The Sociology of Science

Soc 325         

Call Number Pending

TA to be announced

Spring 2008

Professor A. C. Higgins

Office:  Arts & Sciences 314

Phone:  442-4678



Office Hours:  M, W 1-2 and by appointment

 Notes 325

The Course Package: Available in our Bookstore is a CD which contains the textual materials for this course. The texts for the course are these two books (which are contained on the disk):

                             A. C. Higgins, A Scifraud Reader. Albany, New York: EUI, 1995.

                             Brock Kilbourne and Maria T. Kilbourne, editors. Dark Side of Science. San Francisco, California: Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1983.) EUI edition by arrangement with the publisher.

            In addition to these texts, there are 10 readings from various books of Stephen Jay Gould, (the articles reproduced here by permission of the author). Other items on the disk, T. H. Huxley's Autobiography, for example, will be discussed as time allows. Note too there is a copy of Darwin's The Origin... GO AHEAD AND READ A CLASSIC!

EXAMS: The final examination for this course is scheduled by the Registrar and should be on the University WWW pages.

There will also be a mid-term early in  March.

You can anticipate 75 questions on the midterms and 100 on the final. The final will be cumulative.

              Soc325 is a junior level course and should not be graded on the basis of multiple choice questions. You have a TERM PAPER to write for this course. The paper should be written on a topic of interest to you -- pick something that "turns you on" in this extremely broad area of the sociology of science.

              The paper should be about 10 pages in length (using a font size of 12 to 14) with normal margins (about 1"). It should conform to some manual of style. HINT: USE A MANUAL OF STYLE - get it, a manual of style!

NOTA BENE: a well done term paper (an "A" paper), will earn its author an "S or an A" for the course regardless of scores on tests. Writing such a paper cannot be done in the way most undergraduates write papers, i.e., the night before it's due, bang something out on a word processor. A good term paper is hard work. It requires not merely a matter of form but of substance. I can help you wade through the various topics you may choose but getting a topic studied and a paper written in a single semester is work. I can help you but you must request that help and take advantage of the services available to you. Start thinking about your paper as soon as you see the general orientation of this course. HINT: fraud/dishonesty in science is the major thrust of this course and your paper MUST take that approach. You must demonstrate your familiarity with dishonesty in science on your term paper or the paper is NOT ACCEPTABLE. Also, I will not accept term papers on Science Fiction, Creationism, or Fundamentalist opposition to science. You MUST demonstrate some understanding of modern science to satisfy the requirements for this course. This also means that papers on UFO-ology and alien abductions are not acceptable. (However, exceptions can be found and, if a topic like these is a turn on, talk to me.)

For those of you who do not know how to write term papers, you may find these sites useful:

              The term paper is NOT OPTIONAL and everyone must submit one no later than Wednesday, 4 May, some 7 days before the final.. Students with an A on their papers get an A for the course and are excused from the final. I'll announce their names BEFORE the Final so that students will not have to attend to the Final. That announcement is usually made on the Announcements board for the course. 

              Typically - non-A term papers - will simply complete the course and earn you nothing more than what you score on the multiple choice exams. Excellent term papers -- if that's what you want to do -- will get you an A. On the other hand, students who cannot spend time writing term papers and prefer to be graded on the basis of multiple choice exams, can earn a B or a C in the course. 

The only way to earn an A for this course is with and term paper. 

You can get an S for just the exams no matter how well you do on them. 

This is a junior-level course and should not be graded on the basis of multiple choice questions.

Overviews of the field

William Alonzo and Paul Starr, editors. The Politics of Numbers. New York: Russell Sage, 1987.
 William T. Broad and Nicholas Wade, Betrayers of the Truth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.
 Bill Bryson, A Short History of Nearly Everything. New York: Broadway books, 2003.
 Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch, The Golem: What Everyone Should Know About Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
 Martin Gardner, In The Name of Science. New York: Putnam's, 1952. The abridged edition was published as Fads and Fallacies In the Name of Science. New York: Ballentine, 1957.
Alexander Kohn, False Prophets. New York: Basil Blackwood, 1986.


