Courses in Public Administration and Policy

R PAD 101 (= C EHC 101) Introduction to Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security and Cybersecurity (3)
From hackers to hurricanes, suicide bombing to supply chain interruptions, infrastructure failures to infectious disease outbreaks, the nation's governments, companies and non-profits must prepare for, protect against, respond to, and recover from a growing array of risks and threats. The fields of emergency preparedness, homeland security and cybersecurity are central to those efforts, and there is an ever growing demand for individuals prepared in these areas. Through lectures, discussion, and case studies, students in this course will develop a broad theoretical, substantive, and practical understanding of the fields of emergency preparedness, homeland security and cybersecurity. Students will be exposed to various ways to think about, measure, assess and compare risks, as well as how to mitigate them and respond to incidents that do occur. The three disciplines will be explored through the crosscutting themes that them together, including prevention, incident management and response, crisis communication, recovery and resiliency.

R PAD 110 Introduction to Military Leadership I (1)
The course introduces students to fundamental components of service as an officer in the United States Army. These initial lessons are the building blocks of progressive lessons in values, fitness, leadership, and officership. Students will learn how the personal development of life skills such as cultural understanding, goal setting, time management, mental/physical resiliency, and stress management relate to leadership, officership, and the Army profession. The focus is on developing basic knowledge and comprehension of Army leadership attributes and core leader competencies while gaining an understanding of the ROTC program, its purpose in the Army, and its advantages for the student. Prerequisite(s): not open to juniors and seniors without instructor approval. S/U graded.

R PAD 111 Introduction to Military Leadership II (1)
The course builds upon the fundamentals introduced in RPAD 110 by focusing on leadership theory and decision making. "Life skills" lessons in the semester include: problem solving, critical thinking, leadership theory, followership, group interaction, goal setting, and feedback mechanisms. Upon completion, students are prepared to advance to more complex leadership instruction concerning the dynamics of organizations. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 110 or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

R PAD 140 (= R POS 140; formerly R PUB 140) Introduction to Public Policy (3)
Introduction to theories of how democracies make public policy. Describes the roles of government institutions, the media, and interest groups in the policy process. Reviews current theories of how problems are identified and how policies are formulated, enacted, and implemented to address public problems. Only one version of R POS 140 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 204/204X Computer Modeling for Decision Support (3)
Making tough decisions — can computers help? Students will learn to use Internet technologies as well as techniques in computer modeling for critical thinking, policy analysis, and decision support. Topics include a review of quantitative methods for strategic analysis, tools for helping make tough decisions, and a survey of formal modeling techniques.

R PAD 210 Foundations of Military Leadership I (1)
The course contains the principal leadership instruction of the Basic Course. The use of practical exercises is emphasized, as students are increasingly required to apply communications and leadership concepts. The focus continues to build on developing knowledge of the leadership attributes and core leader competencies through the understanding of Army rank, structure, and duties as well as broadening knowledge of land navigation and infantry squad tactics. Case studies will provide a tangible context for learning and understanding the Soldier's Creed and Warrior Ethos. Upon completion of this semester, students are well grounded in the fundamental principles of leadership, and prepared to intensify the practical application of their studies during the Advanced Course. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 111 or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

R PAD 211 Foundations of Military Leadership II (1)
The course focuses principally on officership, providing an extensive examination of the unique purpose, roles, and obligations of commissioned officers. It includes a detailed look at the origin of the Army's institutional values and their practical application in decision making and leadership. Students examine the challenges of leading teams in a complex, combat operational environment. The course highlights dimensions of terrain analysis, infantry patrols, and operation orders. Further study of the theoretical basis of the Army Leadership Requirements Model explores the dynamics of adaptive leadership in the context of military operations. This course draws on the various components of values, communications, decision making, and leadership together to focus on a career as a commissioned officer. Upon completion of this course, students possess a fundamental understanding of both leadership and officership and demonstrate the ability to apply this understanding in real world situations. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 210 or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

R PAD 236 Institutions and Policy in Business Regulation (3)
This course examines the public regulation of business, surveying the field in general but with special attention to regulatory controls in financial markets. Its subjects include the justifications and critiques of government regulation, ethical considerations in regulatory decisions, international dimensions of regulatory policy and management, and how political, legal, and technological processes shape regulation.

