New York Journal of Mathematics
Articles in Mathematically-Capable HTML
by William F. Hammond}
Revised June, 2018
Copyright © 2006-2018 New York Journal of Mathematics
The idea here is that HTML with MathML is the best form of
presentation for online viewing of a mathematical article.
From the spring of 2011 with the realization of support for HTML,
version 5, in many web browsers — for example, the Mozilla browsers
(including Firefox), the Webkit browsers (including Safari), Chrome, Opera, and
Microsoft — things are changing for math on the web.
One may now use mathematical markup (MATHML) in ordinary HTML. One
is no longer limited to the strict XML form of HTML.
For browsers that do not yet support MathML, a suitable script link
to MathJax in a web page containing
MathML makes it possible for MathML to be rendered in almost all
modern web browsers without the taking of special steps by users.
Reasons HTML with MathML is preferable for online viewing to a format
like PDF or DVI include:
- Content can be scaled to suit the reader's eyes.
- As with ordinary HTML, content is re-flowed
when a user “zooms” in/out or re-sizes the browsing window.
- With properly constructed HTML, a single page will serve both
large and small, i.e., hand-held screens.
- HTML with MathML is a recommendation of the
World Wide Web Consortium
that complies with the standard
Guidelines for Accessibility.
Moreover, looking ahead:
- With suitable future browser development there will be the
possibility of mathematically smart searching.
- With sufficient attention to mathematical semantics by authors
who are so interested, there will be the future possibility of
importing math segments from online article content to
MathML-literate processors such as computer algebra systems.
- HTML with MathML can be automatically derived from suitable
authoring systems parallel to customary printed output.
These authoring systems, which include TeX-like systems,
can make it possible for journals to process articles
without human alteration of an author's source.
Selected Articles for Demonstration
For the convenience of the reader regular links to each of the
selected articles appear below parallel to the demonstration
One should realize that, despite 20 years of development, the implementation
of mathematical rendering in web pages has not been definitively perfected.
In these demonstrations there are three variants of HTML presentation.
- MathJax rendering with the reading platform's default sans-serif font.
- MathJax rendering with a web-served Latin Modern font.
- XHTML, the strict XML form of HTML with MathML, as rendered natively by
the reading platform's browser.
Sometimes the quality of the rendering falls apart when the reader's “
font zoom” is too small.
- Volume 5 (1999), number 9
Explicit Local Heights
- Volume 9 (2003), number 8
Lindsay N. Childs
On Hopf Galois structures and complete groups
- Volume 10 (2004), number 2
Common divisors of an - 1 and bn - 1 over function fields