1880's- 1920's Public Service Code Cadre of Administrators Woodrow Wilson
(schools) Ellwood Cubberly
Authority of Administrative Law Goodnow 1900-1930's Scientific Management as Structure of Institution Max Weber
(schools) Raymond Callahan
Scientific Management as Logic of Production Frederick Taylor
(schools) Raymond Callahan
Management as Functions Gulick 1920-1930's Human Relations as Reducing Fatigue and Monotony Illumination & Wiring Studies Human Relations as Giving Orders Follett Human Relations as Cohesion & Incentives Barnard
(schools) John Dewey
1930's Public as Interest Groups Herring Reform as Massive TVA Project of "democratic" Involvement Selznick
1930's the Organization of Executive and Reorganization of Authority Gulick
REASSESSMENTS 1910-1950's Scientific Inquiry as Experiential Learning Child Centere as Humane Relations Dewey 1940's The Bureaucratic Personality Merton 1970's Public Service and Collective Bargains Mosher 1980's Ethics of Neutrality and Objectivity Thompson 1980's Impossibility of Coherent Theory of Administering Public Institutions Rosenbloom Step Three Writers 1940's - l950's "applied behavioral science"
(specify conditions that embed a particular decision)
* back to Gulick, Brownlow Committee
Herbert Simon "nature of worker and productivity"
( managerial perceptions and expectations)
* back to Merton and Barnard, forward to Zuboff
Douglas McGregor "incremental muddle and successive approximations"
(branch from ongoing, reference to allocation cycle)
* back to Selznick
Charles Lindblom 1960's "open systems and energy transfer cycle"
(stress and adaptation, input-output-feedback)
Katz and Kahn "life cycle of the bureau"
( start up and maturing to incumbents and incentives)
* back to Lindblom
Downs "its' marble cake, not layer cake"
(tracing specific issues defines interest groups and government)
* back to Simon
Grodzins " implementation differs from formation intent"
( actual impact of policy a bureaucratic translation, seredipity)
* back to Lindblom and Downs
Pressman and Wildavsky 1980's " POSDCORB as managing functions: public and private management [functions] are at least as different as they are similar, and the differences are more important than the similarities"
(analyze specific cases to identify best & worst practices)
* back to Gulick versus Simon
Allison Step Four Writers 1969 end to interest group liberalism as not true populist democracy and it assumes all values negotiable...plans without standards.. lack of democratic forms...privilege in implementation Lowi 1971 social equity guides new public administration..work to redress the deprived minorities; focus upon processes of distribution, integration, boundary spanning and socio-emotional commitments Frederickson 1972 organizations evaluating selves lead to change, not status quo, Evaluation, Inc. to identify social needs, do policy as advocacy, join knowledge with power, be skeptical rather than committed. Wildavsky 1967 "new professional role of analyst; systems plus political science, psychology, maturity, idealistic realism to make somewhat better decisions in public policy making" Dror 1969 "rescuing analysis from PBBS formula; domestic goals not easy, budgeting not stated operationally, no impact of expected results, not for mass implementation in all federal government" Wildavsky 1976 sinful policy analysis is being in a rut, too far away, late for process, superficial, topical, change for sake of changing and not able to stand political tests in implementation. Meltsner Step Five Writers 1978 "Growth is a common denominator that links contemporary management theory to its historical antecedents and practices with public policy choices....decline forces the logic for rationally structured organization on its end and upside down. " See problem depletion, organizational atrophy, political vulnerability and environmental entrophy. Compare with Downs "mature" bureau and terminating discussions, especially Levine's tactics to smooth or resist decline. Levine 1980 Public service employees such as teachers, police, social workers, public lawyers and health workers are imporatnt as street level bureaucrats because their activities define the scope and function of public services delievered and have direct impact on peoples lives. Lipsky 1981 Classic budget depends upon stability derived from accurate prediction of revenues and costs and knowledge of future output. It works best where yearly adjustments are marginal. Yet, contemporary uncertainties arise from novelty, forecasting, the annual perspective, centralized bureaucratic control, size, erosion of accountability and reflect the larger American crisis. See Meltzner and Wildavsky discussions. Caiden 1987 Public administrators resist the privatisation challenge because they cannot define its limits or the distinctiveness of the public sector. This ambiguity challenges the public assertion behind the TVA and FADA as "distinctive sovereign." See the Allison, Lilenthal and Lowi discussions. Moe Intergovernmental relations can be viewed conflict (before 1930), cooperative, concentrated, creative, competitive, calculative(70-80's) and contractive(80-90's). Another way to reconsider the meanings of constitutional-legal and resource expansion,/contraction. Compare with Grodzins and Mosher. Wright