T PAD 236 Institutions and Policy in Business Regulation (3)
T PAD 236 is the Honors College version of R PAD 236; only one version may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

T PAD 272 (= T POS 272 & T SPH 272) Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions Kamiar Alaei and Arash Alaei, with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration and the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version of T SPH 272 may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

R PAD 300 (formerly R PUB 300) Public Administration and Policy (1)
For Honors students, R PAD credit used to designate an existing 300 level R PAD course as taken for honors credit and entailing an additional research and writing component to be determined by course instructor. Must be taken three separate occasions in at least three separate 300 level or above R PAD classes to meet Honors requirements. Prerequisite(s): must accompany enrollment in R PAD 300 level course.

R PAD 301 (formerly R PUB 301) The Philosophy of Public Policy (3)
Examination of the various theoretical approaches to the study of public policy and of the ethical, epistemological, ideological, and logical problems encountered in an examination of the claims of contemporary policy science. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and R POS/R PAD 140.

R PAD 302 Understanding Public Organizations (3)
The major objective of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic ideas about how people work in large (work) organizations, and the processes and structures that operate day to day in such organizations. The course examines how people act and interact within organizations and attempt to change those organizations, and how organizations react to the individuals who comprise the organization. The course uses multiple perspectives or frames as a way of understanding of individual and organizational behavior in work organizations. Only one version of R PAD 302 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 303 Public Administration and Management (3)
Introduction to the field of public administration as its theory and practice have developed in the United States, emphasizing current trends and problems of organization and management in such areas as personnel policy, budget making, policy research, and planning. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

R PAD 304 (= R POS 303) Public Policy in Theory and Practice (3)
Examines the theoretical foundations of public policy research, of alternative models of public policy formation, their methodologies, and the relationship between the theory and practice of the policy sciences. Inquiries into the practice of public policy; focuses on actual policies in a substantive area. Only one version of R PAD 304 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or R POS/R PAD 140, or junior or senior standing.

R PAD 305 Public Administration and Information Technologies (3)
This course introduces the ways that information and information technologies affect governmental functions, democratic processes, and public programs. It introduces students to understand the interaction of policy, management, data, and technology in the design, operation, and evaluation of information technology initiatives in the public sector. It also provides an overview of topics related to the use of information technologies in public administration, including open data, websites, social media, and mobile applications, among others. It covers topics such as e-government, e-democracy, e-governance, leadership, e-procurement, and information security and privacy.

R PAD 307 Professional Applications for Public Administration and Policy (3)
Course emphasizes the early development of professional skills, the ability to work in teams, career planning, and an awareness of trade-offs in modern administration. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 204.

R PAD 316 (= R POS 316; formerly R PUB 316) Methodological Tools for Public Policy (3)
Introduction to research design, statistics, and computer usage in public policy with an emphasis on the interpretation of results. Students examine experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental research designs, summarize and present univariate distributions, perform bivariate and multivariate analyses including simple cross-tabulations and multiple regression analysis, and learn to use a computer to perform statistical and data management operations. Only one version of R PAD 316 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 321 (= R POS 321) State and Local Government (3)
Course focus is on intergovernmental relations; the interdependent roles of governors, legislatures, and courts in policymaking and implementation; the organization, functions, and jurisdiction of local governments; interaction of political parties and interest groups with formal institutions and processes; and problems in selected functional areas. Emphasis will be placed upon socio-economic trends leading to change in state and local governments, consequent issues raised, and proposals made in response to such issues. Only one of R POS 321 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101.

R PAD 322 (= R POS 322; formerly R PUB 322) Government & Politics of New York City (3)
Introduction to New York City's major political and governmental institutions, with an emphasis on the recurring efforts to provide for borough and community input into the city's policy making and implementation processes and to increase inter- and intra-party competition. Only one of R POS 322 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 324 Introduction to System Dynamics (3)
System Dynamics applies computer simulation to the study of feedback-rich systems in the social, behavioral, environmental, and management sciences. This course teaches the basic principles of system dynamics with a hands-on approach involving frequent problem sets and case studies. Students will learn the basic principles governing systems modeling as well as how to create computer-based simulation models. Prerequisites(s): R PAD 204.