          And then there is this classic which, though no focused on dishonesty in science, is still a very important sourcebook for you:

Robert K. Merton, The Sociology of Science. Edited by Norman W. Storer. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Particular Cases

Ken Adler, The Measure of All Things: The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World. New York: The Free Press, 2002.
Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman, Genesis of the Big Bang. New York: Oxford, 2001.
Anthony Aveni, Conversing With the Planets: How Science Created the Cosmos. New York: Kodansha International, 1994.
Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History. New York: Viking, 2004.
Jacques Barzun, Darwin, Marx, and Wagner: A Critique of a Heritage. Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1958.
Michael Bliss, The Discovery of Insulin. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1982.
E. Richard Brown, Rockefeller Medicine Men. Berkeley, California: The University of California Press, 1979.
Brookes, Martin. Extreme Measures: The Dark Visions and Bright Ideas of Francis Galton. New York: Bloomsbury, 2004.
Edmund Blair Bolles. The Ice Finders: How a Poet, A Professor, and a Politician Discovered The Ice Age. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1999.
Tom Bower, The Paperclip Conspiracy. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.
Arnold C. Brackman, A Delicate Arrangement: The Strange Case of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. New York: Tomes Books, 1980.
Joe D. Burchfield, Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth. New York: Science History Publications, 1975.
Vannevar Bush, Endless Horizons. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1946.
William M. Calder, III and David A. Traill, editors, Myth, Scandal and History. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1986.
Harvey Choldin, Looking for the Last Percent: The Controversy Over Census Undercounts. New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994. 
Noam Chomsky, Rogue States: The Rule of Force in World Affairs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press, 2000.
William St. Clair, Lord Elgin & The Marbles: The Controversial History of the Parthenon Sculptures. Third edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1998 (originally, 1967).
David H. Clark and Stephen P. H. Clark, Newton's Tyranny. New York: Freeman, 2001.  
David A. Clary, Rocket Man: Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age. New York: Hyperion, 2003.  
Jay S. Cohen, Over Dose: The Case Against the Drug Companies. New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 2001.  
Lane Cooper, Aristotle, Galileo and the Tower of Pisa. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1935.  
C. D. Darlington, Darwin's Place In History. New York: Macmillan, 1959.  
Richard De Mille, editor, The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1990 (Originally, 1980).  
Desmond, Adrian. Huxley: From Devil's Disciple to Evolution's High Priest. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1997 (originally, London: M. Joseph, 1994).  
John Robert Christianson, On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe and His Assistants, 1570-1601. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.  
David Dickson, The New Politics of Science. New York: Pantheon, 1984.  
Rene Dubos, Louis Pasteur, Free Lance of Science. New York: Scribner's, 1950.  
Lloyd J. Dumas, Lethal Arrogance: Human Fallibility and Dangerous Technologies. New York: St. Martin's's Press, 1999.  
Loren Eiseley, Darwin and the Mysterious Mr. X. London: J. M. Dent, 1979.  
Paul K. Feyerabend, Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. London, NLB: 1975.  
Paul Feyerabend, Killing Time: The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.  
Ludwik Fleck, Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.  
Felix Franks, Polywater. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.  
Gerald L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.  
S. C. Gilfillan, Inventing the Ship. Chicago: Follett Publishing, 1935.  
Richard Gillespie. Manufacturing Knowledge: A Historv of the Hawthorne Experiments. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Gingerich, Owen. The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus. New York: Walker & Co., 2004. 
Myron Peretz Glazer and Penina Migdal Glazer, The Whistleblowers: Exposing Corruption In Government and Industry. New York: Basic Books, 1989.
June Goodfield, An Imagined World. New York: Harper, 1981.
Gayle Green, The Woman Who Knew Too Much: Alice Stewart and the Secrets of Radiation. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.
Carol S. Gruber, Mars and Minerva: World War I and the Uses of the Higher Learning In America. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1975.
Harvey, Miles. The Island of Lost Maps: A True Story of Cartographic Crime. New York: Broadway Books, 2001 (originally, Random House, 2000).
L. S. Hearnshaw, Cyril Burt, Psychologist. New York: Vintage, 1981.
