B Mgt 513 Syllabus

				B MGT 513
		Management and Organizational Behavior
 				Fall, 1996

Professor: 	Dr. Thomas D. Taber
Office:        	Room BA317A
Hours:    	Tuesday and Thursday 12:00 - 1:30 and by appointment
Phone:    	442-4937     E-mail: TDT11@CNSIBM.ALBANY.EDU
Course Files:  	(Novell Network) F:\USERS\TABER\MGT513

Why study organizations? I want to be an accountant!

"Large corporations are often formidable and mysterious to people outside them, like giants that populate the
earth but can only be seen through their shadows. Yet informed participation in civic culture requires knowing
more about how corporations operate or what people in them do than is contained in stereotypes of ambitious
organization men or insensitive bureaucrats. Corporations are often equally mysterious to the people inside,
whose views can be limited and parochial because they rarely get a sense of the whole....Insiders, too, need the
larger view in order to understand the forces acting on them, to see options, and to consider alternatives" 
     (Rosabeth Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation", page 4).

                               Course Purpose

     Corporations are neither inherently good nor evil, but they are powerful. As a manager, you must 
understand organizations to operate them effectively and to change them in desired ways. You also will  be
powerfully affected by organizations  as a consumer of their goods and services (and bads and dis-services).
Finally, you probably will be an employee of a corporation and need to understand the forces affecting your
work-life and career. 

     The purpose of this course is to give you a realistic understanding of how the modern corporation
functions.  In order to understand organizations, three objectives will be pursued. We will...

     1. ...learn concepts and theories useful for diagnosing human behavior in organizations.
     2. ...develop an open-systems model of how organizations function.
     3. ...develop skills in using several tools of management. 

Topics include: 

 Organizational effectiveness     
 Organizational structure     
 Total quality management
 Job design     
 Leadership and Managership     
 Decision making
 Groups and teams
 Goal setting
 Conflict management

				READY!  FIRE!  AIM! 
Reading. The text  gives you the basic concepts and theories of organizational behavior. Reading assignments
     are listed on the attached schedule.

Text: Yukl, G.A., & Taber, T.D.  (1996). Organizational Behavior: Managing the
       Transition to the 21st Century. (Xerxoed, Pre-publication edition). (Y&T)
Depth Readings. To give depth to key theories, or to see how theories are applied in actual organizations,
     additional readings have been selected from a variety of sources and Xeroxed. The readings are as
     important as the text. (Yes, they will be covered on the exams!)

Lectures. Lectures  explore  topics in depth,  discuss cases, give examples,  or fill in gaps left by your reading.
     Lectures are not intended to summarize your text. Students have found the lectures much more
     meaningful when the text material has been read prior to the appropriate lecture.

Group Discussion. Everyone will be assigned to a work group for the semester. Group activities  include 
     discussions, experiential exercises,  case analyses, position papers, questionnaires,  or other forms of
     active participation. Often there will be an exercise to be carried out, written up, and discussed in class.
     Students have told me that their group experiences were the most valuable part of the course. (So far,
     no one has mentioned my brilliant lectures. Go figure!) Come prepared to participate. 
Research Participation. SUNYA is a University Research Center --we not only teach business, we also
     conduct scholarly research on business issues. Many of you have valuable knowledge and personal
     experience in business. Therefore, occasionally you will be asked to participate in original research
     projects conducted by SUNYA researchers. Participation is voluntary, and appreciated.

Research Projects. You will complete three short research projects. The projects give you a chance to
     practice using theory and concepts you learn in class. The projects are interesting and will add greatly
     to your learning. Each assignment requires a 7-page written report. Project due dates  are indicated on
     the syllabus. Detailed instructions for conducting and writing each project will be provided separately. 

     Project 1. Observation and Analysis of A Fast Food Restaurant. You will observe the role
          differentiation, coordination mechanisms, stakeholders, and technology used at a fast food
          restaurant. Based on your observations, you will make recommendations for improvement.

     Project 2. Review of Basic Research Articles. You will select a  topic from the syllabus, go to the
          library, and find at least three research articles on the topic. You will summarize, compare, and
          contrast the articles and draw conclusions and suggestions for effective managerial practice.