R PAD 325 (= R POS 325; formerly R PUB 325) The Government and Politics of New York State (3)
Introduction to the major political governmental institutions in New York. Examines the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government; the nature of parties and election, and of selected policy questions. Only one version of R POS 325 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 321.

R PAD 328 (= R POS 328; formerly R PUB 328) Law and Policy (3)
Examination of the role of the of the courts in the public policy process and in substantive policy fields; integrates the literature of law and policy and applies it to such areas as mental health care, corrections, human resources, education, and housing policy. Only one version of R POS 328 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 329/329Z (= R POS 329/329Z) Bureaucratic Politics (3)
Examination of political behavior within and among administrative agencies, focusing on the sources of power in the bureaucracy, and the ways in which agencies use their political resources to shape public policy. Only one version of R PAD 329 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and 102, or junior or senior standing.

R PAD 340 (= R POS 340; formerly R PUB 340) Introduction to Policy Analysis (3)
Policy analysis involves advising policy makers about political, technical, and implementation feasibility of their options. This course will introduce students to different roles played by analysts, techniques of analysis, and to the range of generic policy implements. Only one version of R POS 340 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/R POS 140, R PAD/R POS 316, A ECO 110. May substitute R PAD 316 with an alternate introductory statistics course. May waive R PAD 140 with permission of the instructor.

R PAD 341 (= R POS 341; formerly R PUB 341) Washington in Perspective (3)
A course using current government and politics to evaluate political science treatments of the process. Offered as part of the spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference given POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in the early fall. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 level course in American government, junior standing. Corequisite(s): R POS 342 and 495Z, or R PAD 342 and 490Z.

R PAD 342 (= R POS 342; formerly R PUB 342) Washington Internship (9)
This is the internship component of the department's spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference to POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in early fall. Does not count toward a Public Policy and Management major or minor. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 level course in American government, junior standing. Corequisite(s): R POS 341 and 495Z or R PAD 341 and 490Z. S/U graded.

R PAD 343 (= R POS 343) Homeland Security (3)
This undergraduate survey course introduces students to the US government response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, specifically, the second largest reorganization of the executive branch that produced the US Department of Homeland Security.  Topics examined include border and transportation security, customs, immigration policy and enforcement; preparedness and capabilities building, response and resilience; critical infrastructure protection; threat and vulnerability assessment and risk management; cyber security; counter-terrorism. Although the course is primarily focused on US federal government activities, it will also examine state and local dimensions of homeland security as well as US government interactions with other countries in the homeland security domain. Only one version of R PAD 343 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 344 (= C EHC 344) Emergency Preparedness (3)
This course provides a study of applicable policies, protocols, and laws that impact the practice of emergency preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels of government. The study includes a brief review of the history of emergency management setting the stage for an examination of "best practices" and philosophies. These drive the nation's preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation efforts of various levels of emergencies and disasters which in turn helps facilitate a community's resilience in the face of disasters. The methodology used in this course includes classroom discussions and activities, studies of applicable case studies, and individual exploration resulting in a well crated paper. Where applicable, simulation activities provide opportunities for the student to "experience" realistic situations similar to real-world emergencies and disaster operations. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/C EHE 101, Introduction to Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security and Cybersecurity, recommended.

R PAD 345 Psychological Economics and Policy (3)
Economic analyses are usually rooted in assumptions of perfect rationality, perfect selfishness, and perfect self-control. Real human beings do not meet these assumptions. How do real people respond to economic policies? How can traditional analyses be adapted to incorporate social and cognitive psychology? In the past few decades, economists in the fields of Behavioral Economics and Experimental Economics have explored how to draw on the methods and insights of psychologists, model psychological behavior within markets, and test psychological hypotheses using data from the field. That work has become increasingly relevant in policy circles. This class surveys the theories, methods, and evidence of these fields and discusses their relevance for designing and implementing public programs. Prerequisite(s): A ECO 110, A ECO 111, and a 300-level statistics course such as R PAD 316 or A ECO 320.

