Special course, not part of the pattern of regular offerings, designed to meet particular nonrecurring needs. Available for department use and subject to department approval.

Epl 694 Management Skills Practicum (2-3)

Emphasis on personal and interpersonal management skills acquisition within a case study/role play format; combines conceptual learning and behavioral practice. Topics include developing self awareness, managing personal stress, solving problems creatively, establishing supportive communication, gaining power and influence, motivating employees, delegating, decision making, managing conflict and conducting meetings.

Epl 697 Independent Study in Educational Administration (2-6)

Supervised independent study designed to meet particular needs in master's-level programs. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Epl 699 Master's Thesis in Educational Administration (2-6)

Epl 700 Organizational Management and Leadership in Education (3)

This course surveys major contributions of organizational theory and management through readings and discussion of classical and contemporary texts. Participants will learn to explore, appreciate, and critique different theoretical systems and frameworks and to apply them to the study of an organizational problem of current interest in education.

Epl 701 Advanced Social Analysis (3)

Critical issues in the application of social science methodologies to an understanding of the environmental context in which educational administration operates. Attention is paid to the contribution of specific disciplines, including anthropology, economics, political science, sociology and social psychology. Prerequisite: Must be admitted to doctoral program in EPL.

Epl 714 Introduction to Research Methods in Educational Administration and Policy Studies (3)

The course introduces students to the broad range of approaches to doing research in EPL. It surveys research methods and designs applicable to topics in educational administration, decision making, and policy analysis with emphasis on how to choose effective methods and the consequences of those choices. Prerequisite: Passing grade on department's statistics qualifying examination.

Epl 715 Research Practicum in Educational Administration and Policy Studies (3)

Designed to provide the student with experience in actual research design and conduct concerning administrative and policy study areas and issues. The final product will be a 20- to 30-page research prospectus, which may subsequently provide background for the student's dissertation proposal. Prerequisite: Epl 714. This course is only open to students who have passed the departments comprehensive exam.

Epl 716 Leadership and Administration (3)

Literature and research on leadership. Differing approaches to understanding educational leadership, as well as to conditions that relate to the application of varying leadership styles and strategies. Personality, situational, motivational, political, and organizational factors and approaches are compared. Conditions which affect educational leader/manager effectiveness.

Epl 718 Interprofessional Leadership for School, Family, and Community (3)

Analysis of leadership for school, family, and community partnerships with special emphasis on how schools can leverage and strengthen family and community resources for learning, success in school, and healthy development. Topics include interprofessional and community collaboration, parent empowerment, school-linked services, after school programs, and community development strategies.

Epl 720 The Principalship (3)

Working with the administrative staff, selection and assignment of teachers, curriculum and daily schedule, office routine, internal organization, special services, semi-public functions, relations with the State Department of Education, research and surveys, and the local community.

Epl 724 Administrative Planning in Higher Education (3)

Policies to guide growth and development; application of techniques for decision making; use of planning models.

Epl 727 Politics of Private and Independent School and College Administration (3)

The political relationships of compulsory public education and public- assisted postsecondary education to private and independent schools. Focus on financial management, certification, and the implications of voucher and tuition tax credit policies.

Epl 729 Seminar on Labor Management Relations in Education (3)

Advanced topics in the study of labor-management relations in elementary, secondary, and higher education. Topics include models of bargaining behavior, role of labor activities on governance and operations, dispute resolution and the impacts of labor policies. Course activities include analysis of selected research literature and design of empirical studies.

Epl 730 Advanced School Business Leadership (3)

Concepts and practices of district-level school business management, with emphasis on theoretical issues and practical, district and state-level policy issues related to budgeting and finance. Applications include effective linking of school business management to learning and achieving equity for children and taxpayers.

Epl 731 Public School Finance (Advanced) (3)

Explores research in the field, including adaptability, and cost-quality studies. Emphasis on the development of educational fiscal policy at the local, state, and federal levels. Special attention to debt service and income management.

Epl 742 Seminar in Administration of Adult Education Settings (3)

Advanced topics in the study of administration in organizations providing learning opportunities for adults. Topics include assessing needs, inter- and intra-organizational linkage, community education, leadership, community relations, evaluation. Course activities include analysis of selected research.

Epl 745 Advanced Seminar in the Politics of Education (3)

Trends and research in the politics of educational governance. Relationship of courts, legislature, executive, and educational agencies in state politics. Interactions of local boards, citizen groups, teacher federations, and administrators within local school systems. Students complete in-depth case study or analysis of significant political issue in education.

Epl 750 Higher Education Finance (3)

Analysis of higher education in the United States. Investment nature of higher education decisions, the definition and estimation of benefits and costs, and the alternative private and public means of financing. Prerequisite: Epl 602 or consent of instructor.

Epl 751 Higher Education Law (3)

Impact of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions on institutions of higher education. Legal issues involved in various controversies co- extensive with inquiry regarding the educational and policy implications of the legal cases considered.

Epl 752 Research Colloquium on Higher Education (3)

Interdisciplinary research seminar where faculty, graduate students, and visiting scholars share interests in higher education research. A variety of perspectives from academic disciplines (economics, history, political science, sociology, etc.). Seminar attempts to make disciplinary inquiry more useful to the policy-making process in higher education.

