The Protestant Reformation: religious change and the people of sixteenth-century Europe


The tutorial contains a very substantial range and variety of primary and secondary materials relating to the reformation. Normally you would consult them from the Core Orientation Document or its associated case-studies. If you access the tutorial resources from this index, you should use the Netscape browser 'Back' button to return to the index. To enter the tutorial itself, you should go via the Table of Contents, accessible from the 'Contents' button at the foot of this document.

C: Chart or table
T: Text
M: Map
I: Image or graphic display [Exp = with commentary]
G: Graph
ST: Secondary text (modern article, review etc)

Core Orientation Document Resources

[00.20] Overview map (C)

[00.21] Usages of ‘Reformatio’ (reformation) (T)

[00.22] Anabaptism in central Europe in 16thC (M)

[00.23] Luther’s Hymn: Ein Feste Burg (T)

[00.24] Luther: ‘Concerning Christian Liberty’ (1520) (T)

[00.25] Latin and German Books, Strasbourg (G)

[00.26] Printing Centres of Incunabula Books (G)

[00.27] Lutheran printers and centres, 1518-29 (G)

[00.28] The rise of Genevan publishing, 1536-72 (G)

[00.29] Genres of protestant literature (1519-60) (G)

[00.30] Thomas Müntzer at Allstedt (1525) (T)

[00.31] Thomas Müntzer' declaration (27/4/1525) (T)

[00.32] Luther: Against . .. Peasants (5/1525) (T)

[00.33] Chronology: Reformation in the Empire (T)

[00.34] Reformation in German Principalities (T)

[00.35] Ecclesiastical Lands in Central Europe (M)

[00.36] Reformation in German Cities (T)

[00.37] Success and Failure assessed (ST)

[00.38] Successes and Failures: Strasbourg (ST)

[00.39] Success and Failure reviewed (ST)

[00.40] The Progress of the Reformation (c1560) (M)

[00.41] Luther: ‘That these words of Christ ...' (T)

[00.42] Eucharistic Prayers in the 16thC (T)

[00.43] Title-page: Calvin’s Institutes (I)

[00.44] The Organization of Calvin’s Institutes (T)

[00.45] French edicts against heresy (1521-59) (T)

[00.46] Religious repression and martydom (ST)

[00.47] Refugees centres in the Rhineland (T)

[00.48] Calvin’s letters to French churches (T)

[00.49] Europe’s population densities in c.1600 (I)

Case Study Resources

1a. The Theologians’ Reformation: Martin Luther

[01a.21] Friedrich Myconius: Indulgence Peddling (T)

[01a.22] Chronology: The Indulgences Dispute, 1514-1518 (T)

[01a.23] The Ninety-Five Theses (T)

[01a.24] Leo X to Friedrich the Wise, 23/8/1518 (T)

[01a.25] Luther to Georg Spalatin, 10/10/1518 (T)

[01a.26] Luther’s Account of the Leipzig Debate (T)

[01a.27] Papal Bull: Exsurge Domine, 15/6/1520 (T)

[01a.28] Luther’s account of events at Worms (T)

[01a.29] Contarini on Luther’s popularity (T)

[01a.30] Imperial Edict of Worms, 26/5/1521 (T)

[01a.31] Luther’s Invocavit Sermons, 1522 (T)

[01a.32] Luther: Against . .. Peasants (5/1525) (T)

[01a.33] Heinrich Bullinger: Marburg, 1529 (T)

[01a.34] The Augsburg Confession, 1530 (T)

[01a.35] Luther: autobiographical fragment, 1545 (T)

[01a.36] Doctrine of Justification by Faith Alone (T)

[01a.37] Luther: The Authority of Scripture (T)

[01a.38] Luther: The Priesthood of All Believers (T)

[01a.39] Luther: On the Papacy (T)

[01a.40] Luther: On the Church (T)

[01a.41] Luther: On Secular Authority (T)