Bill Heller, A Good Day has No Rain: The Truth About How Nuclear Test Fallout Contaminated Upstate New York. Albany: Whiston, 2003.
Greg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry Holt, 2002.\
Norriss S. Hetherington, Science and Objectivity: Episodes In the History of Astronomy. Ames, Iowa: lows State University Press, 1988.
James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Heroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age. Stanford University Press, 1995.
Joseph Hixson, The Patchwork Mouse. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Peter Hopkirk, The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. New York: Kodansha International, 1992 (originally, London: Murray, 1990).\
Peter Hopkirk, Trespassers on the Roof of the World: The Secret Exploration of Tibet. New York: Kodansha International, 1995 (originally, London: Murray, 1982).\
Allen M. Hornblum, Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. New York: Routledge, 1998.\
Tony Horwitz Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before. New York: Holt, 2002.
Ruth Hubbard, The Politics of Women's Biology. Rutgers, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press,1990.
Ruth Hubbard and Elijah Wald, Exploding the Gene Myth: How Genetic Information Is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Physicians, Employers, Insurance Companies, Educators, and Law Enforcers. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
Ivan Illich, Medical Nemesis:. The Expropriation of Health. New York: Pantheon, 1976.
Margaret C. Jacob, The Newtonians and the English Revolution, 1689-1720. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1976.
Margaret C. Jacob, The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution. New York: Knopf, 1988. See her extensive revision of this book, Jacob, Margaret C. Scientific Culture and the Making of the Industrial West. New York: Oxford, 1997.
Lisa Jardine, On A Grander Scale: The Outstanding Life of Sir Christopher Wren. New York: Harper, 2002.
James H. Jones, Bad Blood. New York: The Free Press, 1981.
Horace Freeland Judson, The Eighth Day of Creation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979.
Friedrich George Juenger, The Failure of Technology. New York: Gateway, 1956.
Stuart A. Kirk and Herb Kutchins, The Selling of DSM: The Rhetoric of Science In Psychiatry. New York: Aldine, 1992. See also, Herb Kutchins and Stuart A. Kirk, Marking Us Crazy : The Psychiatric Bible and the Creation of Mental Disorders. New York: The Free Press, 1997.
Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers. New York: Macmillan, 1959.
Arthur Koestler, The Case of the Midwife Toad. New York: Random House, 1971.
Rocky (Edward W.) Kolb, Blind Watchers of the Sky: The People and Ideas That Shaped Our View of the Universe. Reading, Massachusetts: Helix Books, 1996.
Alexander Koyre, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. New York: Harper, 1958.
Peter J. Kuznick, Beyond the Laboratory: Scientists as Political Activists In 1930's America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Henry A. Landsberger, Hawthorne Revisited. Ithaca, New York, 1958.
Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1979.
Bruno Latour. The Pasteurization of France. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993 (originally, 1988).
Bruno Latour, Science In Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Eric Lax, The Mold in Dr. Florey's Coat: The Story of the Penicillin Miracle. New York: Holt, 2004.
Nicholas Lemann, The Big Test: The Secret History of the American Meritocracy. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999.
Roger Lewin, Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. New York: Torchstone, 1987.
David Lindley. Degrees Kelvin: A Tale of Genius, Invention, and Tragedy. Washington, D.C.: The Joseph Henry Press, 2004.
Lourie, Richard. Sakharov: A Biography. Hanover: Brandeis University Press, 2002.
Thomas Mallon, Stolen Words: Forays and Ravages of Plagiarism. New York: Ticknow & Fields, 1989.
Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The Sixties, and Beyond. New York: Grove Press, 1992.
N. J. Mackintosh, Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed? New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Brian Martin, Confronting the Experts. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1996.
John Marks, The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control. New York: Times Books, 1979.
Jeffrey M. Masson, The Assault on Truth. New York: Penguin, 1985.
Norman Mailer, Of a Fire on the Moon. Boston: Little Brown, 1970.
Scott McCartney ENIAC: The Triumph and Tragedies of the World's First Computer. New York: Berkeley, 2001 (originally, Walker & Company, 1999).
Elizabeth McFadden, The Glitter and the Gold: A Spirited Account of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's first Director, the Audacious and High-handed Luigi Palma di Cesnola. New York: Dial Press, 1971.
Jonathan Miller, The Body In Question. New York: Vintage, 1982.
