Courses in Biological Sciences

A BIO 117 Nutrition (3)
The biological roles of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals; digestion, absorption, and storage of nutrients, the chemical nature of foods and food processing; assessment of nutritional status; interactions of nutrients and disease; food supplementation and community nutrition. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A BIO 120 General Biology I (3)
First course in a two-semester sequence which offers a comprehensive survey of the structures and functions common to all living systems at the molecular, cellular, organismal, and population levels. This course emphasizes evolutionary principles, ecology, anatomy and physiology. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit for A BIO 110. Offered Fall semester only.

A BIO 121 General Biology II (3)
Second course in a two-semester sequence which offers a comprehensive survey of the structures and functions common to all living systems at the molecular, cellular, organismal, and population levels. This course emphasizes molecular and cell biology, genetics and neurobiology. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit for A BIO 111. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120. Offered spring semester only.  

T BIO 176 Genomics & Biotechnology: The Broad Ranging Impact on Mankind (3)
The sequencing of the genomes of a large number of organisms, from bacteria to human, has provided enormous insights into a wide range of human endeavors. Almost no aspect of human knowledge has been untouched by the information being compiled. The information gathered has also driven the development of new technologies designed to explore and exploit the information gathered. The goal of this course will be to familiarize students with the nature of the information that can be gathered from genomics and the benefits derived from the new biotechnologies. Also, simple research problems will be assigned to introduce students to the web based resources and programs used to analyze genomic data. Open to Honors College students only.

A BIO 199 Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences (1–3)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of biological sciences. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Intended for students interested in exploring in depth themes covered in large lecture classes. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): consult instructor for specific prerequisites. S/U or A-E graded. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 201 (formerly A BIO 122) Introduction to Biological Investigations I
First course in a two-semester laboratory sequence designed for biology majors. Students will learn the process of scientific investigation, collaborate in designing, conducting and analyzing experiments, develop the ability to communicate in scientific format and gain expertise in a variety of laboratory instrumentation, techniques, skills and procedures. One laboratory period per week. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 110 or A BIO 122. Prerequisites(s): A BIO 120, A BIO 121, and A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125. Offered Fall semester only. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 202Z (formerly A BIO 123Z) Introduction to Biological Investigations II
Second course in a two-semester laboratory sequence designed for biology majors. Students will learn the process of scientific investigation, collaborate in designing, conducting and analyzing experiments, develop the ability to communicate in scientific format and gain expertise in a variety of laboratory instrumentation, techniques, skills and procedures. One laboratory period per week. May not be taken by students with credit for A BIO 111 or 123Z. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 120, A BIO 121, A BIO 201, and A CHM 120, 121, 124, 125. Offered spring semester only. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 205 Human Genetics (3)
Survey of human genetics emphasizing the principles and mechanisms of inheritance and including the analysis of the genetic material of humans; the behavior of genes in individuals families, and populations; and the implications for human behavior and evolution, medicine, and society. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120, and 111 or 121, or permission of instructor.

A BIO 212Y Introductory Genetics (4)
Genetics from the classical Mendelian Laws of inheritance to molecular genetics. Topics will include: DNA structure and replication; Mendelian genetics and recombination; population, fungal, somatic cell, and bacterial genetics; gene organization; the genetic code; mechanisms of gene expression and regulation; and applications of genetic technology. Three class periods and one discussion section. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120, and a grade of C (2.00) or better in A BIO 111 or 121.

A BIO 217 Cell Biology (3)
An introduction to modern cell biology. This course will present the basic organization of eukaryotic cells while stressing their elaborate structural-functional integration. The cells fundamental properties conserved through evolution will be stressed. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120, and a grade of C (2.00) or better in A BIO 111 or 121.

A BIO 218 Introduction to Plant Biology (3)
An introduction to the great group of organisms that form the basis of our food web and provide us with our oxygen. Topics will include plant origins and evolution, physiology, morphology, and development. Along the way we will consider more general principles of body design and pattern formation, the unfolding of complex form from relatively unstructured beginnings. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or 120 and 201, and A BIO 111 or 121 and 202Z, or permission of instructor.

A BIO 222 Biological Consequences of Global Climate Change (2)
Introduction to the background, predictions, and empirical evidence for biological effects of increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases. Emphasis on regional-scale consequences for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including agricultural and urban ecosystems. Lectures, demonstrations, exercises, and discussions based on current science, with focus on NE North America. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or A BIO 120 and 201.

T BIO 222Y Biological Consequences of Global Climate Change (3)
T BIO 222 is the Honors College version of A BIO 222; only one version may be taken for credit.