     Project 3. Career Development Plan.  You will write up a  statement of your short-term and long-term
          career objectives and a plan for accomplishing them. This project is intended to help you think
          seriously about what you want to accomplish in your professional career. It is recommended
          that you interview a person who currently is in the occupation or job you plan to pursue. Visit
          the career planning center and use their testing facilities to help identify your career interests. 

Examinations. Two exams will be given, each exam weighted equally. The format of the exams is a 
     combination of multiple-choice, true-false, short answer, and essay. The exams are not cumulative.
     They include all lecture material, exercises and readings assigned up to the exam date. 

Quizzes. Some classes will have a short quiz to examine your knowledge of the immediate subject matter. 

Skills Projects. It is important not only to learn what to do as a manager, but how to do it. You will carry out
     assigned exercises  to learn how to use such management tools as organization charting, conflict
     resolution, goal setting, decision trees, expected utility analysis, career planning, and so on. 

Consultation. I am available for consultation if you need advice, have difficulty with the course, or simply
     want to discuss  your ideas. You do not have to be in trouble or have a complaint in order to come in
     to chat with me. Really! (Next to the Maytag repair guy, I am the loneliest guy in town). Come in
     during office hours, telephone, or use E-mail. Hey, you are paying for this service. Use it!

Communications. Each student is expected to have a computer account and to know how to use the E-mail
     system. You may use E-mail to communicate with me (in addition to personal visits or telephone calls).
     I also will send messages to the class this way. You are expected to check your E-mail often.

Participation. You are expected to attend every class, to be prepared for each class by reading assigned
     material beforehand, and to participate in all class activities. 

Grades. Students are not pitted against one another in competition for a fixed number of "A" grades. In
     theory, everyone could get an "A". For each exam I establish an "anchor score" by reviewing the top 
     exams and consulting an item analysis of the exam. Letter grades are determined by the percentage of
     the anchor score you attain. You are free to ask questions about a particular exam answer or a mark
     on a paper. Any dispute, however, over exam items, a paper grade, etc. must be submitted in writing 
     within two weeks of receiving the mark. No disputes will be considered after that time. 

     Quality Points 90 to 100%     of the anchor score is   "A".
                    80 "      89%  "    "          "        "B".
                    70 "      79%  "    "    "              "C".
                    60 "      69%  "    "    "              "D".
                     0 "      59%  "    "    "              "E". 

     Quantity Points    Examination I    	(100 points)
                    	Examination II        	(100 points)
                    	Quizzes                	(  50 points)
                    	Skills Projects        	(  50 points)
                    	Participation          	(  50 points) 
                    	Research Projects       (3@50 points=150 points)
Course Grade Your overall grade in the course is determined by  Points =
SUM of (Quality x Quantity)

           A= 500 - 450 points, B= 449 - 400 points, C= 399 - 350 points, D= 349 - 300 points  
Code of Conduct. Nature abhors a vacuum. I abhor cheaters. Any incident of cheating in an examination or
     plagiarism on an assignment will result in a failing grade for the course. 
               "80% OF LIFE IS JUST SHOWING UP" (Woody Allen)

                        READING LIST AND TOPIC SCHEDULE 
     In this section we  develop an open-systems model useful for describing all types of organizations. The
model is used to learn the basic parts of  organizations and to compare the strengths and weaknesses of
different organizational architectures. The systems model is useful for guiding organizational change. 
■Nadler, D. (1992). "Organization architecture: A metaphor for change". Chpt. 1 (pp. 1- 8). in Organizational
architecture: Designs for changing organizations. Nadler, D. Gerstein, M., & Shaw, R. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Environmental pressures are forcing organizations to change  structures.
■Nadler, D. & Tushman (1980) "A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior", Organizational Dynamics,
Autumn, 15 pp. Systems theory  diagnoses the "fits" between system components.

