Undergraduate Courses

Beyond the basic science offerings in Biology, Chemistry, Psychology and Human Biology/Anthropology, the University at Albany has rich course offerings in Health Sciences. For example, in the 2014/15 academic year, more than 40 undergraduate courses in health sciences were offered. These are in the fields of Anatomy and Physiology (from basic Human Anatomy and Physiology though advanced courses in Exercise Physiology), Immunology, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Virology and Parasitology, Pharmacology including Psychopharmacology, Genetics and Genomics including an undergraduate course in the Genetics of Human Disease, Molecular Virology, Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, Bioethics, Epidemiology, Health-related Data Analytics, Experimental Design and Statistics, Health Psychology, and Healthcare Management and Policy (including courses in the Economics of Health Care and Interdisciplinary Health and Human Rights). With permission of the instructor, a comprehensive array of dozens of additional very specialized graduate courses in the Health Sciences are often open to advanced standing undergraduates especially seniors.

As an example of the comprehensive array of undergraduate health science course offerings at the University at Albany, listed below are the courses that were offered in the 2014/15 academic year.

Course Disciplines

Anatomy and Physiology

A ANT 316 Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4)

This course provides an introduction to human anatomy and physiology. These topics refer to the form and function of the human body, and are presented together in an integrated two-semester course sequence. This course focuses on basic concepts in anatomy and physiology, embryology, the peripheral nervous system, respiration, the cardiovascular system, and the musculoskeletal system of the upper limb, thorax and back. The course provides a foundation for students interested in human biology, biological anthropology, medicine, and allied health professions. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120 and 122; 111 or 121 and 123; A CHM 120, 121.

A ANT 317 Exercise Physiology (3)

This course will provide a broad introduction to the field of exercise physiology. Topics covered will include cellular energy metabolism, pulmonary and cardiovascular responses to exercise, muscle physiology, training, nutrition, bode composition, and exercise testing. Students will spend some time in the human performance laboratory where the focus will on be applied exercise physiology and performance testing. Specialized topics include exercise at high altitude, temperature regulation, sports nutrition, exercise performance during the growth and development period, and the relationship of exercise and physical activity to human health and disease. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120 and 122; and 111 or 121 and 123.

A ANT 318 Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4)

This course provides an introduction to human anatomy and physiology. These topics refer to the form and function of the human body, and are presented together in an integrated two-semester course sequence. This course is the second in that sequence, and focuses on the gastro-intestinal tract, digestion, the urogenital, reproductive and endocrine systems, the cranial nerves, the visual, olfactory and auditory systems, and the musculoskeletal system of the lower limb, head and neck. The course provides a foundation for students interested in human biology, biological anthropology, medicine, and allied health professions. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 316.

A BIO 410 Human Physiology (3)

The functions of organ systems and their contributions to the functions of the human body as a whole. Topics to include: nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal systems and energy metabolism and temperature regulation. Two 1 1/2-hour lecture periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z.

A BIO 411Z Human Physiology Laboratory (2)

A mixture of lab experiments and computer simulations in systemic physiology with emphasis on membrane transport and excitability, muscle contraction, cardiovascular regulation, respiration and metabolism, acid-base control, renal system physiology, and sensory physiology. Three hours laboratory and one hour discussion per week, with emphasis on writing of scientific lab reports. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Co-requisite(s): A BIO 410.

Biochemistry

A CHM 342 Introduction to Biochemistry (3)

A one-semester overview of protein and nucleic acid structural biology, synthesis, and function; with a brief introduction to metabolism, signal transduction, and carbohydrate chemistry. This course is suggested for chemistry majors who will not be taking the two semester Comprehensive Biochemistry sequence (A CHM 442 and 443) as part of their degree curriculum. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 365. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 220 and 221.

A CHM 343 Introduction to Biochemistry Laboratory (1)

Experiments illustrating the fundamentals of biochemistry as discussed in A CHM 342. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 222. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A CHM 342. May not be offered in 2015-2016.

A CHM 442 (formerly A CHM 440A) Comprehensive Biochemistry I (3)

Chemical characteristics of living matter, amino acids, polypeptides and proteins, enzyme mechanisms and kinetics; bioenergetics and chemistry of metabolism. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 221 or permission of instructor.

A CHM 443 (formerly A CHM 440B) Comprehensive Biochemistry II (3)

Biosynthesis, storage, and expression of genetic information; electron transport and other transports across membranes, membrane protein structure and function. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 221 or permission of instructor.

