15.001  Anisko, J. J.  1976.  Communication by chemical signals in Canidae.  Pages
        283-293 in Mammalian Olfaction, Reproductive Processes, and Behavior (R. L.
        Doty, ed.).  Academic Press, New York.
               BI 78:523

15.002  Asa, C. S., L. D. Mech, and U. S. Seal.  1985.  The use of urine, feces, and
        anal-sac secretions in scent-marking by a captive wolf (Canis lupus) pack.
        Animal Behaviour, 33:1034-1036.
               BI 30:124      PA 75:22376     ZR 122(19):362

15.003  Asa, C. S., E. K. Peterson, U. S. Seal, and L. D. Mech.  1985.  Deposition of
        anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus).  Journal of Mammalogy, 66:
               BA 80:9575     WR 197:86       ZR 122(19):382

15.004  Bekoff, M.  1975.  The communication of play intention:  Are play signals
        functional?  Semiotica, 15:231-240.
               PA 60:4666
15.005  Bekoff, M.  1977.  Social communication in canids:  evidence for the evolution
        of a stereotyped mammalian display.  Science, 197:1097-1099.
               BA 65:286      PA 60:4665      WR 167:47

15.006  Bekoff, M.  1980.  Accuracy of scent mark identification for free ranging dogs.
        Journal of Mammalogy, 61:150.
               BI 19:10592

15.007  Bright, M.  1984.  Wolf talk.  BBC Wildlife, 2(1):26-33.
               ZR 124(19):221

15.008  Brown, D. S. and R. E. Johnston.  1983.  Individual discrimination on the basis
        of urine in dogs and wolves.  Pages 343-346 in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 3
        (D. Muller-Schwarze and R. M. Silverstein, eds.).  Plenum, New York.
               WR 199:179

15.009  Carbyn, L. N.  1979.  Wolf howling as a technique to ecosystem interpretation
        in national parks.  Pages 459-470 in The Behavior and Ecology of Wolves (E.
        Klinghammer, ed.).  Garland STPM Press, New York.
               ZR 116(19):1226

15.010  Cohen, J. A. and M. W. Fox.  1976.  Vocalization in wild canids and possible
        effects of domestication.  Behavioural Processes, 1:77-92.
               BA 65:6490

15.011  Dekker, D 1985.  Responses of wolves, Canis lupus, to simulated howling on a
        homesite during fall and winter in Jasper National Park, Alberta.  Canadian
        Field-Naturalist, 99:90-93.
               BA 80:66446    WR 198:86       ZR 122(19):1775

15.012  Field, R.  1978.  Vocal behavior of wolf (Canis lupus):  Variability in
        structure, context and ontogeny.  Sc. D. Thesis.  Johns Hopkins University.
               AD 77/78:236
15.013  Field, R.  1979.  A perspective on syntactics on wolf vocalizations.  Pages
        182-205 in The Behavior and Ecology of Wolves (E. Klinghammer, ed.).  Garland
        STPM Press, New York.
               ZR 116(19):2165

15.014  Fox, M. W. and J. A. Cohen.  1977.  Canid communication.  Pages 728-748 in How
        Animals Communicate (T. A. Sebeok, ed.).  Indiana University Press, Bloomington,

15.015  Ginsburg, B. E.  1975.  Nonverbal communication:  The effect of affect on
        individual and group behavior.  Pages 161-173 in Nonverbal Communication of
        Aggression; Advances in the Study of Communications and Affects, vol. 2 (P.
        Pliner, L. Krames, and T. Alloway, eds.).  Plenum Press, New York.
               ZR 114(19):80

15.016  Harrington, F. H.  1975.  Response parameters of elicited wolf howling.  Ph. D.
        Thesis.  State University of New York at Stony Brook.
               DA 36B:5398    WR 161:40

15.017  Harrington, F. H.  1986.  Timber wolf howling playback studies:  Discrimination
        of pup from adult howls.  Animal Behaviour, 34:1575-1577.
               BI 32:41548    PA 75:355       WR 204:74       ZR 123(19):3534

