The Brunswik Society

Complete bibliography of the publications of Egon Brunswik

This list was compiled from lists published in Hammond, K. R. (Ed.). (1966). The Psychology of Egon Brunswik. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, and in Wolf, B. (1995). Brunswik und ökologische Perspektiven in der Psychologie. Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag. Professor Wolf kindly provided his list and notes, suggested English translations, and helped check references and resolve discrepancies between the two lists.

The full text of several abstracts published in Psychological Bulletin are also included. These were provided by Michael Doherty.

This list is also available in rtf (brunswikrefs.rtf).

Brunswik, E. (1927). Strukturmonismus und Physik. Unpublished Dissertation, Philosophische Fakultät der Universität, Wien.  
Structure-monism and physics. Faculty of Philosophy. University of Vienna.

His doctoral "fathers" ("Doktorvater" is a typical German expression) were the famous Vienna professors Karl Bühler and Moritz Schlick.

Brunswik, E. (1928). Zur Entwicklung der Albedowahrnehmung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 109, 40-115.  
The development of albedo-perception.

Brunswik, E., & Kindermann, H. (1929). Eidetik bei taubstummen Jugendlichen. Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, 34, 244-274.

Eidetics in deaf-mute juveniles

Brunswik, E. (1929). Prinzipienfragen der Gestalttheorie. In E. Brunswik, C. Bühler, H. Hetzer, L. Kardos, E. Köhler, J. Krug, & A. Willwoll (Eds.), Beiträge zur Problemgeschichte der Psychologie: Festschrift zu Karl Bühlers 50. Geburtstag (pp. 78-149). Jena: G. Fischer.

Questions of principle in Gestalt theory. Contributions to the problem history of psychology. Festschrift for Karl Bühler's 50th birthday.

Brunswik, E., & Kardos, L. (1929). Das Duplizitätsprinzip in der Theorie der Farbenwahrnehmung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 111, 307-320.

The duplicity principle in the theory of color perception

Brunswik, E. (1930). Über Farben-, Größen- und Gestaltkonstanz in der Jugend. In H. Volkelt (Ed.), Bericht über den 11. Kongreß für experimentelle Psychologie in Wien 1929 (pp. 52-56). Jena: G. Fisher.

On the constancy of color, size, and Gestalt in youth. Proceedings of the 11th congress for experimental psychology in Vienna, 1929

Brunswik, E. (1932). Experimente über Kritik. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungspsychologie des Denkens. In G. Kafka (Ed.), Bericht über den 12. Kongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Hamburg 1931 (pp. 300-305). Jena: G. Fischer.

Experiments on criticism. A contribution to the developmental psychology of thinking. Proceedings of the 12th congress of the German Society for Psychology in Hamburg, 1931.

Brunswik, E., Goldscheider, L., & Pilek, E. (1932). Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung des Gedächtnisses bei Knaben und Madchen vom 6-18 Jahren. Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, Beiheft 64, VIII+158.

Studies in the development of memory with boys and girls aged 6-18 years

Brunswik, E. (1933). Die Zugänglichkeit von Gegenständen für die Wahrnehmung und deren quantitative Bestimmung. Archiv für die gesamte Psychologie, 88, 377-418.

The accessibility of objects for perception and their quantitative determination

Brunswik, E. (1934). Flächeninhalt und Volumen als Gegenstände der Wahrnehmung. In O. Klemm (Ed.), Bericht über den 13. Kongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Leipzig (pp. 120-123). Jena: G. Fischer.

Area and volume as objects of perception. Proceedings of the 13th congress of the German Society for Psychology in Leipzig, 1933.

Brunswik, E. (1934). Wahrnehmung und Gegenstandswelt: Grundlegung einer Psychologie vom Gegenstand her. Leipzig und Wien: F. Deuticke (Habilitationsschrift).

Perception and the world of objects: The foundations of a psychology in terms of objects.

