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NORTHEAST ANTHROPOLOGY
Abstracts: Issue 74


Issue 74 Fall 2007



The editorial comment for issue number 74 can be found at the end of this page.

ARTICLES

Pages
111 Cayuga Iroquois Adoptions: an Ecological Perspective

John Antici
The Anthropology Museum of the People of New York The Cayuga Nation of the Iroquois League inhabited villages on the shores of Cayuga Lake in the Finger Lakes region of New York. This region was subject to summer droughts, and to compensate for crop losses on these occasions, the Cayuga settled (1753) adopted nations such as the Nanticoke, Conoy, Tutelo, and Saponi in a different climatic zone, which was not subject to summer droughts. It is possible these adopted nations owed the Cayuga tribute (i.e., required gifts) of food or simply sold their surplus to the Cayuga in times of need. In pre-European times, the League may have functioned to redistribute maize surpluses during emergencies.

La nation Cayuga de la Ligue iroquoise habitait dans des villages sur les rives du lac Cayuga, dans la région des Finger Lakes de l'État de New York. Étant donné que cette région était sujette à des sécheresses estivales, les Cayugas ont dû compenser pour la perte des récoltes que cela pouvait occasionner. Ainsi, ils établirent leurs nations adoptives, comme les Nanticokes, les Conoys, les Tutelos et les Saponis, dans des zones climatiques différentes et moins en proie aux sécheresses. Il est possible que ces nations adoptives aient dû un tribut de nourriture aux Cayugas, ou encore qu'elles leur vendait les surplus en période de nécessité. À l'époque pré-européenne, la Ligue a pu agir en redistribuant les surplus de maïs lors de circonstances critiques.

1339 Vegetation and Culture on the Eastern Pequot Reservation: Interpreting Millennia of Pollen and Charcoal in Southeastern Connecticut

Susan A. Jacobucci, Heather B. Trigg, Stephen W. Silliman
Native Americans in the Northeast administered their landscapes and maintained resources in varying degrees, and their management practices actively engaged the environment in physical and cultural ways. In this study, land management is explored as it pertains to the environmental and cultural history of the Eastern Pequot reservation located in North Stonington, Connecticut. This study consists of a pollen and charcoal density analysis of a sediment core taken from the historic reservation and reveals a long history of environmental fluctuations and resource management techniques from ca. 9000 B.P. to the twentieth century. As a result of the continuous restriction of useable land after 1683, when the reservation was established, the Eastern Pequots worked to preserve and alter their land management techniques over the next three centuries, as evidenced in the pollen and charcoal record.

Les Amérindiens du Nord-Est aménageaient le paysage, entretenaient à des degrés variés les ressources naturelles et leurs pratiques de gestion modifiaient de manière physique et culturelle leur environnement. Dans cette étude, nous explorons la gestion du paysage comme élément de l'histoire environnementale et culturelle de la réserve des Pequots de l'Est située à North Stonington au Connecticut. Une analyse pollinique et des charbons provenant d'une carotte de sédiments prélevée sur la réserve révèle une longue séquence de fluctuations environnementales et de techniques de gestion des ressources à partir d'environ 9000 AA jusqu'au XX e siècle. Après que la réserve a été établie en 1683 et qu'il y a eu des restrictions continuelles d'utilisation des terres, le pollen et les charbons montrent que les Pequots de l'Est ont maintenu et modifié leurs techniques de gestion du paysage au cours des trois siècles subséquents.

4164 "Making Do": Nineteenth-century Subsistence Practices on the Eastern Pequot Reservation

Craig N. Cipolla, Stephen W. Silliman, David B. Landon
Analysis of two Eastern Pequot household faunal assemblages sheds light on facets of nineteenth-century reservation life in colonial New England by providing a snapshot of dietary habits and other daily practices. The Eastern Pequot Reservation, located in North Stonington, Connecticut, was officially established in 1683 and has remained an important hub of the community ever since. Eastern Pequot people selectively incorporated "non-traditional" objects and practices into their everyday lives as they negotiated the contexts of colonialism. This work looks specifically at diets and food preparation as a locus of these cultural negotiations. We address issues of food choice, possible animal husbandry practices, food procurement, and food processing.