15.018  Harrington, F. H.  1987.  Aggressive howling in wolves.  Animal Behaviour, 35:
               BA 83:114481   PA 75:13002    WR 207:105     ZR 123(19):3533
15.019  Harrington, F. H. and J. Hanson.  1986.  Wolves and humans; vol. 1:  Wolf
        Vocalizations.  Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.  [sound recording]

15.020  Harrington, F H. and L. D. Mech.  1978.  Howling at two Minnesota wolf pack
        summer homesites.  Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68:2024-2028.
               BA 67:26920    WR 172:50       ZR 115(19):2522

15.021  Harrington, F. H. and L. D. Mech.  1978.  Wolf vocalization.  Pages 109-132 in
        Wolf and Man:  Evolution in Parallel (R. L. Hall and H. S. Sharp, eds.).
        Academic Press, New York.
               BI 16:42267

15.022  Harrington, F. H. and L. D. Mech.  1979.  Wolf howling and its role in territory
        maintenance.  Behaviour, 68:207-249.
               BA 68:38974    WR 174:83       PA 64:4856      ZR 116(19):2878

15.023  Herre, W.  1979.  Remarks on the evolution of languages of mammals:  The
        variability of the intraspecific communication of canids.  Zeitschrift fuer
        Zoologische, Systematik, und Evolutionsforschung, 17:151-173.  [in German;
        English summary]
               BA 69:55266

15.024  Hopkins, P. 0.  1980.  On the scent of wolves.  Recherche, 108:214-215.  [in
               ZR 119(19):3426
15.025  Klinghamer, E.  1979.  Analysis of 23 months of daily howl records in a captive
        grey wolf pack (Canis lupus).  Pages 525-557 in The Behavior and Ecology of
        Wolves (E. Klinghammer, ed.).  Garland STPM Press, New York.
               ZR 116(19):3652

15.026  Lerner, P. N.  1978.  Coyote vocalization:  A lexicon and comparisons with
        other canids.  Animal Behaviour, 26:712-722.
               PA 63:4775

15.027  Macdonald, D. W.  1985.  The carnivores:  order Carnivora.  Pages 619-722 in
        Social Odours in Mammals, vol. 2 (R. E. Brown and D. W. Macdonald, eds.).
        Claredon Press, Oxford.
               ZR 124(19):5656

15.028  McCarley, H.  1974.  Project 1052:  Vocalization patterns in wild red wolves
        (Canis rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans) and hybrids.  Pages 244-245 in World
        Wildlife Yearbook.  Morges, Switzerland.
               ZR 111(19):101

15.029  McCarley, H.  1978.  Vocalization of red wolves (Canis rufus).  Journal of
        Mammalogy, 59:27-35.
               WR 169:66      ZR 115(19):3929

15.030  McCarley, H.  1982.  Vocalization in wild red wolves and coyotes.  Pages 451-456
        in National Geographic Society Research Reports, vol. 14 (P. H. Oehser, J. S.
        Lea, and N. L. Powars, eds.).  National Geographic Society, Washington.
               WR 194:112
15.031  McCarley, H. and C. Carley.  1976.  Canis latrans and Canis rufus vocalization:
        A continuum.  Southwestern Naturalist, 21:399-400.
               BI 78:21578    WR 166:70       ZR 113(19):110

15.032  Melchiors, M. A. and C. A. Leslie.  1985.  Effectiveness of predator fecal odors
        as black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, repellants.  Journal of
        Wildlife Management, 49:358-362.
               BA 80:38925

15.033  Mertl-Millhollen, A. S., P. A. Goodmann, and E. Klinghammer.  1986.  Wolf scent
        marking with raised-leg urination.  Zoo Biology, 5:7-20.
               BA 82:395      PA 74:9454      WR 201:94       ZR 123(19):5882

15.034  Moen, A. N., M. A. Dellafera, A. L. Miller, and B. A. Buxton.  1978.  Heart
        rates of white-tailed deer fawns in response to recorded wolf howls.  Canadian
        Journal of Zoology, 56:1207-1210.
               BA 66:43629    ZR 115(19):4140

15.035  Nikol'skii, A. A., K. -Kh. Frommol't, anf V. P. Bologov.  1986.  Acoustic
        response of the she wolf taking her cubs away from danger.  Byulleten'
        Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody 0tdel Biologicheskii, 91:53-55.
        [in Russian; English summary]
               BA 82:59897    ZR 123(19):6333