Bioethics

A PHI 338 Moral Problems in Medicine (3)

An investigation of moral problems in medicine, such as the health professional–patient relationship, medical paternalism, informed consent, social justice and health policy, the treatment of severely defective newborns, and the withholding of life-prolonging treatment. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

A PHI 417 Bioethics (3)

Critical study of one or more topics in bioethics. Possible topics include: advance directives; assisted reproductive technologies; death; genetic engineering; screening and testing; health care reform; informed consent; maternal-fetal conflicts; medical experimentation; medical futility; organ transplantation; physician-assisted suicide; proxy consent; and the right to refuse treatment. Prerequisite(s): A PHI 338 or permission of instructor.

Experimental Design and Statistics

A BIO 201 (formerly A BIO 122) Introduction to Biological Investigations I

First course in a two-semester laboratory sequence designed for biology majors. Students will learn the process of scientific investigation, collaborate in designing, conducting and analyzing experiments, develop the ability to communicate in scientific format and gain expertise in a variety of laboratory instrumentation, techniques, skills and procedures. One laboratory period per week. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 110 or A BIO 122. Prerequisites(s): A BIO 120, A BIO 121, and A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125. Offered Fall semester only. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 202Z (formerly A BIO 123Z) Introduction to Biological Investigations II

Second course in a two-semester laboratory sequence designed for biology majors. Students will learn the process of scientific investigation, collaborate in designing, conducting and analyzing experiments, develop the ability to communicate in scientific format and gain expertise in a variety of laboratory instrumentation, techniques, skills and procedures. One laboratory period per week. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 111 or 123Z. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 120, A BIO 121, A BIO 201, and A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125. Offered spring semester only. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A MAT 108 Elementary Statistics (3)

Frequency distributions, measures of central tendency and dispersion, probability and sampling, estimation, testing of hypotheses, linear regression, and correlation. Only one of A MAT 108 and B ITM 220 may be taken for credit. Not open for credit by students who have taken A MAT 308. Prerequisite(s): three years of high school mathematics.

A MAT 308 Topics in Statistical Inference (3)

Various statistical techniques such as chi-square tests, multiple regression and correlation; nonparametric statistics, and the analysis of variance as applied to physical, biological, and social sciences. Prerequisite(s): some prior experience with elementary statistics.

A MAT 362/362Z Probability for Statistics (3)

Introduction to discrete and continuous probability models, including probability mass functions, density functions, and cumulative distribution functions. Discrete examples will include the binomial, negative binomial, Poisson, and hypergeometric distributions. Continuous distributions will include the normal and exponential distributions, the family of gamma and beta densities, and, if time permits, t and chi-square distributions. Other topics are the probability axioms, equally likely sample spaces (combinatorics), conditional probability, joint distributions, marginal distributions, conditional distributions, covariance, correlation, moment generating functions, and the Central Limit Theorem. Only one version of A MAT 362 may be taken for credit. A MAT 362 constitutes substantial preparation for Actuarial Exam P. A student may not apply both A MAT 362 and A MAT 367 toward any major or minor in mathematics or a minor in statistics. Prerequisite(s): calculus through A MAT 214 or the equivalent.

A MAT 363/363Z Statistics (3)

A calculus-based introduction to statistics. Confidence intervals and hypothesis tests for means and variances, differences of means and ratios of variances, including P-values, power functions and sample size estimates and involving normal, binomial, t, chi-square, and F distributions. Additional topics may include introductions to simple linear regression, Bayesian statistics, sample survey methods, goodness of fit tests, non-parametric tests, or analysis of variance. Only one version of A MAT 363 may be taken for credit. Students with credit for A MAT 367 but who have not taken A MAT 362 may take A MAT 363 only with permission of instructor. Students with credit for A MAT 368 may not take A MAT 363. Prerequisite(s): A MAT 362.

A MAT 370 Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences (3)

Basic probability, conditional probability and independence, families of discrete and continuous random variables, expected values and variances, moment generating functions, bivariate distributions, Bayesian networks, law of large numbers and central limit theorem, normal, t, and chi-square distributions, confidence intervals and hypothesis testing and simple linear regressions. A MAT 370 is a one semester introduction to probability and statistics intended primarily for science or engineering majors who have completed two semesters of calculus. Students cannot apply both A MAT 362 and A MAT 370 or both A MAT 363 and A MAT 370 toward the requirements for a Mathematics major. A MAT 370 fulfills the probability/statistics requirement for the Mathematics BA. A MAT 367 and A MAT 370 can be one of the two sequences required for the B.S. in Mathematics. Students who expect to do graduate work in mathematics or statistics should take both A MAT 362 and A MAT 363, not A MAT 370. Prerequisite(s): A MAT 367 or I CSI 210.

A PHI 112 Critical Thinking (3)

This is a course in informal logic. It centers on the meaning of claims, and whether a claim should be accepted or rejected, or whether suspension of judgment is appropriate. This course is intended to help students think clearly and effectively.