9/10 (9/12) WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? -Develop an open-systems model useful for describing all
     types of organizations.
■Y & T, Chpt. 1,  Organizational Society. Systems theory is used to analyze complex organizations.
■Imai, M. (1986). "KAIZEN, The concept". (Chpt. 1, p. 1-21). In Kaizen: The key to Japan's competitive success.
New York: McGraw-Hill. In the Japanese version of TQM, organizations must innovate, maintain themselves, and
constantly improve ("Kaizen").

9/17 (9/19) ORGANIZATIONAL ANATOMY -Learn the basic parts of organizations and how they are
     ■Y & T , Chpt. 2, Organizational Anatomy and Processes. All organizations share a common set of parts and
     integrating mechanisms. The parts are the building blocks from which different organizational structures are built. 
■Imai, M. (1986). "Improvement East and West". (Chpt. 2, p. 23-41). In Kaizen: The key to Japan's competitive
success. NY: McGraw-Hill. Japanese "Kaizen" is compared to  Western innovation.

10/1 (9/26) ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN -Determine the strengths and weaknesses of different organi-
     zational structures.
■Y & T , Chpt. 3, Organizational Architecture. Examine the strengths and weakness of product, functional, matrix,
and other organizational architectures. 
■Kirk, R. (1994). It's about control. Inc., August, pp. 25-26. Based on his experiences with a virtual organization,
this business owner opts for traditional hierarchy. Imai, M. (1986). 
■Walton, M. (1986) "An introduction to the fourteen points, the seven deadly diseases, and some obstacles".
(Chpt. 3, pp. 33-39). In The Demming management method. NY: Perigree. Demming describes the effective
organization in terms of 14 positive conditions and seven negative ones.

10/8 (10/3) ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION-Learn the properties of effective communications
     and organizational channels of communications.
■Y & T, Chpt. 5, Communication in Organizations. Without communications, there can be no organization. 
■Walton, M. (1986) "Doing it with data". (Chpt. 20, pp. 96-118) In Walton, M. The Demming management
method. NY: Perigree. Charts and statistical tools for assessing quality are summarized.

     In this section we learn the key duties, roles, behaviors, and skills of the manager. Of interest is  how
the manager acquires and uses power and authority. We will examine the manager's role in decision making,
communicating, and group leadership.
10/15 (10/10)  MANAGERSHIP--Learn the key managerial responsibilities and duties.
■Y & T, Chpt. 4, Managerial Functions and Activities--Managers' activities differ according to hierarchical level.
■Coleman, D. (1985) Following the leader, Science,  Oct, p.18-20. Sometimes it is appropriate to oppose the leader. 

10/22 (10/17) LEADERSHIP  -Analyze leadership into its key roles, behaviors and skills.
■Y & T, Chpt. 9, Leadership in Organizations. The key activities of effective leaders are identified and the
transformational and charismatic styles are examined.
■Hartman, Main Street, Inc., Inc Magazine, June, 1986, pp.49-58.Characteristics of small business C.E.O.'s.

10/29 (10/24)LEADERSHIP AND POWER -Identify types of power, how power is obtained, and how it
     is used 
■Y & T, Chpt. 7, Power and Politics. Power is like gold. It is fought for, horded, and stolen. Yet it is vital for an
organization to function. Learn the  bases of power and how they affect  behavior. 
■Nadler, D.A., Gerstein, M.S., & Shaw, R.B. (1992). "The capacity to act: Creating a context for empowerment".
(Chpt. 7, pp. 155-174). In Organizational architecture: Designs for changing organizations. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass. Organizational arrangements can give personnel actual power to take action. 
10/29 (10/24) EXAM I (Covers material through 10/22 (10/17))

11/5 (10/31) LEADERSHIP AND GROUP  PROCESSES -Develop a model of how task groups work and
     how they can be lead. Learn about self-directed work teams.
■Y & T, Chpt. 6,  Working in Groups. What  can leaders do to effectively manage task groups as they solve
problems and make decisions?
■Wellins, R.S., Byham, W.C., & Wilson, J.M. (1991). "Empowered teams. (Chpts 1-4, pp 1-75). In Empowered
teams: Creating self-directed work groups that improve quality, productivity, and participation. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass. This is an easy-to-read description of issues facing self-directed work teams in organizations. 