R PAD 350 (= R POS 350; formerly R PUB 350) Comparative Public Policy (3)
Comparison of the processes, content, and impact of public policy in both developed and underdeveloped, socialist and nonsocialist countries. Only one version of R POS 350 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or 140, or junior or senior standing.

R PAD 354 U.S. Health Policy in the Age of Obama (3)
How does "Obamacare" work, why is it designed the way it is, and what have its impacts been so far? This course will examine the Affordable Care Act (colloquially known as Obamacare) through the lens of economics. It will begin by surveying the most important economic issues in U.S. health policy, including adverse selection, the incentive distortions of insurance markets, bargaining between insurers and providers, economic justice, and rising costs. It will then examine the main structure of the Affordable Care Act and how the various provisions address (or fail to address) these economic issues. Finally, the course will review empirical evidence on the impacts of the law and of similar provisions elsewhere. Prerequisite(s): A ECO 110 and R PAD 316 or an equivalent course in statistics.

R PAD 364 (= R POS 366) Approaches to Development (3)
Leaders and citizens of low and moderate income countries have long worked to increase economic, social and political development. After reviewing the origin and evolution of these concepts, the class will focus on how national leaders, international institutions as the World Bank, and nongovernmental organizations have pursued development. The class will address the steps that can be taken to address persistent problems of global poverty, public health, deficits in democracy, and widespread armed conflict. The course will take an interdisciplinary approach that will blend insights from the disciplines of economics, political science, and anthropology in order to generate fresh thinking on important policy issues facing governments in developing and developed countries. Aside from readings, and class discussions, groups of students will work together to address important issues in policy memos that will be presented to the class. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior status.

R PAD 366 International Environmental Policy (3)
The class investigates how environmental consciousness arose in major industrial countries and the subsequent formation of environmental policies and institutions in China and India. After reviewing US experience, the class considers critical dilemmas including climate change, water scarcity and renewable energy. Prerequisite: junior or senior status.

R PAD 380 Applied Military Leadership I (2)
In this course students will study, practice, and apply the fundamentals of Army leadership, Officership, Army Values and ethics, personal development, and small unit tactics at the team and squad level. At the conclusion of this course, students will be capable of planning, coordinating, navigating, motivating and leading a team or squad in the execution of a tactical mission during a classroom PE, a Leadership Lab, or during a Situational Training Exercise (STX) in a field environment. Successful completion of this course will help prepare students for success at the ROTC Leader Development and Assessment Course (LDAC) during the summer following the junior year, at Fort Knox, KY. This course includes reading assignments, homework assignments, small group assignments, briefings, case studies, and practical exercises, a mid-term exam, and a final exam. Students will receive systematic and specific feedback on leader attributes values and core leader competencies from instructor and other ROTC cadre and MSL IV Cadets who will evaluate students using the ROTC Leader Development Program (LDP) model. The course closes with instruction in small unit battle drills to facilitate practical application and further leader development during labs and Situational Training Exercises (STX). Prerequisite(s): R PAD 211, or permission of instructor.

R PAD 381 Applied Military Leadership II (2)
The course continues to focus on doctrinal leadership and tactical operations at the small unit level. It includes opportunities to plan and conduct individual and collective skill training for military operations to gain leadership and tactical experience. The course synthesizes the various components of training, leadership and team building. Students are required to incorporate previous military science instruction for their practical application in a performance-oriented environment. Upon completion of the course, students possess the fundamental confidence and competence of leadership in a small unit setting and are prepared to attend the Leadership Development and Assessment Course. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 380.

R PAD 390 (= R POS 390; formerly R PUB 390) Internship: Political Science/Public Administration & Policy (3)
Students will actively participate in the political process through working in a staff position at a recognized political agency, organization or institution to test — in a nonacademic setting — the concepts and theories examined in the classroom. Internships are open only to qualified juniors and seniors who have an overall grade point average of 2.50 or higher. Only one version of R POS 390 may be taken for credit. Permission of instructor required. S/U graded.