A PHI 218 Understanding Science (3)

Introduction to problems of scientific reasoning such as: the nature of scientific method, hypothetical-deductive testing of hypotheses, fallacies of testing, and the relevance of science to society and religion. Examples drawn from the physical and social sciences. A PHI 112 or 210 recommended.

Genetics/Genomics

T BIO 176 Genomics & Biotechnology: The Broad Ranging Impact on Mankind (3)

The sequencing of the genomes of a large number of organisms, from bacteria to human, has provided enormous insights into a wide range of human endeavors. Almost no aspect of human knowledge has been untouched by the information being compiled. The information gathered has also driven the development of new technologies designed to explore and exploit the information gathered. The goal of this course will be to familiarize students with the nature of the information that can be gathered from genomics and the benefits derived from the new biotechnologies. Also, simple research problems will be assigned to introduce students to the web based resources and programs used to analyze genomic data. Open to Honors College students only.

A BIO 205 Human Genetics (3)

Survey of human genetics emphasizing the principles and mechanisms of inheritance and including the analysis of the genetic material of humans; the behavior of genes in individuals families, and populations; and the implications for human behavior and evolution, medicine, and society. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120, and 111 or 121, or permission of instructor.

A BIO 309 Genetics Laboratory (2)

Laboratory studies that focus on the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the significance of these principles to other aspects of biology. Genetic principles will be demonstrated through the utilization of model organisms such as lambda bacteriophage, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Topics may include classical Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics and genomics, and modern applications of these techniques. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202 and A BIO 212. Effective Fall 2014 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 329 Genetics of Human Disease (3)

Four categories of the involvement of human genes in disease will be explored using specific examples to illustrate general phenomena. First, inheritance of diseases caused by single mutant alleles will be discussed. Second, the pre-disposition of specific genotypes to disease will be investigated highlighting the interplay between genes and between the genes and the environment. Third, genetic instabilities that give rise to genetic rearrangements and chromosome loss will be explored. Fourth, the genetic interplay between host and pathogen will be explored with respect to the evolution of protective mechanisms by the host and evasion by the pathogen, and how new pathogens emerge. For each category, multiple cases of specific diseases will be discussed with an emphasis on both the molecular basis of the genetic interactions and the population genetics of disease spread and persistence. The potential of modern genetic techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of diseases will also be discussed. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

Health Psychology

A PSY 329/329T Health Psychology (3)

Survey of psychological theory and research in the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, and the improvement of health care delivery. Topics include health-enhancing and health-compromising behaviors, stress and coping, patient-provider communication, pain management, and psychosocial aspects of specific illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, and AIDS. Only one version of A PSY 329 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A PSY 101.

Health Management-Related Courses

H SPH 310 (= H HPM 310) Health Care in the U.S.: Key Policy Issues (3)

This course is an overview of the status, trends, and key issues concerning U.S. health care delivery today. It will include a comparative assessment of health policies by determining which issues in the U.S. health economy have similar causes with those in other nations, and which are specific to domestic circumstances. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ECO 110 or permission of instructor.

H SPH 342 How U.S. Health Care Works: Myths and Realities (3)

This course will introduce students to everyday realities of the U.S. health care system related to current issues like health care quality, access to care, the uninsured, patient safety, health care inflation, prescription drugs, physician-patient interaction, use of health care technology, and end-of-life care. The course is intended to provide students with an understanding of the various actors, stakeholder interactions, and functions of the U.S. health care system, through a case-based approach interweaving real world events, practice experience, and research about those events.

H SPH 381 (= H HPM 381 & A ECO 381) Economics of Health Care (3)

Economics concepts are used to explain the nature of demand and supply in the health care field. The behavior of consumers and health care providers is examined from an economic perspective. Areas of market failures and the rationale for government intervention are also described. Only one version of H SPH 381 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ECO 300 or permission of instructor.

R PAD 354 U.S. Health Policy in the Age of Obama (3)

How does "Obamacare" work, why is it designed the way it is, and what have its impacts been so far? This course will examine the Affordable Care Act (colloquially known as Obamacare) through the lens of economics. It will begin by surveying the most important economic issues in U.S. health policy, including adverse selection, the incentive distortions of insurance markets, bargaining between insurers and providers, economic justice, and rising costs. It will then examine the main structure of the Affordable Care Act and how the various provisions address (or fail to address) these economic issues. Finally, the course will review empirical evidence on the impacts of the law and of similar provisions elsewhere. Prerequisite(s): A ECO 110 and R PAD 316 or an equivalent course in statistics.

