The purpose of this bibliography is to provide comprehensive, worldwide coverage of the scientific literature about wolves for the years 1968 through 1987. The bibliography does not contain references published after 1987. It updates the bibliographies appearing in S. P. Young and E. A. Goldman's 1944 classic work, The wolves of North America (American Wildlife Institute, Washington) and L. D. Mech's The wolf: The ecology and behavior of an endangered species [see entry 1.030] as well as B. Fodor's The wolf in southeastern United States: A bibliography [see entry 7.009]. Scientific and field studies and observations are included; popular, children's literature, and items about wolves in mythology or fiction are not included. In addition, transplantation or immunology studies are not included. The bibliography contains items in the following formats: books, book chapters, journal articles, conference proceedings, sound recordings, dissertations, government documents, and technical reports. Bibliography entries originate from the United States and Canada as well as several European, Asian, and African nations. This reflects the current distribution of the wolf. Often items from the Soviet Union and other east European nations do not appear in the secondary sources for several years; consequenty, the bibliography may not be up-to-date for these type of references. The bibliography lists over 1,600 citations representing the work of about 1,250 authors.

The bibliographic entries were located by searching several scientific or general databases. If the database did not extend back to 1968 or if it is not available in computer searcable form, the index/abstract was searched manually. The following is the list of databases or indexing/abstracting services, the years that were searched, and their abbreviations:

In addition to the above, key U.S. state and Canadian provincial publications checklists or indexes were scanned.

The bibliography is arranged in twenty one subject categories or chapters. Within each subject category the entries are arranged by author(s). The first category, Comprehensive and General, contains entries which are either very general or cover multiple subjects. Chapters 2 through 6 are the geographic subject categories: Africa and Asia, Canada, Europe, Greenland, Mexico, and United States of America. These are also either general or comprehensive but pertinent to a specific geographic area. Africa and Asia along with the Europe chapter are further subdivided by country. Canada and United States are subdivided by provinces or territories and states, respectively. The remaining fifteen chapters are subject-oriented. In numerous instances, a particular citation could have been entered in, two or more chapters. For example an article entitled, "wolf movements and food habits in northern Alaska" could have been entered in either the Alaska subdivision of Chapter 7 - United States, Chapter 17 - Density, Movement, Habitat, and Territory, or Chapter 18 - Predation, Food and Feeding Habits, Nutrition Studies. In order to save space an item is entered in only one category; the primary subject determines where it is entered. To reflect additional subjects for a single item, cross- references are placed at the end of chapters. In this case, the item was entered in Chapter 18 and there are cross-reference for it in Chapters 7 and 17.

For each entry there is usually sufficient bibliographic detail to locate it in a library, request it via interlibrary loan, or purchase it. To avoid confusion, journal titles and serial sources are not abbreviated. All authors or editors listed with an item are included. Items without an author or listed with an institution as the author are cited as "anonymous." The entries are followed by one or more abbreviated citations to the source(s) where it was found. These can be used to verify the entry or to locate an abstract. The sources and abbreviations are listed above. Entries listed without sources were located by checking selected bibliographies. Square brackets are used to provide information about the entry not found in the citation. For example, the language of citations not published in English are indicated in this manner

An author index is included to provide an additional means of access. All cited authors or editors are contained in the index. The spelling of author's names in non-Roman character alphabets appear in the bibliography as they appeared in the sources. However, the author index attempts to gather all variant spellings under one name.

Every attempt has been made to include all publications within the parameters listed above. However, it is possible that some items escaped detection. One can never be sure that any bibliography is without omissions.


The compilation of this bibliography was supported by a grant from the State University of New York Research Foundation. I would like to thank the Research Foundation for providing the funding and the University at Albany for granting my leave to work on this project. This bibliography was compiled in 1988 and converted to HTML in 1995. I would like to thank Peter He and Michael Sauers for their assistance with the conversion. Please send me any errors, corrections, or problems.

Michael Knee