The "Habilitation" is a post-doctoral examination, typical for German speaking universities. A successful candidate becomes "Privatdozent". The "Habilitationsschrift" is the postdoctoral thesis connected with "Habilitation". Brunswik's "Habilitations-father" was again Karl Bühler.

Tolman, E. C., & Brunswik, E. (1935). The organism and the causal texture of the environment. Psychological Review, 42, 43-77.   Brunswik, E. (1935). Psychologie als objektive Beziehungswissenschaft. Actualitiés Scientifiques et Industrielles, 389, 7.  
Psychology as a science of objective relations

Brunswik, E. (1935). Experimentelle Psychologie in Demonstrationen. Wien: J. Springer.

Experimental psychology in demonstrations

Brunswik, E. (1935). Prüfung und Übung höherer Wahrnehmungsleistungen (Dingkonstanz), Bericht über den 8. Internationalen Kongreß für Psychotechnik in Prag 1934 (pp. 684-689). Prag.

The verification and use of higher achievements of perception (thing-constancy). Proceedings of the 8th International Congress for Psychotechnics in Prague, 1934

Brunswik, E. (1936). Psychology in terms of objects. In H. W. Hill (Ed.), Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Celebration of the Inauguration of Graduate Studies (pp. 122-126). University of Southern California.

  Brunswik, E. (1936). Psychologie als objektive Beziehungswissenschaft, Actes du Congres International de Philosophie Scientifique a Paris 1935. Tome II: Unite de la Science (pp. 15-21). Paris: Hermann.  
Psychology as a science of objective relations. Proceedings of the International Congress for Scientific Philosophy in Paris, 1934. Volume II. Unity of science. Paper is in French.

Brunswik, E. (1936). Psychologie vom Gegenstand her, Actes du Huitieme Congres International de Philosophie a Prague 1934 (pp. 840-845). Prag: Orbis.

Psychology in terms of objects. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress for Philosophy in Prague, 1934

Brunswik, E., & Reiter, L. (1937). Eindruckscharaktere schematisierter Gesichter. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 142, 67-134.

Impression-characteristics of schematized faces

Brunswik, E., & Cruikshank, R. M. (1937). Perceptual size-constancy in early infancy. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 713-714.

  Brunswik, E. (1937). Psychology as a science of objective relations. Philosophy of Science, 4, 227-260.  
Errata: Philosophy of Science, (1938), 5, 110.

Brunswik, E. (1938). Das Induktionsprinzip in der Wahrnehmung. In H. Pieron & J. Meyerson (Eds.), 11ieme Congres International de Psychologie a Paris 1937. Rapports et Comptes Rendus (pp. 346-347). Paris: Alcan.

The principle of induction in perception. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Psychology in Paris, 1937.

Brunswik, E. (1938). Die Eingliederung der Psychologie in die exakten Wissenschaften. Einheitswissenschaft, 6, 17-34.

The position of psychology within the exact sciences

Brunswik, E. (1939). Perceptual characteristics of schematized human figures. Psychological Bulletin, 36, 553.

Abstract: Twelve variations of a graphic, crudely schematized human figure, about half of them involving changes of facial appearance besides those of stature were presented to 58 students using the method of paired comparison. Among the six apparent characteristics tested, greatest agreement among the subjects was found for "good-lookingness," followed in declining order by "age," "energy", "likeability", "happiness", "intelligence." In approximately the same order there is an increase in the relative influence of the face, although even for the last two of these qualities, apparent happiness and apparent intelligence, significant differences can be found for pairs differing only in stature and not in facial proportion. Besides the general tendency to perceive as more intelligent the standard medium figure, men seem to rate athletic more intelligent than leptosomatic figures with little emphasis on height, women are more intelligent than short figures with little emphasis on breadth. For such qualities as happy, good-looking, and energetic, however, women seem to be favorably impressed also by breadth. An example of the tendency toward ambivalent effects is shown by the addition of spectacles to the standard face which increases apparent intelligence and decreases good-lookingness of the figure. (15 min. slides)

Brunswik, E. (1939). Probability as a determiner of rat behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 175-197.