R PAD 395 (= R POS 395; formerly R PUB 395) International Political Economy (3)
Examines world trade conflicts and impact of economic nationalism on global economy. Emphasizes U.S. policy formulation in recent decades and trade protection and economic nationalism as exercised in U.S. domestic and foreign policy. Only one version of R POS 395 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 396 (= R POS 396; formerly R PUB 396) Energy Policy, Domestic and International (3)
Analyzes present and future shortfall of energy supplies, availability of fuel sources to replace imported oil or U.S. energy production, and conflicts between OPEC, OECD consumers, and U.S. government. Projections of future conflict over energy controls within and between nation states. Only one version of R POS 396 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or 140, or junior or senior standing. May not be offered in 2015-2016.

R PAD 398 (= R POS 398; formerly R PUB 398) Comparative National Security Policy (3)
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the major theoretical explanations for the foundation and implementation of national security policy. The course will focus of two central questions. First, what determines the basic security strategy of different states? Second, once this strategy is mapped, how do different states translate strategy into particular security policies? A variety of historical and contemporary cases will be used to determine which theories best answer these questions. Only one version of R PAD 398 may be taken for credit.

R PAD 399 (= R POS 399; formerly R PUB 399) Selected Topics (3)
Investigation of selected topics in political science and/or public policy. Specific topics selected and announced by the instructor when offered. May be repeated for credit if content varies. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and 102, and permission of instructor.

R PAD 410Z (= R POS 410Z; formerly R PUB 410Z) Minorities and the Politico-Legal System (3)
Selected minority problems that appear in connection with the politico-legal system. Considers legislative, administrative and judicial responses and explores alternative public policy options. Only one version of R POS 410Z may be taken for credit.

R PAD 411 Special Topics in Public Administration: Program Evaluation Training (1)
This class will introduce participants to the concepts that are essential to evaluation. Topics discussed will include: program measures (methods, management, characteristics, etc.), participant measures, intervening measures (changes in economy, management, demographics, etc.), impact measures, different viewpoints of evaluation (program participants, program staff, policy makers, etc.), and measurement levels (individual vs. agency vs. society). This course is the shared resources equivalent of the graduate course R PAD 511. S/U graded.

R PAD 424 Systems Thinking and Strategic Development (4)
The course represents a set of concepts and tools for thinking through complex system-wide problems that challenge government managers' ability to design and manage cross-agency and intergovernmental policies and programs. Students will learn to diagnose and solve complex system-level problems by applying systems thinking and strategic planning tools to case examples. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

R PAD 435 Law in Financial Market Regulation (3)
This course examines the rationales and main features of regulatory law in financial markets, focusing on banking, securities, futures, options, and other capital markets. It discusses approaches to regulating investor and customer protection, financial institutions, and market structure. It examines relationships among change in financial markets such as financial innovations and regulatory structure and practice. The course discusses the roles of federal and state regulation, self-regulatory organizations and private associations, and firms within the regulatory system. Prerequisite(s): prior coursework in study of regulation and/or finance highly recommended.

R PAD 436 Technology in Financial Market Regulation (3)
The development, operation, and regulation of technological systems shape modern financial markets. These systems are developed and overseen by market centers, clearing organizations, and other market infrastructure organizations, as well as sell-side financial firms, institutional investors and other buy-side participants, corporations, technology providers, and public and private regulators. Market controls, technological development, and regulation shape this system individually and interactively. This course examines the central features of technology in financial markets and how market and regulatory controls and social and behavioral conditions produce and interact with them. Prerequisite(s): prior coursework in study of regulation and/or finance highly recommended.

R PAD 437 Broker-Dealer Accounting, Regulation, and Auditing (3)
This course is designed to enable students to understand the theory and practice of broker-dealer regulation and regulatory auditing in the securities industry. Nomenclature used in the securities industry is unique and the course examines accounting standards that apply to securities firms. It teaches students how to read financial statements of broker-dealers and understand stock brokerage accounting. The course also will help students understand how to audit the validity of the numbers included in broker-dealer financial reports, focusing primarily on the income statement and balance sheet and including the verification of customer assets. Prerequisite(s): B ACC 211.