[01a.42] Luther and the Seven Sacraments (T)

[01a.43] The Lord's Supper (T)

[01a.44] Chronology: Broadening Conflict (1518-19) (T)

[01a.45] Chronology: Luther's Excommunication (1520-21) (T)

[01a.46] Summary of Luther's Theological Development (T)

1b. The Theologians' Reformation: Jean Calvin

[01b.21] Calvin: the dangers of the popular will (T)

[01b.22] Portrait of Jean Calvin (I)

[01b.23] Calvin's Biblical Commentaries (T)

[01b.24] Calvin's Pamphlets (T)

[01b.25] Organization of Calvin's Institutes (T)

[01b.26] Editions of Calvin's Institutes (T)

[01b.27] Calvin: Elements of autobiography: Part 1 (T)

[01b.28] Calvin: Elements of autobiography: Part 2 (T)

[01b.29] Calvin: the meaning of 'rest' and 'peace' (T)

[01b.30] Calvin: fear of the elements (T)

[01b.31] Calvin: on marriage, celibacy, women and abortion (T)

[01b.32] Calvin: superstition and the Roman religion (T)

[01b.33] Calvin: on monasticism (T)

[01b.34] Calvin: on images and idolatry (T)

[01b.35] Calvin: on fasting (T)

[01b.36] Calvin: on vocation (T)

[01b.37] Calvin: sacraments and signs (T)

[01b.38] Calvin: knowledge of Christ (T)

[01b.39] Calvin: conscience and Christian liberty (T)

[01b.40] Calvin: providence and predestination (T)

[01b.41] Calvin: on the church (T)

[01b.42] Calvin: ministers and their vocation (T)

[01b.43] Calvin: on singing in church (T)

[01b.44] Clément Marot: Psalm 13 (T)

[01b.45] Calvin: on magistrates and civil authority (T)

[01b.46] Calvin: on property, work and money (T)

[01b.47] Calvin: the Genevan catechism (T)

[01b.48] Calvin's farewell admonition to the Genevan ministers, 28/4/1564 (T)

2. The Engraven Reformation

[02.21] Thomas Anshelm: Moses and the Law, 1505 (I)

[02.22] Hans Baldung Grien: Descent..., 1505 (I)

[02.23] Lucas Cranach the Elder: Calvary, 1502 (I)

[02.24] The Reformation and Art (T)

[02.25] Hans Baldung Grien: Adam and Eve, 1514 (I)

[02.26] Hans Baldung Grien: St Paul..., 1508 (I)

[02.27] Hans Baldung Grien: St Lawrence, 1505 (I)

[02.28] Hans Baldung Grien: St Sebastian, 1508 (I) [Exp]

[02.29] Hans Baldung Grien: Last Judgement, 1505 (I)

[02.30] Heinrich Steiner: Last Judgement, 1510 (I)

[02.31] Hans Burgkmair (Elder): Lovers..., 1510 (I)

[02.32] Christoph Amberger: Charles V, 1532 (I)

[02.33] Lucas Cranach (Younger): Martin Luther, 1546(I)

[02.34] Lucas Cranach (Younger): Philip Melanchthon (I)

[02.35] Lucas Cranach (Younger): Johann Bugenhagen (I)

[02.36] Christoph von Sichem: Thomas Müntzer (I)

[02.37] Lucas Cranach (Elder): Elector Friedrich (I)

[02.38] Erhard Schoen: Philip of Hesse (I)

[02.39] Lucas Cranach (Younger): Baptism of Christ, 1548 (I)

[02.40] Jacob Lucius: Baptism of Christ...,1550 (I)

[02.41] First Published Woodcut of Luther, 1519 (I) [Exp]

[02.42] Lucas Cranach (Elder): Luther, 1520 (I)

[02.43] Hans Baldung Grien: Luther, 1521 (I)

[02.44] Lucas Cranach (Elder): Luther, 1521 (I)