A BIO 296 Biological Sciences with Laboratory (2-4)
Laboratory training in biological sciences. Yields laboratory credit towards the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit when topic varies.

A BIO 298 Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences, with Laboratory (1-3)
Laboratory classroom training in selected areas of biological sciences. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields laboratory credit towards the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z; consult with instructor for specific prerequisites. S/U or A-E graded. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 302Z Cell Biology Laboratory (2)
Introduction to modern techniques in cell biology, including advanced optical microscopy, DNA extraction and analysis, protein electrophoresis and western blotting, cell homogenization and fractionation, and cell culture. These techniques are used to investigate cell motility, membrane structure and permeability, mitochondrial respiration, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and cell adhesion. One laboratory period per week; additional time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 217 and 365. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 303 Developmental Biology (3)
The development of form and function in animals with emphasis on molecular analyses of organismal and cellular events underlying fertilization, early development, morphogenesis and growth. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 305 Developmental Biology Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course examines the mechanisms of animal and plant development at the molecular and cellular level by modern and classical techniques. Topics include gametogenesis, fertilization, early and later development, cell division and morphogenesis. One laboratory period per week; additional time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 303. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 308 Parasitic Diseases and Human Welfare (3)
Ecological, medical, and social interrelationships of selected parasitic diseases of people and domestic animals in temperate, semi-tropical, and tropical climates; role of wild animals as reservoirs or vectors of parasitic diseases in humans. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

A BIO 309 Genetics Laboratory (2)
Laboratory studies that focus on the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the significance of these principles to other aspects of biology. Genetic principles will be demonstrated through the utilization of model organisms such as lambda bacteriophage, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Topics may include classical Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics and genomics, and modern applications of these techniques. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Effective Fall 2014 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 311 (= A GOG 311 & U UNI 311) World Food Crisis (3)
Interdisciplinary approach to understanding world food problems through analyses of social, political, economic, nutritional, agricultural, and environmental aspects of world hunger. Faculty from several departments in the sciences, humanities, and social and behavioral sciences present approaches from various disciplines. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Only one version of A BIO 311 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing or permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 314 Microbiology (3)
Introduction to the morphology, physiology, structure, genetics, and metabolism of microorganisms, including the roles played by microorganisms in medical, environmental, agricultural, and biotechnological sciences. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y and 365.

A BIO 315 Microbiology Laboratory (2)
Laboratory studies that deal with the culture and study of microorganisms, the dynamics of microbial growth, and the physiological basis of bacterial identification. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y and 365. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 314. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 316 Biogeography (3)
Evolutionary ecology of geographic dispersal and range size; ecological niches and local abundance; allometry and population density; speciation and extinction; invasive species; island biogeography, metapopulations; ecological communities under climate change. Prerequisite(s): 15 credit hours in biology; A MAT 106 or A PHY 140. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 318 (= A ANT 312; formerly A BIO 419/A ANT 412) Human Population Genetics (3)
Population genetics theory is the foundation of evolutionary biology and contributes heavily to modern ideas in ecology, systematics, and agriculture. This course is an introduction to that theory with special emphasis on evolution. Only one of A ANT 312 and A BIO 318 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 211 or A BIO 205 or 212Y. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 320 Ecology (3)
Natural selection as an organizing principle; single-species population dynamics, geometric-mean growth, density-dependence, chaos in ecology; age structure, selection on life-histories, population projection; models for competition, predation, epidemics, and mutualism; species diversity, abundance models during community development. Prerequisite(s): A MAT 106 or A PHY 140, A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 321 The Insects (3)
A multilevel examination of the biology of insects, with particular emphasis on those aspects of design, physiology and behavior that make them so distinctive and successful. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 110 or A BIO 120 and 201, and A BIO 111 or 121 and 202Z.

A BIO 325 Comparative Anatomy of Chordates (4)
Comparative study of embryonic development, functional morphology, adaptive radiation, and evolution of chordates. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Not open to freshmen. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 326 Environmental Microbiology Laboratory (2)
Explores the role of microbes in natural and human-impacted systems through topics such as nutrient cycling, waste degradation, bioremediation, waterborne disease, food safety, and pollution control. Informal lectures and current events discussions may be incorporated into laboratory exercises. One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y, and 314. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 327 (formerly A BIO 445) Experimental Ecology (3)
Fundamental ecological concepts are demonstrated with experimental manipulations and comparative assessment techniques. Local ecosystems are studies; the focus is on the effects of land use on ecosystem structure and function. Ecological assessment skills are developed in the field and laboratory. Lectures couple fundamental and applied topics, balancing understanding of ecological principles with realistic environmental problem solving. Students contribute to a report that becomes part of the record for a municipal wetland. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z.