Epl 753 Seminar on College Persistence (3)

The seminar analyses the issues, theoretical models, research and practice on college choice and persistence. It presents case studies to illustrate how theory and research informs institutional practices.

Epl 755 The Human Service Professions in Engaged Universities (3)

Analysis of innovative instructional programs, research methodologies, and community partnerships in engaged universities with special attention to the human service professions. Topics include service learning, community-based research, and inter-professional education. Barriers, constraints, and facilitators for engagement are explored, along with the implications for faculty careers and faculty evaluation systems.

Epl 757 Seminar in the Administration of the Community College (3)

Organization and management of the two-year college as a distinct sector of postsecondary education. Topics include administrative concepts and functions such as finance, governance, and management of academic programs. Major field-based project required.

Epl 758 Special Topics in International Education Management & Leadership (1 - 3)

Specialized topics related to international education management and leadership. Topics will vary based on faculty and visiting scholar expertise along with student interest. The number of credits will reflect the hours of direct instruction for a given section or offering, of which there may be several in a given semester. Students may repeat this course as the topic changes, up to a limit of six (6) credits. Prerequisite: Permission of program director or advisor.

Epl 760 Advanced Study in Educational Management (3)

Survey and synthesis of the basic literature and concepts from both the micro and macro levels of analysis in the knowledge base of the field. Designed to develop the analytical and support skills necessary to independent inquiry and advanced professional scholarship. Prerequisite: Must be admitted to doctoral EPL or CAS program.

Epl 761 Theory in Educational Administration (3)

Major recent trends in organizational theory and theory in behavioral and social science as applied to educational administration.

Epl 762 Seminar in Advanced Research Methods for Educational Leadership (3)

Special topics seminar on advanced or specialized research methods in the study of education policy and organizational leadership.  Topics will vary, but will draw on the instructor's expertise with applying cutting-edge data collection or analysis techniques to the study of educational institutions and systems.  Students may repeat this course as the topic changes.  Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Epl 764 Computer Applications in Educational Administration and Policy Studies (3)

Use of the computer as a tool in the management of an educational institution. Students are expected to apply the computer to real/simulated management problems.

Epl 766 Education and Social Change in Developing Nations (3)

Role of formal schooling in the economic and social transformation of developing nations. Outcomes of educational policy and the dilemmas of micro- and macro-educational planning.

Epl 770 Law and School District Leadership (3)

Comprehensive survey of legal and statutory materials relevant to K-12 educational leadership. Topics include: structure and function of the legal system; the rights/responsibilities of professional personnel and students; torts, contract, and school-district property issues; and church-state relations. Designed primarily for district-wide leaders.

Epl 771 Educational Policy and the Law (3)

Major law-related educational controversies that have reshaped educational policy in the last 25 years. The law and its interaction with educational policy and practice considered within the framework of the definition and implementation of the goal of equal educational opportunity.

Epl 780 Advanced Seminar in Educational Leadership (3)

Individual and group study of specific problems in the leadership of educational organizations. Includes the completion of a field-based case analysis or project. May be repeated for students seeking multiple certification.

Epl 800 Seminar in Administrative Analysis I (3)

Part I of a year-long research seminar for experienced administrators in the doctoral program. Concentrates on a different substantive theme each year, and stresses applying research to problems in educational administration and policy making. Requirement of major research project resulting in a paper assessing a policy problem and presenting research- based recommendations for solutions. Prerequisite: Permission of department.

Epl 801 Seminar in Administrative Analysis II (3)

Part II of year-long research seminar (same description as for Epl 800).

Epl 887 Institute in Education (2-9)

A special course, not part of the pattern of regular offerings, designed to meet non-recurring needs.

Epl 890 Research and Independent Study in Administration (2-6)

Designed to meet the needs of students in advanced programs. Prerequisite: Consent of department.

Epl 891 Seminar in Administrative Research (3)

Required of all doctoral students in EPL. Theoretical and practical aspects of research design, problem definition, and application of research methodology. Advancement of student's dissertation proposal to stage of departmental review hearing. Prerequisite: Completion of all doctoral core requirements. Normally taken during or subsequent to residency year.

Epl 895 Internship (1-6)

Participation in planned experiences which emphasize the student's professional objective. May be repeated up to six credits.

Epl 896 School Leadership Internship I (2 or 4)

Participation in a year-long internship experience leading to New York State certification in school leadership. The first course of a three-course sequence. Includes a seminar. Prerequisites: Epl 600, Epl 601, Epl 614, and one Epl social science elective.

Epl 897 School Leadership Internship II (2 or 4)

Participation in a year-long internship experience leading to New York State certification in school leadership. The second course of a three-course sequence. Includes a seminar. Prerequisite: Epl 896.

Epl 898 School Leadership Internship III (2 or 4)

Participation in a year-long internship experience leading to New York State certification in school leadership. The third course of a three-course sequence. It builds on the experiences gained in Epl 896 and 897. Includes a seminar. Prerequisite: Epl 897.

Epl 899 Doctoral Dissertation (1)

Required of all candidates completing the doctoral degree. Registration for this course is limited to doctoral students who have been admitted to candidacy.