[02.45] Lucas Cranach (Elder): Junker Jörg, 1522 (I)

[02.46] Hans Holbein: Luther as Hercules, 1523 (I)

[02.47] Barthel Beham: Three Peasants Intent ... (I) [Exp]

[02.48] Erhard Schoen: Allegory of the Sower (I)

[02.49] Barthel Beham: Christ in the Sheep Shed (I)

[02.50] Hans Sebald Beham: Christ in the Sheep Shed, 1524 (I) [Exp]

[02.51] Erhard Schoen: God's Lament for...his vineyard, 1532 (I) [Exp]

[02.52] Erhard Schoen: The Houses of the Wise... (I) [Exp]

[02.53] Georg Pencz: Two Kinds of Sermons (I) [Exp]

[02.54] Lucas Cranach: Old and New Testament (I) [Exp]

[02.55] The Old and the New Church (I) [Exp]

[02.56] Hans Sebald Beham: Allegory..., 1521 (I)

[02.57] Leonhard Beck: Monk and Maiden, 1523 (I) [Exp]

[02.58] The Pope and His Cohorts, c1530(I) [Exp]

[02.59] Jörg Breu: Proclamation ..., c1530 (I) [Exp]

[02.60] The Seven-Headed Papal Animal, c1530 (I)

[02.61] Lucas Cranach (Younger): Last Supper ..., c1540 (I)

[02.62] Hans Sebald Beham: The Descent..., 1524 (I) [Exp]

[02.63] Michael Ostendorfer: Pilgrimage..., 1520(I) [Exp]

[02.64] Leonhard Beck: Monk and Donkey, 1523 (I)

[02.65] Peter Flötner: Procession of the clergy, 1535 (I) [Exp]

[02.66] Erhard Schoen: The Devil with a bagpipe, c1535 (I) [Exp]

[02.67] Satirical Coat of arms of the Pope, c1545 (I) [Exp]

[02.68] Luther's Game of Heresy, 1520 (I) [Exp]

[02.69] Andreas Karlstadt: On the removal of images, 1522 (T)

[02.70] Johannes Eck: On Not Removing Images, 1522 (T)

[02.71] Lucas Cranach (Elder): The Law and the Gospel, 1529 (I)

[02.72] The Cranach Workshop: Wittenberg Altar, 1547 (I)

[02.73] Albrecht Dürer: Four Apostles, 1526 (I)

3. 'The Peasants are becoming Aware!’ The Peasant Reformation in Germany

[03.21] The Divine Mill: Karsthans...Gospel (I)

[03.22] Chronology of pamphlet production (C)

[03.23] Albrecht Altdorfer: 'Landscape with Church' (I)

[03.24] Luther to Leisnig, 1523 (T)

[03.25] The communal reformation: an overview (T)

[03.26] Wendelstein Church Ordinance (T)

[03.27] Scale of the German Peasants’ War, 1525 (M)

[03.28] Articles of Memmingen, 5/1525(T)

[03.29] Articles of the Brigach Valley (T)

[03.30] The Merano Articles (T)

[03.31] The Mühlhausen Articles (T)

[03.32] The Salzburg Articles (T)

[03.33] To the Assembled...Peasants, 5/1525 (T)

[03.34] The Twelve Articles (T)

[03.35] Main Areas of Peasant Revolt(M)

[03.36] Views of the Bavarian Leonhard von Eck (T)

[03.37] Plunder of the Monastery of Weissenau (I)

[03.38] Massacre of Weinsberg, 16/4/1525 (T)

[03.39] The Confession of Blesy Krieg (T)

[03.40] Margrave Casimir’s Vengeance (T)

[03.41] Margrave Casimir’s Preaching Mandate (T)

[03.42] Church Order of Brunswick, 1528 (T)

[03.43] Instructions: Visitors of Saxony, 1527 (T)

[03.44] Württemberg Church Ordinance, 1536 (T)

[03.45] Church Ordinance of Saxony, 1580 (T)