11/12 (11/7) MANAGING CONFLICT IN THE ORGANIZATION -Examine sources of organizational
     conflict and methods of negotiation.
■Y & T, Chpt 8, Conflict in Organizations. Conflict in organizations is inevitable. A great deal of the organization's
resources can be expended in avoiding, managing, and suppressing conflict. 
■Fisher, R. & Ury, W. Chpt. 1. Don't bargain over positions, in Getting to Yes, pp. 3-14. The authors describe the
"principled negotiation" system for negotiating contracts, quarrels, and conflicts. 
■Bazerman, M. Why negotiations go wrong. Psychology Today, June, 1986, 54-58. Rigid thinking can interfere with
problem solving.
11/19 (11/14)LEADERSHIP AND DECISION MAKING -Compare an ideal model of decision making
with how individuals and groups actually make decisions. 
■Y & T, Chpt. 12, Decision Making by Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. A rational model of  decision
making  is compared to actual decisions making by individuals, groups, and organizations. 
■Scheidel, T. & Crowell, L. Chpt. 1. The group discussion process. pp. 3-15. A review of problems often
experienced in group work and what to do about them.
■Beach, L. (1993). Some decision techniques. (Chpt  9, pp. 113-135). In  Making the Right Decision: Organization
Culture, Vision, and Planning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Aids to making rational decisions.

     Organizational structure and management actions ultimately are aimed at influencing the attitudes
and behavior of the people in the organization. This section examines theories of motivation, individual
differences in motives, and organizational mechanisms of behavior control through rewards and job design. 

     WANT FROM MEMBERS AND HOW DO THEY GET  IT? -Develop a model of organization 
■Y & T, Chpt.. 11, Motivation. Motivation theories  are integrated into a dynamic model of behavior.
■Walton, R. From control to commitment in the workplace. Harvard Business Review, March, 1985, pp. 76-84.
Workers work best not when they are tightly controlled, but when  given responsibility. 
■Dowling, W.F. (1973). Job redesign on the assembly line: Farewell to blue-collar blues? Organizational
Dynamics, Autumn, 51-67. Learn the principles of job design and how technology affects jobs at SAAB and Volvo.
■Hall, Donald (1993). "The best day". Yankee Magazine, August, 1993, 10 pp. This is a poignant first-hand
narrative about the meaning of work and its role in one's life.


FROM ORGANIZATIONS? -Learn content  and process theories of work motivation.
■Kerr, J. (1993) "The best small companies to work for in America". Inc. Magazine, July, 15 pp. Describes the
practices of companies that motivate and satisfy the people who work in them. 
■Rosen, C., et al When employees share the profits, Psychology Today, January, 1986. 30-36. Evaluation of the
effects of Employee Stock Ownership Plans.
■Latham, G. & Locke, E. Reading 28. Goal setting -A motivational technique that works. pp. 296-304. Goal
setting can be a powerful motivational force.

(12/10) No Class

12/17 OR 12/19 EXAM II, (Covers material since Exam I) (The exact date of Exam II is yet to be arranged). 
                            OBESA CANTAVIT!                            EXTRA CREDIT PROJECTS

      There are many activities that you can do to learn more about organizations and earn "extra credit".
Take advantage of the opportunity  in MGT 513 to do independent research and other activities of your
own choosing.All extra credit activities must be approved in advance by your  Instructor. Always
consult with your Instructor to get advice and specific requirements for a project. Each activity requires
a 5-page written report. NO extra credit project will be accepted after the last day of class.

(15 points). Interview an Executive or Labor Leader. Make arrangements to interview a leader of a public
or private, profit or non-profit organization. The leader might be an executive, a manager, or perhaps a
leader of a union. Your questions should be based on the theories and concepts you are learning in the
course. You should ask your Instructor to review  your interview format before you conduct the interview.
You will be evaluated on the quality of your questions as well as your conclusions from the interview.