R PAD 486 (= R POS 486 & H HPM 486)

Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3) This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version may be taken for credit.

Immunology

A BIO 335 Immunology (3)

The structure and function of the antibody molecule and of reactions between antigen and antibody. Also covers cellular interactions in the immune response as well as both the beneficial and harmful consequences of the response. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 336Z Laboratory in Immunology (2)

Modern laboratory techniques will be performed to study the cellular and humoral components of the immune system; immune cells and cell markers, immunoglobulin purification and characterization, antibody and antigen identification assays including immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, and enzyme-based immunoassays (ELISA). One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 335. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

Infectious Diseases, Virology and Parasitology

A BIO 429 Molecular Virology (3)

Viruses are usually associated with damaging and often fatal infections. However without viruses our world would be a very different place. This course will introduce the fundamental principles of virology with an emphasis on the viral replication strategies, virus-cell interactions, pathogenesis, and evolution of viruses; as well strategies applied for control and prevention of infection. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212 and 217. Prerequisite or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

Microbiology

A BIO 314 Microbiology (3)

Introduction to the morphology, physiology, structure, genetics, and metabolism of microorganisms, including the roles played by microorganisms in medical, environmental, agricultural, and biotechnological sciences. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y and 365.

A BIO 315 Microbiology Laboratory (2)

Laboratory studies that deal with the culture and study of microorganisms, the dynamics of microbial growth, and the physiological basis of bacterial identification. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y and 365. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 314. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 326 Environmental Microbiology Laboratory (2)

Explores the role of microbes in natural and human-impacted systems through topics such as nutrient cycling, waste degradation, bioremediation, waterborne disease, food safety, and pollution control. Informal lectures and current events discussions may be incorporated into laboratory exercises. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y, and 314. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365. May not be offered in 2015-2016.

Molecular Biology

A BIO 425 Molecular Biology (3)

Mechanisms of gene expression and regulation will be studied, using examples from bacteria and eukaryotes. Discussion will include experimental approaches to gene cloning and sequencing, analysis of DNA-protein interactions, and structure and function of RNA. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 426 Laboratory in Molecular Biology (2)

Experiments in the modern techniques of recombinant molecular biology will be performed. These may include restriction mapping of plasmids, gene cloning, DNA blotting, DNA sequence analysis, plasmid constructions, and gene expression studies. One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 and 425. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

Organic Chemistry

A CHM 143 Pre-Organic Chemistry (1)

The course provides a background and review of those topics necessary for success in organic chemistry. Topics may include bonding, Lewis acid/bases, hybridization, electronegativity, polarizability, 3-D structures, energy profile diagrams, oxidation states, and reaction mechanisms. Carbon containing compounds will be emphasized. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 120. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A CHM 121.

A CHM 220 (formerly A CHM 216A) Organic Chemistry I (3)

Structure, synthesis, and reactions of the principal classes of organic compounds, stressing the underlying principles of reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry techniques. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 121 or 131 and 125.

A CHM 221 (formerly A CHM 216B) Organic Chemistry II (3)

Introduction to spectroscopic characteristics or organic compounds; continued classification of “reaction types” exhibited by organic molecules; chemistry of carbonyl compounds; aspects of aromatic chemistry, heterocycles, nitrogen compounds, polymers, and biologically important molecules. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 220.

A CHM 222 (formerly A CHM 217A) Organic Chemistry Laboratory I (1)

Basic techniques of organic chemistry including extraction, crystallization, distillation, and chromatography; physical properties of compounds. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A CHM 220. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A CHM 223 (formerly A CHM 217B) Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (1)

Application of basic techniques of organic chemistry to the synthesis and qualitative analysis of organic compounds. Applications of IR and NMR spectroscopy. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 222. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A CHM 221. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A CHM 436 Advanced Organic Chemistry (3)

Organic chemistry at an advanced level, including introduction of theoretical background and application in synthesis. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A CHM 320 or 351.

A CHM 437 Organic Synthesis (3)

The course will focus on the total synthesis of complex organic molecules, such as natural products. Synthetic strategies as well as reaction mechanisms of every step will be discussed. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 221.

Pharmacology

A CHM 458 Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology (3)

Medicinal chemistry is an interdisciplinary course at the interface of chemistry and pharmacy and is involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. It will include the following topics: molecular modeling, rational drug design, combinatorial chemistry, QSAR, and cheminformatics. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 221, 442.

A PSY 388 Introduction to Psychopharmacology (3)

Overview of the principles of psycho-pharmacology as relevant to drug use; the biological, neurochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the actions of drugs; psychiatric medications and their therapeutic actions and associated toxicities; and the history, consequences, and complexity of drug use and abuse. Prerequisite(s): A PSY 214.