Shafritz and Hyde Writer's Summary

David Wiles, Eaps 760

1880's- 1920'sPublic Service Code Cadre of AdministratorsWoodrow Wilson
(schools) Ellwood Cubberly
Authority of Administrative LawGoodnow
1900-1930'sScientific Management as Structure of InstitutionMax Weber
(schools) Raymond Callahan
Scientific Management as Logic of ProductionFrederick Taylor
(schools) Raymond Callahan
Management as FunctionsGulick
1920-1930'sHuman Relations as Reducing Fatigue and MonotonyIllumination & Wiring Studies
Human Relations as Giving OrdersFollett
Human Relations as Cohesion & IncentivesBarnard
(schools) John Dewey
1930'sPublic as Interest GroupsHerring
Reform as Massive TVA Project of "democratic" InvolvementSelznick
1930'sthe Organization of Executive and Reorganization of AuthorityGulick
1910-1950'sScientific Inquiry as Experiential Learning Child Centere as Humane RelationsDewey
1940'sThe Bureaucratic PersonalityMerton
1970'sPublic Service and Collective BargainsMosher
1980'sEthics of Neutrality and ObjectivityThompson
1980'sImpossibility of Coherent Theory of Administering Public InstitutionsRosenbloom
Step Three Writers
1940's - l950's"applied behavioral science"
(specify conditions that embed a particular decision)
* back to Gulick, Brownlow Committee
Herbert Simon
"nature of worker and productivity"
( managerial perceptions and expectations)
* back to Merton and Barnard, forward to Zuboff
Douglas McGregor
"incremental muddle and successive approximations"
(branch from ongoing, reference to allocation cycle)
* back to Selznick
Charles Lindblom
1960's"open systems and energy transfer cycle"
(stress and adaptation, input-output-feedback)
Katz and Kahn
"life cycle of the bureau"
( start up and maturing to incumbents and incentives)
* back to Lindblom
"its' marble cake, not layer cake"
(tracing specific issues defines interest groups and government)
* back to Simon
" implementation differs from formation intent"
( actual impact of policy a bureaucratic translation, seredipity)
* back to Lindblom and Downs
Pressman and Wildavsky
1980's" POSDCORB as managing functions: public and private management [functions] are at least as different as they are similar, and the differences are more important than the similarities"
(analyze specific cases to identify best & worst practices)
* back to Gulick versus Simon
Step Four Writers
1969end to interest group liberalism as not true populist democracy and it assumes all values negotiable...plans without standards.. lack of democratic forms...privilege in implementationLowi
1971social equity guides new public to redress the deprived minorities; focus upon processes of distribution, integration, boundary spanning and socio-emotional commitmentsFrederickson
1972organizations evaluating selves lead to change, not status quo, Evaluation, Inc. to identify social needs, do policy as advocacy, join knowledge with power, be skeptical rather than committed.Wildavsky
1967"new professional role of analyst; systems plus political science, psychology, maturity, idealistic realism to make somewhat better decisions in public policy making"Dror
1969"rescuing analysis from PBBS formula; domestic goals not easy, budgeting not stated operationally, no impact of expected results, not for mass implementation in all federal government"Wildavsky
1976sinful policy analysis is being in a rut, too far away, late for process, superficial, topical, change for sake of changing and not able to stand political tests in implementation. Meltsner
Step Five Writers
1978"Growth is a common denominator that links contemporary management theory to its historical antecedents and practices with public policy choices....decline forces the logic for rationally structured organization on its end and upside down. " See problem depletion, organizational atrophy, political vulnerability and environmental entrophy. Compare with Downs "mature" bureau and terminating discussions, especially Levine's tactics to smooth or resist decline. Levine
1980Public service employees such as teachers, police, social workers, public lawyers and health workers are imporatnt as street level bureaucrats because their activities define the scope and function of public services delievered and have direct impact on peoples lives.Lipsky
1981Classic budget depends upon stability derived from accurate prediction of revenues and costs and knowledge of future output. It works best where yearly adjustments are marginal. Yet, contemporary uncertainties arise from novelty, forecasting, the annual perspective, centralized bureaucratic control, size, erosion of accountability and reflect the larger American crisis. See Meltzner and Wildavsky discussions. Caiden
1987Public administrators resist the privatisation challenge because they cannot define its limits or the distinctiveness of the public sector. This ambiguity challenges the public assertion behind the TVA and FADA as "distinctive sovereign." See the Allison, Lilenthal and Lowi discussions. Moe
Intergovernmental relations can be viewed conflict (before 1930), cooperative, concentrated, creative, competitive, calculative(70-80's) and contractive(80-90's). Another way to reconsider the meanings of constitutional-legal and resource expansion,/contraction. Compare with Grodzins and Mosher.Wright