(15 points). Business Book Report on 21st Century Business Issues. Futurists have gazed into their crystals
and come up with thousands of predictions, most of them dire,  about the future of business organizations.
They have dealt with issues such as team empowerment, leaderless organizations, the demise of the "job",
the effects of automation, managing the culturally diverse organization, the challenge of international
competition, the impact of computers and other technological innovations, etc. Get a futurist book about
some business topic, read it, and write a report of the book. Be sure to relate your analysis to topics and
theories you have learned in MGT513. 

(15 points). "Mini" Research Project.  Most of you also have studied social science research methods in
psychology, sociology, or economics. Design a simple experiment, survey, or interview method that you
can use to gather  data to test some theory from the Y & T text. Consult with your Instructor about the
most effective way to carry out your empirical research. (Note: Any research involving human subjects must
be approved by  a University committee on the ethical treatment of human subjects). 

(15 points). Corporate Analysis. Pick a particular business (e.g., Disney, IBM, Arizona Bank,TroyBilt, etc)
and collect information about the organization from business periodicals (e.g., Fortune, Forbes, Business
Week, Wall Street Journal) and/or from on-line data bases. (For information about available databases,
check with the reference librarian). Assemble a notebook of articles and materials about the business and
write an assessment of the organization. Use concepts and theories from the course to guide your

(15 points). Creative/ Expressive Project. Scientific procedures and objective data are used to test theories
of organizational behavior, but where do the theories come from in the first place? Theories result from acts
of creativity. You are free to design a project that is based on artistic expression and creativity, rather than
scientific methods and objectivity. For example, you might create a photo-essay that documents the work-
related exchanges that take place during the night shift at  a truck stop; write a piece of fiction to illustrate
or challenge some concept or theory you have read this semester; paint, draw, or use computer graphics
to develop graphical symbolism of important organizational concepts and theories --e.g., how do you
symbolize the idea of "organization", "system", "equity", or "self-actualization"? Dancing, singing, drawing,
painting, photographing, poetry, prose, puppeteering, (puppeteering?); give it a go! You must prepare a 
report that explains your artistic endeavor.  (Yes, this assignment is a little weird, so be sure to check with
your Instructor before going ahead.)


       Project 1. Observation and Analysis of A Fast Food Restaurant
     Description: Project I entails doing "field research." You are to go to a local fast food restaurant and
observe the role differentiation, coordination mechanisms, technology and stakeholders of the restaurant. Based
on your observations, you will make  recommendations for improving the organization of the restaurant. 
     Purpose: The purpose of the project is to practice your observation skills. The project gives you a
chance to use your knowledge of organizational structure you are learning in MGT513. Recall that an 
organizational structure  is a particular pattern of differentiation and integration. Organizations differ in how
they break down (differentiate) their main objective into specific jobs and roles. They also differ in the
mechanisms they use to integrate the roles into a completed product. Much of the differentiation/integration
pattern at a fast food restaurant is in plain sight to a customer, if that customer is a knowledgeable
organizational observer (which you are).  
     You may pick any  restaurant to observe, including on-campus operations. There is no need to go off
campus. You do not need to interview anyone. In fact, we want you to base your paper only on what you can
observe. The advantage of observing fast-food establishments is that their operations are fairly visible (also you
can hang around there without getting booted out).
     It is not a difficult project, but you probably should try to do it a piece at a time across Part I of the
course. That is, do not save it up to do all at once just before its due date. Leave yourself time to revise your
draft before you turn it in. During Part I of the course you will receive additional suggestions for your project.
     Format for Your Paper. Papers should be 7 pages (double-spaced), but it is the quality of the project,
not its length, that determines  your grade. Please refer to the handout "The General Format for Your Writing
Projects" for details on how to structure your paper.  The handout also shows you the criteria for evaluating
your Project, and how much weight each criterion will receive. 
     Suggestions for Doing Your Field Research. You are to observe four aspects of the organization's
structure:  1) role differentiation, 2) coordination mechanisms, 3) technology and  4) the stakeholders.
     1) Role differentiation. An organization divides its tasks up into jobs or roles. What are the main roles
that you observe in the restaurant? Does one person do just one role, or do people move through different
     2) Coordination mechanisms. The various tasks at the restaurant must be coordinated or there will be
chaos. A key coordination mechanism at most organizations, for example, is to create the job of supervisor
to direct the work of others.  Describe the mechanisms used to coordinate tasks at the fast food restaurant.
     3) Technology. Every organization uses tools, equipment, and standard procedures to perform its key
tasks. Describe some of the main technology at the fast food restaurant. How does technology help control
human behavior?
     4) Stakeholders. Stakeholders are people who have a stake in what happens at the restaurant. There
are at least three general groups of stakeholders you could see at a fast food restaurant --customers, workers,
and managers. Do a stakeholder analysis of the short-term and long term goals of the key stakeholders of the
     WARNING: Base Your Paper on Observations. Your paper is  based on what you observe and what
you infer from your observations, not on what you think you already know about McDonalds and other fast
food restaurants. You must actually visit the restaurant even if you have been there 100 times before. Always
substantiate your conclusions and inferences with actual observations you have made. (E.g., "I infer that
workers like their jobs less well than managers because the managers smiled spontaneously more often (1.5
smiles/minute) than did the workers (.05 smiles/minute)"). 
                Project 2. Review of Basic Research Articles