4. The Reformation in Schwabach

[04.21] Resolution: Casimir of Brandenburg, 1/10/1524 (T)

[04.22] Johann Rurer: a Christian Instruction, 1526 (T)

[04.23] Wendelsteiners to Prince Casimir (T)

5. ‘The Patriciate, the multitude of the other citizens, and all scholars stand on Luther’s side: the reformation in the Free Imperial City of Nuremberg (1517-1562)

[05.21] Erhard Etzlaub: Map of routes, 1501 (I)

[05.22] Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary, 1592 (T)

[05.23] Liber Cronicarum, 1493: Nuremberg (I)

[05.24] Topographia Franconiae: Nuremberg (I)

[05.25] Concerning the polity...Nuremberg, 1516 (T)

[05.26] William Smith: Nuremberg, 1594 (T)

[05.27] The Peasant of Wöhrd (I)

[05.28] Hans Sachs: Wittemberg Nightingale (T)

[05.29] Andreas Osiander: Sermon (T)

[05.30] Feud with Bamberg, 1524 (T)

[05.31] Lazarus Spengler to Volckamer, 8/3/1525 (T)

[05.32] Letter from Wittenberg, 1/8/1532 (T)

[05.33] Nuremberg council minutes, 1524 (T)

[05.34] Caspar Nützel to Duke Albert, 5/8/1525 (T)

[05.35] Anonymous Memorandum, 1530 (T)

[05.36] Johannes Brenz: memorandum response (T)

[05.37] Second Nuremberg counter-memorandum (T)

[05.38] Visitation instructions, 1560 (T)

[05.39] Abraham Ortelius: Theatrum Orbis... (I)

[05.40] First Visitation Return: Heroldsberg (T)

[05.41] Second Visitation Return: Eltersdorf & Tennenlohe (T)

[05.42] Third Visitation Return: Eibach (T)

[05.43] Fourth Visitation Return: Fischbach (T)

[05.44] Fifth Visitation Return: Kalchreuth (T)

6. The Genevan Reformation

[06.21] Geneva and dependencies in the 16thC (M)

[06.22] Portrait of Jean Calvin (I)

[T06.23] Calvin's farewell admonition to the Genevan ministers, 28/4/1564 (T)

[06.24] Chronology of the Reformation at Geneva (T)

[06.25] Genevan Ecclesiastical Ordinances, 1541 (T)

[06.26] Genevan Formula for Excommunication (T)

[06.27] Calvin to Myconius, 14 March 1542 (T)

[06.28] Genevan protestant ministry, 1538-54 (C)

[06.29] Genevan consistory: membership, 1543-52 (C)

[06.30] Plague and conspiracy in Geneva, 1545 (T)

[06.31] The Libertine Faction, 1546-8 (T)

[06.32] The Ami Perrin Affair, 1546-8 (T)

[06.33] Unrest in the youth militia, 1547 (T)

[06.34] Ami Perrin's trial and reinstatement, 1547 Affair, 1546-8 (T)

[06.35] Jacques Gruet, 1547 (T)

[06.36] Servetus: Restitutio Christianismi (T)

[06.37] Servetus: Calvin's early reactions, 1547 (T)

[06.38] Calvin to Frankfort pastors, 27/8/1553 (T)

[06.39] Beza to Bullinger, 27/8/1553 (T)

[06.40] Servetus condemned to death, 10/1553 (T)

[06.41] Calvin's reactions to Servetus' death (T)

[06.42] Calvin to Guillaume Farel, 30/12/1553 (T)

[06.43] Calvin to Guillaume Farel, 15/6/1551 (T)

[06.44] Calvin to Heinrich Bullinger 28/3/1554 (T)

[06.45] Notable refugees in Geneva, 1548-59 (T)

[06.46] Social status: Genevan immigrants (C)

[06.47] Admission to the Genevan bourgeoisie (C)

[06.48] Climax to Genevan opposition, 1551-5 (T)