  Brunswik, E. (1939). The conceptual focus of some psychological systems. Journal of Unified Science (Erkenntnis), 8, 36-49.  
Also in Marx, M. H. (Ed.). (1936). Theories in Contemporary Psychology. New York: Macmillan, pp. 226-237. (Paper sent in for the Fourth International Congress for the Unity of Science, Cambridge, England, 1938.)

Brunswik, E. (1940). Thing constancy as measured by correlation coefficients. Psychological Review, 47, 69-78.

  Brunswik, E. (1940). A random sample of estimated sizes and their relation to corresponding size measurements. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 585-586.  
Abstract: A subject was asked to give intuitive as well as critical estimates -- each in different attitudes -- of the extension of an object most conspicuous to him at the moment. The conditions included indoor and outdoor situations representative of the activities pursued during a normal day. The material comprises a total of 180 of such situations. Objective measurements of the objects as well as of their distances from the eye were also obtained, showing approximately normal distributions. Almost perfect correlations between measured and estimated sizes were found, indicating the presence of perceptual size-constancy in an unbiased sample of "natural" test situations.

Brunswik, E. (1941). Perceptual size-constancy in life situations. Psychological Bulletin, 38, 611-612.

Abstract: A sample of 93 frontal objects of various sizes and distances representative of perceptial situations in everday life was secured by obtaining from a subject, at irregular intervals during normal activities, reports of the incidental perceptual contents. Immedidate perceptual estimates (as well as critical ones) of object-size (distal stimulus), visual angle (proximal, "retinals," stimulus), and of distance were given by both subject and experimenter. The latter also secured the corresponding objective measures. The sizes range from a few mm. to more that 100 m. and show a normal distribution when plotted logarithmically, and the distances range from 25 cm, to about 1500 m.

Perceptual estimates show, on the whole, much better agreement with the corresponding stimulus variable when this variable is distan object-size (indicating good perceptual size-constancy), or when it is distance, than when it is proximal size (supporting evidence against the "constancy-hypothesis"). Various correlations computed between the estimates and the environmental variables after elimination of the environmental correlation between object-size and retinal size are between .95 and 1.00 in the case of object-size and of distance, and between 0 and .7 when retinal size is involved, with good agreement between the coefficients representing the perceptual achievements of the two observers. Averages of errors follow a similar pattern.

The generality of further findings of laboratory experimentation, such as the comparative overestimation of near objects (perceptual compremise between distal and proximal size), and the improvement of estimates by shifting from the purely perceptual to the critically controlled attitudes was also demonstrated by our random sample of size estimates. There also is some indication of the relative independence of the distance functionally "taken into consideration" in the establishment of size-constancy, and the explicat ("conscious") estimates of distance.

Overestimation of vertical as contrasted to horizontal extensions was not borne out by our data. (15 min., slides.)

Brunswik, E. (1943). Organismic achievement and environmental probability. Psychological Review, 50, 255-272.  
Part of "Symposium on Psychology and Scientific Method," held in 1941. Other speakers were C. Hull and K. Lewin. Reported as "The Probability Point of View" in Marx, M. H. (Ed.). (1951). Psychological Theory. New York: Macmillan, pp. 188-202.

Brunswik, E. (1944). Distal focussing of perception: Size constancy in a representative sample of situations. Psychological Monographs, 56(254), 1-49.

  Brunswik, E. (1945). Social perception of traits from photographs. Psychological Bulletin, 42, 535-536.  
Abstract: Psychology classes totalling 95 subjects judged standardized photographs of 46 Army STP students (IQ approximately 90 to 140) unknown to them. Correlating "real" traits (mutual ASTP ratings, for intelligence also tests) with corresponding average intuitive estimates shows social perceptual validity ("achievement") to be negligible for intelligence (under .10), statistically significant for personality traits such as energy and likeability (about 35). Goodlookingness yields .65. Halos among judgments are strong, and unrealistic considering low corresponding real-trait relationships (added in parenthesis): intelligence with energy, 84 (.28) with likeability, .62 (.01); with goodlookingness, .59 (.05) Among possible cues, height (stature) correlates .25 with intuited intelligence; if confirmed, this possibly indicates utilization of low but established height IQ relationship of about .15 also found here. Among facial features, forehead-height shows only .18 (compare with popular prejudice!) versus .22, nose-height .20 versus .13.