     Description. Project II entails doing "library research". You are to select a topic relevant to the
MGT513 course, go to the library, and use CD-ROM data bases to locate research articles on your topic.
You can select any issue in MGT513, including material we have not yet covered-- subject to the approval
of your Instructor. Find at least three research  articles to read and write a paper summarizing the articles,
your criticisms, and your conclusions. Be sure to read research articles, not just  popular press articles.
(E.g., the Journal of Applied Psychology has research articles, but Business Week does not).
     Purpose.  The project gives you the opportunity to do an original inquiry into a topic that is
important to you. Second, it gives you the chance to practice using the tremendous information resources
readily available to you on the "information highway".  Even if you have not used the CD-ROM information
system, it is self-explanatory. You will be expert in it in a short time. The data bases on CD-ROM that will
probably most useful to you are ABI-Inform, PsychINFO, SilverPlatter, and ERIC. 
     Format for your Paper. Papers should be 7 pages, not counting title or reference pages. Please
refer to "THE GENERAL FORMAT FOR YOUR WRITING PROJECTS" to see how to structure your
written report, but you have  latitude to use your own creativity to structure your paper. You should
structure your paper into at least five sections: Executive Summary, Introduction, Hypotheses, Body, and

II. 	INTRODUCTION: Describe your topic and why it is important
III. 	HYPOTHESES (optional):You might have some  prior expectations about what you expect to find.
IV. 	BODY OF THE TEXT: Summarize each article and compare and contrast them. 
V. 	DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Based on the articles is there evidence for your  hypotheses, or have
you changed your mind? Do the articles find consistent results? Are they in conflict with one another? Are
there problems with the research?  Can you make any suggestions for managers based on your findings?

     Procedures for Doing Library Research. Everyone in the class already has done library
research, so the procedures are well-known. 
     1) Statement of topic. First, think of the general topic you want to research. Write out a simple,
clear statement of your topic. The topic statement will be your guide to judging what literature is
relevant and what is not.
     2) Key Words. In order to search the library data bases for articles about your topic, you must
first analyze your topic statement into the important Key Words  you  need to guide a computer search.
     3) Topic Clarification and Focus. After you have conducted some preliminary searches for
articles, you  may want to alter your original topic statement. Generally you will add detail to it to clarify
it and to make it more specific. You  will find specific combinations of key words yield a better yield of
relevant research articles. If you search for the topic LEADERSHIP, for example, you will find
thousands of articles. You might narrow it down to CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP or WOMEN AND
     4) Find the articles in the library and read them. The CD-ROM only gives you a brief abstract
of the article. You must go to the stacks to locate the journal that has the complete article. Make a
Xerox copy of the articles. Turn in the articles with your paper (They will be returned). (P.S. It will be
immediately apparent if you write your paper having read only the abstracts.)


