Welcome to CELA!   Center on English Learning & Achievement

How do various innovations relate to one another and to student achievement?
(Arthur Applebee, Adam Gamoran, Judith Langer, Martin Nystrand)


This study provides an overarching view across all other center studies. The analysis, which began in 1999, offers a cross-cutting look at relationships among common features of curriculum, instruction, and learning.  For a discussion of findings, see

  • Discussion-Based Approaches to Developing Understanding: Classroom Instruction and Student Performance in Middle and High School English (American Education Research Journal, 40(3), pp. 685-730, Fall 2003) A. Applebee, J. Langer, M. Nystrand, A. Gamoran. (Article Abstract)

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The Center on English Learning and Achievement