[06.49] Final night of riot, 16/5/1555 (T)

[06.50] Copying of lectures and sermons (T)

[06.51] Calvin: miscellaneous social comment (T)

[06.52] Calvin the preacher: extracts... (T)

[06.53] Ordinance of Genevan Council, 11/1546 (T)

[06.54] Genevan Baptismal Names (C)

[06.55] The prohibition of swearing (T)

[06.56] Theatre in Geneva (T)

[06.57] Ordinances: marriage & divorce, 11/1561 (T)

[06.58] Household visitation in Geneva (T)

[06.59] Parish visitation in Geneva's villages (T)

[06.60] Genevan consistory: cases, 1542/46/50 (C)

[06.61] Consistory court records: sample, 1541 (T)

[06.62] Consistory court records: sample, 1551 (T)

[06.63] John Knox to Anne Locke, 9/12/1556 (T)

[06.64] Florimond de Raemond: lure of Geneva (T)

[06.65] The rise of Genevan publishing, 1536-72 (C)

[06.66] Ordinances: Genevan Academy, 6/1559 (T)

[06.67] Ordinances: Genevan College, 6/1559 (T)

[06.68] Genevan Missions, 1555-62 (T)

7. 'Great Troubles over Religion';
the French urban reformation (Toulouse: 1560-1562)

[07.21] Parlement of Toulouse and heresy (C)

[07.22] Jurisdiction area: Toulouse Parlement (M)

[07.23] Background of accused heretics, 1511-59 (C)

[07.24] Sample interrogation of a heretic (T)

[07.25] France's heresy statutes (T)

[07.26] Europe's population densities in c.1600 (C)

[07.27] Melchior Tavernier: Toulouse, 1631 (M)

[07.28] The Hôtel Assézat (I)[Exp]

[07.29] Geography of French exiles to Geneva (M)

[07.30] Numbers of exiles to Geneva per annum (C)

[07.31] The Ecclesiastical History..., 1580 (I)

[07.32] Early protestantism in Toulouse (T)

[07.33] Toulouse protestants: letters to Geneva (T)

[07.34] Protestant ministers in Toulouse (T)

[07.35] The French Discipline, 1559 (T)

[07.36] The protestant church in Lyon, 1564 (I)

[07.37] Chronology of national events in France, 1559-1562 (T)

[07.38] The Great Cooking-Pot overturned (I)[Exp]

[07.39] Denis Crouzet: 'Warriors of the Lord' (ST)

[07.40] Origins of the term 'Huguenot' (T)

[07.41] The image of heresy (I)

[07.42] Natalie Zemon Davis: rites of violence (ST)

[07.43] Horrible Cruelties of the Huguenots in France (I)[Exp]

[07.44] Modern narrative of a 'religious' riot (ST)

[07.45] Sketch-map of Toulouse, May 1562 (M)

[07.46] Reactions in Toulouse to events in Montauban, 1561 (T)

[07.47] Catholic preaching & sectarian tension (T)

[07.48] City magistrates and the control of sectarian tension (T)

[07.49] Lenten preaching in Toulouse (T)

[07.50] A funeral leads to bloodshed, 2 April 1562 (T)

[07.51] Preparations for urban insurrection, April 1562 (T)

[07.52] Treason and plot: Toulouse, May 1562 (T)

[07.53] Toulouse: assaults on individuals and property (T)

[07.54] Toulouse: street-fighting (T)

[07.55] Toulouse: treatment of protestants leaving the city (T)

[07.56] Toulouse: the execution of justice (T)

[07.57] The inventory of sectarian hatred (T)

[07.58] Social background of protestant suspects (T)

[07.60] Massacre of St Bartholomew's Day in Paris, 1572 (I)[Exp]

8. Exercises

[08.21] 'The false idolatrous teaching of Antichrist' (I)[Exp]

[08.22] 'The true religion of Christ' (I)[Exp]

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