Articles in Mathematically-Capable HTML

Revised June, 2018

The idea here is that HTML with MathML is the best form of presentation for online viewing of a mathematical article.

From the spring of 2011 with the realization of support for HTML, version 5, in many web browsers — for example, the Mozilla browsers (including Firefox), the Webkit browsers (including Safari), Chrome, Opera, and Microsoft — things are changing for math on the web.

One may now use mathematical markup (MATHML) in ordinary HTML. One is no longer limited to the strict XML form of HTML.

For browsers that do not yet support MathML, a suitable script link to MathJax in a web page containing MathML makes it possible for MathML to be rendered in almost all modern web browsers without the taking of special steps by users.

Reasons HTML with MathML is preferable for online viewing to a format like PDF or DVI include:

- Content can be scaled to suit the reader's eyes.
- As with ordinary HTML, content is re-flowed when a user “zooms” in/out or re-sizes the browsing window.
- With properly constructed HTML, a single page will serve both large and small, i.e., hand-held screens.
- HTML with MathML is a recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium that complies with the standard Guidelines for Accessibility.

Moreover, looking ahead:

- With suitable future browser development there will be the possibility of mathematically smart searching.
- With sufficient attention to mathematical semantics by authors who are so interested, there will be the future possibility of importing math segments from online article content to MathML-literate processors such as computer algebra systems.
- HTML with MathML can be automatically derived from suitable authoring systems parallel to customary printed output. These authoring systems, which include TeX-like systems, can make it possible for journals to process articles without human alteration of an author's source.

For the convenience of the reader regular links to each of the selected articles appear below parallel to the demonstration forms.

One should realize that, despite 20 years of development, the implementation of mathematical rendering in web pages has not been definitively perfected.

In these demonstrations there are three variants of HTML presentation.

- MathJax rendering with the reading platform's default sans-serif font.
- MathJax rendering with a web-served Latin Modern font.
- XHTML, the strict XML form of HTML with MathML, as rendered natively by the reading platform's browser.

Sometimes the quality of the rendering falls apart when the reader's “ font zoom” is too small.

**Volume 5 (1999), number 9**-
**Graham Everest**

*Explicit Local Heights*abstract **MathJax****MathJax (LM)****XHTML**view print dvi **Volume 9 (2003), number 8**-
**Lindsay N. Childs**

*On Hopf Galois structures and complete groups*abstract **MathJax****MathJax (LM)****XHTML**view print dvi **Volume 10 (2004), number 2**-
**Joseph Silverman**

*Common divisors of a*^{n}- 1 and b^{n}- 1 over function fieldsabstract **MathJax****MathJax (LM)****XHTML**view print dvi