                     Project 3. Career Development Plan
     Purpose: This project is intended to help you think seriously about what you want to accomplish
in your professional career and your life in general. The project challenges you to develop  a  statement of
your short-term and long-term career objectives, to inventory  your skills, values, and needs,  and to
develop a plan for accomplishing your objectives.
     Description: You have a lot of freedom as to how you go about doing this project. But there should
be at least four main parts to your report:

  I.  Vision for Your Career. What is it that you want out of your career? It is helpful to develop
  not only a long-term vision for your career, but also  to articulate the short-term objectives you
  wish to accomplish over the next five years or so. 
  II. Plan for Attaining Your Vision. Based on your statement of long-term and short-term
  objectives, select one or two goals for detailed planning. Write a program with explicit steps
  and a time schedule for accomplishing each step. 
  III.  Inventory of  Skills, Values, and Needs. Your strengths and weaknesses affect your ability 
  to accomplish your goals. What are the skills, knowledge, and experiences that you have now
  that are valuable to you in pursuing your career. What additional skills. knowledge, and
  experience do you want to acquire? Do an analysis of your personal assets and liabilities as they
  relate to your career objectives 
  IV. Action Steps. You have a great deal of latitude as to how to complete this assignment, but
  there is one requirement for everyone. YOU MUST DO SOMETHING TO CARRY OUT
  YOUR CAREER PLAN. In addition to writing your career plan, you must take at least one
  simple action step that will advance your career plan. 
          Format: Final reports should be 7 pages (double-spaced). Please refer to "THE GENERAL
FORMAT FOR YOUR WRITING PROJECTS" to see how to structure your written report, but you
have  latitude to use your own creativity to structure your paper. 

                                   Resources for Project 3

I. Vision for Your Career. There are many things you can do to clarify your vision for your career and life
     in general. 

   There are excellent (short) books you can read about life planning and personal goal setting. The
        books help you identify your career goals. For example:
   R. Lakein. How to get control of time and your life.
   S.R. Covey. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.
   M.S. Peck, The Road Less Travelled
   To help articulate your career vision, do an "epitaph exercise". Pretend you are present as your
             epitaph is being read to the crowd gathered  at your funeral (after a long and productive life).
             What would you want to have said about you and the life you lead?
II.  Plan for Attaining Your Vision. The books previously mentioned  also show you how to make plans to
     accomplish your objectives. 

        -There are numerous additional sources you can consult to help you
        make action plans for your 
        vocational objectives. For example, R.N., Bolles, What color is your parachute? A practical
        manual for job hunters and career changers.
        -Use the rational decision making model in your text to analyze
        your career decision making.
        -Interview a person who currently is in the occupation or job you
        plan to pursue. Find out how they prepared for their career. 
III.  Inventory of  Skills, Values, and Needs. It is not easy to identify your own values, needs, and interests.
     Here are a few suggestions:

   ■    Visit the career planning center on campus and use their testing facilities to help identify your
        career interests. 
   ■   The Y&T chapters on motivation  can help you understand your own needs, interests, and motives. 
   ■   There are useful books on how to inventory your personal skills and abilities, strengths and
        weaknesses. For example,   Bolles, R.N. The three boxes of life
IV. Action Steps.  There are several simple things that you can do to take an action step to advance your
     career plan. For example, 
   ■    If you think you want to go on for additional education, then send for some applications and fill
        them out; visit a graduate program; interview a professor with expertise in your chosen field.
   ■    If your immediate plan is to get a job with a particular organization, or in a particular industry then
        do something to find out more about that organization or industry.
   ■    If you are uncertain about your career interests, go to the career advisement center on campus and
        take some vocational interest tests.
     Do not cram this project into the last minutes of the semester. For it to have value to you, work
on it a piece at a time across the semester.

                           Get started right now!


     The required research projects and optional extra credit projects  allow you to pursue important topics
of organizational behavior in depth. Structure your papers in the following way:

1. Title Page:  There are two parts to the title page. A). Identifying Information. The title page should  identify
who wrote the paper and what the paper is about. Include the title of paper, your  name, & identification
number. B) Executive Summary. An Executive Summary is a brief, one-paragraph statement of  the issue being
researched, what you did, what you found, and what should be done about your findings.
 (Please don't waste your money on plastic covers and so on. A simple, stapled paper will do just fine.)