15.036  Nikol'skii, A. A., K -Kh. Frommol't, anf V. P Bologov.  1986.  Spatiotemporal
        features of wolf howling during the initial period of mastery of territory by
        pups.  Soviet Journal of Ecololgy, 17:298-304.
               BA 84:2544     WR 206:102

15.037  Peters, R.  1978.  Communication, cognitive mapping, and strategy in wolves and
        hominids.  Pages 95-108 in Wolf and Man:  Evolution in Parallel (R. L. Hall and
        H. S. Sharp, eds.).  Academic Press, New York.
               BI 16:42266

15.038  Peters, R and L. D. Mech.  1973.  Scent-marking and territory maintenance in
        wolves.  Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 53(2):19.  [abstract
               ZR 110(19):140

15.039  Peters, R and L. D. Mech.  1978.  Scent marking in wolves.  Pages 133-147 in
        Wolf and Man:  Evolution in Parallel (R. L. Hall and H. S. Sharp, eds.).
        Academic Press, New York.
               BI 16:42268

15.040  Peters, R. P.  1974.  Wolf-sign:  Scents and space in wide-ranging predator.
        Ph. D.  Thesis.  University of Michigan.
               DA 35B:3562
15.041  Peters, R. P and L. D. Mech.  1975.  Scent-marking in wolves.  American
        Scientist, 63:628-637.
        PA 56:3535      WR 151:41       ZR 112(19):171

15.042  Raymer, J. H.  1984.  Investigations into the chemical nature of chemo-olfactory
        communication in the wolf (Canis lupus).  Ph. D. Thesis.  Indiana University.
               DA 45B:2899

15.043  Redford, R. and R. Holland.  1971.  Language and music of the wolves.  Natural
        History Magazine, New York.  [sound recording]

15.045  Rogel, J. P.  1979.  Howling with the wolves.  Quebec Science, 18(1):50-51.
        [in French]
               ZR 119(19):6308

15.046  Rothman, R. J and L. D. Mech.  1979.  Scent marking in lone wolves and newly
        formed pairs.  Animal Behaviour, 27:750-760.
               BA 69:27798    PA 65:615         WR 176:77       ZR 116(19):5627

15.047  Ryon, J., J. C. Fentress, F. H. Harrington, and S. Bragdon.  1986.  Scent
        rubbing in wolves (Canis lupus):  The effect of novelty.  Canadian Journal of
        Zoology, 64:573-577.
               BA 82:19945    WR 202:76       ZR 123(19):7522
15.048  Schassburger, R. M.  1978.  The vocal repertoire of the wolf:  Structure,
        function, and ontogeny.  Ph. D. Thesis.  Cornell University.
               DA 398:3111    WR 173:95       ZR 116(19):5775

15.049  Schneider, D.  1974.  Wolf music.  Frontiers, 39(2):2-5.
               ZR 112(19): 197

15.050  Stewart, S.  1982.  Wolf music.  Michigan Natural Resources Magazine, 5(16):
               ZR 119(19):7089

15.051  Strickland, D.  1983.  Wolf howling in parks--The Algonquin experience in
        interpretation.  Pages 93-95 in Wolves in Canada and Alaska; Canadian Wildlife
        Service Report Series, no. 45 (L. N. Carbyn, ed.).  Canadian Wildlife Service,
        Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
               CA 83:225      WR 201:97       ZR 120(19):7897

15.052  Tembrock, G.  1976.  Canid vocalization.  Behavioural Processes, 1:57-76.
               BA 65:6489

15.053  Theberge, J. B.  1971.  Wolf music. Natural History, 80(4):36-54.
               ZR 109(19):173

see also the following entries: 1.023, 2.012, 3.047, 4.022, 4.080, 4.102, 4.118, 7.020, 7.021, 7.087, 7.092, 9.041, 13.004, 13.005, 13.010, 13.021, 14.005, 14.009, 14.021, 14.024, 14.039, 14.052, 14.081, 14.091, 16.005, 16.020, 16.029, 16.031, 16.038, 17.021, 17.024, 18.088, 19.007, 20.035