L'analyse de deux assemblages fauniques domestiques des Pequots de l'Est apporte un éclairage sur des facettes de la vie dans les réserves du XIX e siècle de la Nouvelle-Angleterre en offrant un instantané des habitudes alimentaires et quotidiennes. La réserve des Pequots de l'Est, située à North Stonington, au Connecticut, a été ouverte officiellement en 1683 et, depuis ce temps, elle est demeurée un pivot important pour la communauté. Les Pequots de l'Est ont incorporé de façon sélective des objets et des pratiques non traditionnelles au sein de leur vie quotidienne selon les contextes imposés par le colonialisme. Dans cette étude, les habitudes alimentaires et la préparation de la nourriture servent à illustrer comment s'effectuent ces choix culturels. L'article aborde les questions des choix alimentaires, des possibles pratiques de gestion animale, ainsi que de l'acquisition et de la transformation de la nourriture.

6586 The Primordial, the Political, or the Personal? Native American Self-identity in Western New England

Stephen Comer and Robert Jarvenpa
Lacking membership in legally recognized tribes or organized communities, some people of Native American ancestry may express their "Indianness" largely on a personal or private level of emotion, memory, and sentiment. These dynamics of "self-id entity" have received comparatively little attention in anthropological discussions of ethnicity and identity. Recent ethnographic research in the Berkshire region of western New England reveals a spectrum of 22 factors relevant to the construction and maintenance of Native American identities. While individuals may draw upon different facets of their knowledge and experience in expressing their Indianness, the interplay of family traditions, iconic imagery, artisanship, and genealogy is particularly compelling. Despite decimation and dislocation of the Berkshire's indigenous population early in the colonial period, some contemporary residents still trace connections to Mohican and Stockbridge ancestors or to other Algonquian groups in nearby southern New England.

En l'absence d'adhésion aux tribus ou communautés légalement reconnues, certaines personnes d'ascendance amérindienne peuvent exprimer leur amérindianité selon un degré personnel ou privé d'émotion, de mémoire et de sentiment. Ces dynamiques d'auto-identité ont reçu relativement peu d'attention dans les études d'ethnicité et d'identité. Une recherche ethnographique récente dans la région de Berkshire de l'ouest de la Nouvelle-Angleterre révèle un ensemble de 22 facteurs pertinents pour la construction et l'entretien des identités amérindiennes. Alors que les individus peuvent faire appel à différentes facettes de leur savoir et de leur expérience pour exprimer leur amérindianité, l'interrelation des traditions familiales, de l'imagerie, de l'artisanat et de la généalogie fournit également un apport particulièrement marquant. En dép it de la décimation et de la désorganisation de la population autochtone de Berkshire tôt durant la période coloniale, certains résidents contemporains continuent de retracer des liens avec les ancêtres Mohicans et de Stockbridge ou avec d'autres groupes algonquiens du sud de la Nouvelle-Angleterre.


BOOK REVIEW
8788 The Archaic of the Far Northeast (David Sanger and M.A.P. Renouf, editors)
David Black


EDITORIAL COMMENT

Welcome to another issue of Northeast Anthropology. This issue contains articles on a wide range of topics, and is reflective of the diversity of research areas being pursued in the Northeast. John Antici investigates a prominent feature of Iroquoian cultures, that of adopting members of foreign ethnicities, and places this practice in an ecological perspective. Susan Jacobucci, Heather Trigg, and Stephen Silliman make use of an extensive charcoal and pollen record to investigate use of the landscape within the Eastern Pequot Reservation of Connecticut over 9,000 years. Craig Cipolla, Stephen Silliman, and David Landon also investigate lifeways on the Eastern Pequot Reservation, this time via the faunal record of Pequot households since the late seventeenth century. Finally, Stephen Comer and Robert Jarvenpa investigate the various social and historical factors that comprise modern Native American identities in western New England.

We at Northeast Anthropology are committed to bringing our readership current research within all four subfields of anthropology. We are also aware that the journal has fallen behind in its publication schedule. To address both of these issues, we would like to renew our standing request for manuscript submissions, especially within physical anthropology and linguistics, which have historically been underrepresented in our volumes.

We would also like to advertise an opening in our editorial staff. Mary Ann Levine served several years as our book review editor, and following her retirement from the position in 2006, I have fulfilled that roll. However, this position would be best served by a dedicated staff member. Accordingly, any party interested in taking up the role of book review editor is encouraged to contact us as soon as possible.

Sean M. Rafferty

ERRATUM
In Volume 73 of Northeast Anthropology, due to a printer's error, the image of Figure 4 was missing from page 80 of Sherene Baugher's article, "At the Top of the Hierarchy of Charity: The Life of Retired Seamen at Sailors' Snug Harbor, Staten Island, New York." This figure should have been printed as shown below. (Figure 4. One of the main dormitory buildings at Sailors' Snug Harbor (Photo by Sherene Baugher)


 



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