Brunswik, E. (1946). Points of view: Components of psychological theorizing. In P. L. Harriman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (pp. 523-537): Philosophical Library.

  Brunswik, E. (1946). Four types of experiment. American Psychologist, 1, 457.   Brunswik, E. (1947). Systematic and representative design of psychological experiments. With results in physical and social perception. Berkeley: University of California Press.  
Also published in J. Neyman (Ed.) (1949), Proceedings of the Berkeley symposium on mathematical statistics and probability (pp. 143-202). Berkeley: University of California Press. The Symposium was held at the Statistical Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, University of California, August 13-18, 1945, and January 27-29, 1946.

Brunswik, E. (1948). Statistical separation of perception, thinking, and attitudes. American Psychologist, 3, 342.

  Brunswik, E. (1949). Discussion: Remarks on functionalism in perception. Journal of Personality, 18, 56-65.  
A contribution to a Symposium on Personal and Social Factors in Perception held during the 1949 meetings of the American Psychological Association in Denver.

Also appears in Bruner, J. S., & Krech, D., (Eds.) (1950). Perception and Personality: A Symposium. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. (pp. 56-65)

  Brunswik, E. (1951). Note on Hammond's analogy between "relativity and representativeness". Philosophy of Science, 18, 212-217.   Brunswik, E., & Herma, H. (1951). Probability learning of perceptual cues in the establishment of a weight illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 281-290.   Brunswik, E. (1952). The Conceptual Framework of Psychology, International Encyclopedia of Unified Science (Vol. 1, No. 10, pp. IV + 102). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  
Pre-publication announced as Methodological Foundations of Psychology and earlier as E. Brunswik and A. Ness, Theory of Behavior

Brunswik, E., & Kamiya, J. (1953). Ecological cue-validity of "proximity" and of other Gestalt factors. American Journal of Psychology, 66, 20-32.

  Brunswik, E. (1955). "Ratiomorphic" models of perception and thinking. Acta Psychologica, 11, 108-109.  
Also published in N. Maillouw (Ed.) (1955). Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Psychology, Montreal, 1954. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Brunswik, E. (1955). Representative design and probabilistic theory in a functional psychology. Psychological Review, 62(3), 193-217.

  Brunswik, E. (1955). In defense of probabilistic functionalism: A reply. Psychological Review, 62, 236-242.   Brunswik, E. (1956). Historical and thematic relations of psychology to other sciences. Scientific Monthly, 83, 151-161.  
Also chapter 17 in Hammond, 1966

Brunswik, E. (1956). Perception and the representative design of psychological experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Part I is a reprint of Brunswik (1947). Part II is entitled "Perception: The ecological generality of its distal aim.

Brunswik, E. (1957). Scope and aspects of the cognitive problem. In H. Gruber, K. R. Hammond, & R. Jessor (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to cognition (pp. 5-31). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Contributors to this volume were J. S. Bruner, E. Brunswik, L. Festinger, F. Heider, K. F. Muenzinger, C. E. Osgood, and D. Rapaport.

Brunswik, E. (1959). Ontogenetic and other developmental parallels to the history of science. In H. M. Evans (Ed.), Men and Moments in the History of Science (pp. 3-21). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

  Brunswik, E. (1966). Reasoning as a universal behavior model and a functional differentiation between "perception" and "thinking". In K. R. Hammond (Ed.), The Psychology of Egon Brunswik (pp. 487-494). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  
Read at the International Congress of Psychology in Montreal, 1954.

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