2. Introduction and Overview (1-2paragraphs). The introduction tells the reader what you doing in the paper
and how you are going to do it.

3. Body. (?? pages). The body of the paper provides the purpose of your research,  the details of  the issue
being researched, your hypotheses (if appropriate), what you did, and what you found in your research.  (Be
concise. A long paper is not more impressive than a brief one.)

4. Discussion. (2-3 paragraphs). There are three parts to a conclusion. First, give a very concise summary of
your main points. Second, concisely state the conclusions your have deduced from your research. Third, give
your recommendations for future actions that can be taken based on your research. State clearly what you want
the reader to do now that s/he has read your research.

5. References. If you need to give references, use whatever format you are familiar with. We presume that you
know how to use the reference materials in the library. If not, consult with a reference librarian. A very useful
source is the "Business Periodicals Index", which summarizes business-related research in many topical areas.
Some relevant journals that publish basic research on business topics are:

     -Journal of Applied Psychology          -Administrative Science Quarterly
     -Academy of Management Journal          -Harvard Business Review
     -Sloan Management Review                -Personnel Psychology
     -Journal of Management                  -California Management Review

Length of papers. On most projects the suggested length is7 pages  of text (with 12 point type and 3/4 inch
margins all around), exclusive of title page, tables, and references. (Do not play games with font sizes in order
to stretch or shrink the apparent size of your paper. The real issue is the quality of your report, not its length.)
All papers and projects must be computer printed. No hand written papers will be accepted.

Grading Criteria: The criteria used by the Instructors to assess your projects are spelled out explicitly on the
attached sheet. The sheet gives points for well-written, well-structured reports - so take the effort to use good
business reporting techniques. It gives points for creativity -so give it some personal flair. It gives points for
substantiating your claims, so present a rationale for your assertions. 

Integrity. Your paper must reflect your own work. When the thoughts of others are used they must be cited
and identified as such. Plagiarism involves taking the work of others as your own. Plagiarism is a serious
breach of ethics, and will result in a failure for the course.

NAME/ID#________________________________________      TOTAL POINTS_________        

CLARITY OF WRITING:  Are observations made in clear, understandable language using correct rhetoric?

Unclear, confusing                                          Thoughts presented                                    Clear thoughts using
expression of ideas.                                        adequately without                                          accurate language.
Incorrect grammar or                                      major errors in                                          Vivid descriptions.
misspellings.                                                      rhetoric.

CREATIVITY: Does the paper take an innovative perspective on the topic?

Parrots back mat-                                       Includes some orig-                                   Deals with topics in 
erial. Does not con-                                        inal thoughts or uses                                       valid, but original
sider alternatives.                                       more than one approach.                             ways.

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT: Is the paper a disjointed collection of ideas or does it 
                                        have an effective logical and rhetorical structure?

Little logic or                                                 The report has                                        Very well organized
rhetorical structure                                             some structure.                                      with an obvious logic
in the report.                                                                                           consistent with its purpose

QUALITY OF OBSERVATIONS: Does the paper contain numerous observations of a non-superficial nature with 
                         reasonable interpretations?

Superficial. Little                                            Some non-obvious                          Many issues observed
interpretation.                                               observations, some-                        in depth. Reasonable
                                                            times interpreted well.                      interpretations of

                         recommendations well-supported by logic, theory, or empirical evidence?

No conclusions.                                                Some grounding                            Conclusions are well
Conclusions not                                                of interpretations                             supported. Interpret-
related to facts.                                              in facts or theory.                            ations are grounded.

QUANTITY/SCOPE OF WORK: Is the paper sufficient in terms of the quantity of work it represents? Are there 
                         numerous observations, issues dealt with, points made?

Few observations.                                               Moderate # of                                        Many observations and
Narrow scope.                                               observations. Some                                  issues covered. Issues
                                                           breadth of coverage.                                 are dealt with broadl