R PAD 480 Adaptive Military Leadership I (2)
The course concentrates on leadership, management and ethics. The course focuses students, early in the year, on attaining knowledge and proficiency in several critical areas they will need to operate effectively as Army officers. These areas include: Coordinate Activities with Staffs, Counseling Theory and Practice within the "Army Context," Training Management, and Ethics. While proficiency attained in each of these areas will initially be at the apprentice level, students will continue to sharpen these skills as they perform their roles as Cadet Officers within the ROTC program and after commissioning. At the end of the course, students possess the fundamental skills, attributes, and abilities to operate as competent leaders. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 381.

R PAD 481 Adaptive Military Leadership II (2)
The course focuses on completing the transition from Cadet to lieutenant. As a follow-on to the Ethics instruction in RPAD 480, the course starts with a foundation in the legal aspects of decision making and leadership. The curriculum reinforces previous instruction on the organization of the Army and introduces how the Army organizes for operations from the tactical to the strategic level. This is followed by instruction on administrative and logistical management that will focus on the fundamentals of Soldier and unit level support. Upon completion of the course, students will be prepared for the responsibility of being a commissioned officer in the United States Army. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 480.

R PAD 486 (= R POS 486 & H HPM 486) International Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 490Z (= R POS 495Z; formerly R PUB 490Z) Research and Writing in Washington (3)
This is the research and writing component of the department's spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference to POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in early fall. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 course in American government, junior class standing. Corequisite(s): R POS/R PAD 341 and R POS/R PAD 342. POS majors who wish to use R POS 495Z for an Honors essay (in lieu of R POS 499Z) should also enroll in R POS 400.

R PAD 494 (formerly R PUB 494) Honors Research (3)
To be taken in the fall of the senior year or the spring of the junior year. Student will engage in guided research mentored by a faculty member designated by student and approved by the Director of Undergraduate Public Policy Program in order to generate the research necessary to complete their honors thesis. Prerequisite(s): PAD Honors standing.

R PAD 495 (formerly R PUB 495) Honors Seminar (3)
To be taken in the fall of the senior year or the spring of the junior year. A seminar designed to explain the nature of research, including developing a thesis, applying a research design, and collecting data to support hypotheses. The seminar develops these skills while highlighting the dominant intellectual arguments occurring currently in the area of public policy research. Prerequisite(s): PAD Honors standing.

R PAD 496 (formerly R PUB 496) Honors Thesis (3)
To be taken in the fall or spring of the senior year. Each student must complete a 30 to 40 page honors thesis. This paper should involve original research on a topic related to public policy. It should have a clearly defined thesis statement, a review of the existing literature on the chosen topic, original evidence offered to support the thesis, consideration of alternative rival hypothesis, and a conclusion of the consequence for public policy research of these findings. The paper is to be created in conjunction with a faculty mentor approved by the Director of Public Policy (and the paper may be co-authored with the chosen faculty mentor). Prerequisite(s): PAD Honors standing.

R PAD 497 (formerly R PUB 497) Independent Study (1-6)
Reading or research under the direction of appropriate faculty. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/R POS 140, or junior or senior standing; and permission of instructor and department chair.

R PAD 498 Applied Public Affairs Capstone (3) 
This capstone course includes the completion of an internship and a linked classroom experience. This internship course integrates the policy and management coursework with practical experience in political and administrative institutions. Students are required to undertake an internship in public policy or public management, typically with a state agency or a non-profit organization. In the course, students will learn practical issues of implementing policy or managing public affairs. They will use written assignments and oral presentations to discuss how their coursework relates to their internship experience. May not be taken by students with credit for R PAD/R POS 390. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 140, R PAD 316, A ECO 110, R POS 101, R PAD 302, and a cumulative grade point average of 2.0.

R PAD 499 (formerly R PUB 499) Policy Capstone (3)
This course builds on the analytical tools and theoretical concepts developed in the Public Policy and Management core to explore the field of policy analysis, rationales for policy intervention, and a range of policy tools. Students will learn how to locate and apply external information sources, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of existing policy analyses, develop a plan to study a new policy issue, and effectively communicate these complex ideas in writing. May not be taken by students with credit for R POS/ R PAD 340. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 140, R PAD 316, A ECO 110, A ECO 111.