A BIO 329 Genetics of Human Disease (3)
Four categories of the involvement of human genes in disease will be explored using specific examples to illustrate general phenomena. First, inheritance of diseases caused by single mutant alleles will be discussed. Second, the pre-disposition of specific genotypes to disease will be investigated highlighting the interplay between genes and between the genes and the environment. Third, genetic instabilities that give rise to genetic rearrangements and chromosome loss will be explored. Fourth, the genetic interplay between host and pathogen will be explored with respect to the evolution of protective mechanisms by the host and evasion by the pathogen, and how new pathogens emerge. For each category, multiple cases of specific diseases will be discussed with an emphasis on both the molecular basis of the genetic interactions and the population genetics of disease spread and persistence. The potential of modern genetic techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of diseases will also be discussed. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 335 Immunology (3)
The structure and function of the antibody molecule and of reactions between antigen and antibody. Also covers cellular interactions in the immune response as well as both the beneficial and harmful consequences of the response. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 336Z Laboratory in Immunology (2)
Modern laboratory techniques will be performed to study the cellular and humoral components of the immune system; immune cells and cell markers, immunoglobulin purification and characterization, antibody and antigen identification assays including immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, and enzyme-based immunoassays (ELISA). One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 335. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 341 Neurobiology (3)
The structure and function of the nervous system examined at the cellular level. Topics include: organization of nervous systems; morphology and physiology of nerve cells; synaptic transmission; sensory processing; cellular circuitry underlying “simple” behaviors; cellular basis of learning; and the development of neuronal connections. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 111 or 121.

A BIO 342 Neurophysiology Laboratory (2)
A computer-based laboratory course examining the electrophysiological properties of the nervous system. The course will cover basic principles underlying resting potentials, passive electrical properties, action potentials, synaptic transmission and oscillatory neural networks. Simulation software will be used to model nerve cells and neural networks. Demonstrations of basic electrophysiological techniques will parallel the computer simulations. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, and A BIO 341 or permission of instructor. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 343 Evolutionary Biology and Human Health (3)
This course illustrates the importance and utility of evolutionary perspectives on various topics related to human health. In addition to the "how" questions, this course also introduces the "why" questions. Various evolutionary hypotheses are examined. Arguments for and counter-arguments against each hypothesis are presented to foster understanding of each topic. Selected topics include infectious diseases, pathogen virulence, allergy/asthma, mental health/addiction, genetic disorders, diseases of civilization, sex, pregnancy, and aging. Prerequisite(s): a course in genetics.

A BIO 365 Biological Chemistry I (3)
The chemistry and biochemical interrelationship of carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids; enzyme catalysis and introduction to metabolism. Only one of A CHM 342 and A BIO 365 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A CHM 220 and A CHM 221 and a grade of C (2.0) or better in A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 366 Biological Chemistry II (3)
Control and regulation of metabolic pathways, expression and transmission of genetic information, and a variety of selected current topics. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 367 Biochemistry Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course is designed to provide basic training in various procedures used in present day biochemical research. These will include methods for protein purification, enzyme kinetics, peptide sequencing, and fractionation of intracellular components. In addition, biochemical processes such as glucose metabolism and photosynthesis will be studied. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 or equivalent and permission of instructor. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 389Z Writing in Biology (1)
Students who are concurrently registered in, or have previously taken, any 300 or 400 level biology course which yields credit toward the major, may with permission of the instructor of that course, enroll in A BIO 389Z and fulfill a writing intensive version of that other course. One additional meeting per week in which writing techniques and experiences are stressed is required. Written work that will be used for credit in A BIO 389Z must be in addition to any writings required for the companion course. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): a companion biology course at the 300 or 400 level. S/U graded. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 397 Topics in Biology (1-3)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of biology. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields credit toward the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit, when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. May not be offered 2014-2015.

A BIO 398 Topics in Biology, with Laboratory (1-3)
Issues in selected areas of biology. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields laboratory credit toward the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit, when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. May not be offered 2014-2015. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 399/399Z Supervised Research for Juniors (1–3)
Individual, independent research on selected topics in biology. Critical analysis of selected research papers. Junior majors in the department of biological sciences apply for this course through the prospective research adviser. Students taking two or more semesters of A BIO 399, 399Z, 499, or 499Z will prepare a poster or make an oral presentation at the Departmental Research Symposium. A copy of the final written report of each semester’s work, preferably typewritten in journal format, is kept on permanent file in the department. May be taken either semester. A maximum of 6 credits may be earned in A BIO 399 and 399Z.

A BIO 402 Evolution (3)
The patterns and processes of biological change with time from the origins of life, through major evolutionary innovations, to the development of human culture. Fundamental concepts in biology will be stressed, including information, mutation, selection, random drift, and adaptation. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y.

A BIO 406 Vertebrate Histology (4)
A laboratory-intensive study of the microanatomy and function of animal cells, tissues and major vertebrate organs, excluding the brain. Practical work with bright-field microscopy and preparation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, sectioned and stained tissues. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Extra time may be needed to complete individual projects. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 217 or A BIO 303; A BIO 325 and/or 410 recommended but not required. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 410 Human Physiology (3)
The functions of organ systems and their contributions to the functions of the human body as a whole. Topics to include: nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal systems and energy metabolism and temperature regulation. Two 1 1/2-hour lecture periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. 

A BIO 411Z Human Physiology Laboratory (2)
A mixture of lab experiments and computer simulations in systemic physiology with emphasis on membrane transport and excitability, muscle contraction, cardiovascular regulation, respiration and metabolism, acid-base control, renal system physiology, and sensory physiology. Three hours laboratory and one hour discussion per week, with emphasis on writing of scientific lab reports. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Corequisite(s): A BIO 410.

A BIO 425 Molecular Biology (3)
Mechanisms of gene expression and regulation will be studied, using examples from bacteria and eukaryotes. Discussion will include experimental approaches to gene cloning and sequencing, analysis of DNA-protein interactions, and structure and function of RNA. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365.

A BIO 426 Laboratory in Molecular Biology (2)
Experiments in the modern techniques of recombinant molecular biology will be performed. These may include restriction mapping of plasmids, gene cloning, DNA blotting, DNA sequence analysis, plasmid constructions, and gene expression studies. One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 212Y. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 and 425. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 427 Grazing in Terrestrial Ecosystems (4)
Lectures and laboratory exercises are used to elucidate the fundamental principles of grazing, particularly by large herd-forming ungulates, in wild and human-dominated ecosystems. Topics considered include ungulate anatomy, physiology and foraging behavior, as well as the ecological interactions between grazers, the vascular plant and soil microbial communities. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z, A BIO 320 or 327, or permission of instructor. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 432 Animal Behavior (3)
Evolutionary ecology of behavior, optimization, game theory; diet selection, foraging under uncertainty; group formation and dissolution; social parasitism, among-individual behavioral diversity; interaction with kin, conflict and cooperation; individual behavior and population dynamics. Completion of course requires submission of three papers. Prerequisite(s): 15 credit hours in biology and A MAT 106. May not be offered in 2014-2015.

A BIO 435 Methods in Biotechnology (2)
This laboratory course is designed to provide training in modern techniques used in Forensic and Biomedical fields. These will include sequential methods for RT-PCR, PCR product cloning, analysis of recombinant plasmid clones, PCR-based VNTR genotyping, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201 and 202Z. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A BIO 365 or permission of instructor. Effective Fall 2013 and beyond, course fee applies. Consult the Schedule of Classes.

A BIO 441 Molecular Neurobiology (3)
The molecular biology of learning, memory, neural development and neurological disease. The course will relate the structure and function of receptors, second messangers, cytoskeletal proteins, transcription factors and gene structure to their roles in the nervous system. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 341 or 425.

A BIO 490 (= A PSY 490) Topics in Neuroscience (3)
This course is designed as the capstone course for the interdisciplinary Neuroscience Minor. It is expected that Minors will take this course in the Fall of their senior year. This course will be team taught by Neuroscience faculty from Biology and Psychology and will cover current topics in neuroscience research, engaging students in the original research literature and providing information about graduate education and careers in neuroscience. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

A BIO 499/499Z Supervised Research for Seniors (2-4)
Individual, independent research on selected topics in biology. Critical analysis of selected research papers. Senior majors in the department of biological sciences apply for this course through the prospective research adviser. A copy of the final written report of each semester’s work, preferably typewritten in journal format, is kept on permanent file in the department. May be taken either semester. Students taking two or more semesters of A BIO 399, 399Z, 499, or 499Z will prepare a poster or make an oral presentation at the Departmental Research Symposium. A maximum of 8 credits may be earned in A BIO 499 and 499Z.