Mark Monmonier, How To Lie with Maps. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Oskar Morganstern, On The Accuracy of Economic Observations. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1963.
Jack Morrell and Arnold Thackray, Gentlemen of Science: Early Years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981.
Robert E. Newman, The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University, 1977.
Bill Nicol. McBride: Behind the Legend. Crows Nest, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1989.
Niven, Jennifer. The Ice Master: The Doomed 1913 Voyage of the Karluk. New York: Hyperion, 2000. See also: Niven, Jennifer. Ada Blackjack: A True Story of Survival in the Arctic. New York: Hyperion, 2003.
Ronald L. Numbers and Charles E. Rosenberg, editors. The Scientific Enterprise In America: Readings from Isis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Office of Strategic Services Assessment Staff, Assessment of Men. New York, Rinehart, 1948.
Robert Park, Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. New York: Oxford, 2000.
Lynn Payer, Medicine and Culture: Varieties of Treatment in the United States, England, West Germany, and France. New York: Holt, 1988.
Karl Pearson, The History of Statistics In the 17th and 18th Centuries Against the Changing Background of Intellectual and Religious Thought. London, Griffin, 1978.
Isabel R. Plesset, Nanuchi and His Patrons. Toronto: Associated University Press, 1980.
Powers, Thomas. Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb. New York: Da Capo Press, 2000.
Joel Primack and Frank von Hipple, Advice and Dissent: Scientists In the Political Arena. New York: Basic Books, 1974.
Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988
Ed Regis, Who Got Einstein's Office? Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1987.
Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project. New York: Holt, 1999.
Beau Riffenburgh, The Myth of the Explorer: The Press, Sensationalism, and Geographical Discovery. New York: Oxford, 1994.
Eugene Rodgers Beyond the Barrier: The Story of Byrd's First Expedition to Antarctica. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990.
Nicholas Regush, The Virus Within: A Coming Epidemic. New York: Plume Book, 2000 (Dutton).
Michael Ruse, The Darwinian Revolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Anne Sayre, Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: Norton, 1975.
Richard Shenkman, Legends, Lies, and Cherished Myths of American History. New York: HarperCollins, 1989 (originally, 1988).\
Ellen W. Schrecker, No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Evan I. Schwartz. The Last Lone Inventor: A Tale of Genius, Deceit, and the Birth of Television. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.\
Randy Shilts, And The Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
Milton Silverman and Philip R. Lee, Pills, Profits and Politics. Berkeley, California: The University of California Press, 1974.
Silverstein, The Radioactive Boy Scout: The True Story of a Boy and his Backyard Nuclear Reactor. New York: Random House, 2004.
J. David Smith, Minds Made Feeble. Rockville, Maryland: Aspen System, 1985.
Dava Sobel, Longitude: The True Storv of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time. New York: Walker and Company, 1995.
Bonnie Spanier, Im/Partial Science: Gender Ideology in Molecular Biology. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995.
Duncan Steel. Eclipse: The Celestial Phenomenon Which Has Changed the Course of History. London: Headline Book Publishing, 2000 (originally, 1999).
Frank Sulloway, Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend. New York: Basic Books, 1979.
Gary Taubes. Nobel Dreams: Power, Deceit and the Ultimate Experiment. Redmond, Washington: Tempus Books, 1987 (Originally, Random House, 1986).\
Arnold Thackray, John Dalton: Critical Assessment of His Life and Times. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972.
David Hurst Thomas, Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archeology and the Battle for Native American Identity. New York: Basic Books, 2000
Patrick A. Tierney, Darkness in El Dorado. New York: Norton, 2000.
Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 1919-1930. Pittsburgh: The University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971.
Tomes, Nancy. The Gospel of Germs: Men, Women and the Microbe in American Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1998.
David A. Traill, Schliemann of Troy: Treasure and Deceit. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Tom Tucker, Bolt of Fate: Benjamin Franklin and His Electric Kite Hoax. New York: Public Affairs Press, 2003.
Nicholas Wade. The Nobel Duel. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1981.
James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York: Atheneum, 1968.
Alfred Wegener, The Origin of Continents and Oceans. New York: Dover, 1966.
Aaron Wildavsky and Ellen Tanenbaum, The Politics of Mistrust. Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1981.
Kula Witold, Measures and Men. Translated by R. Szreter. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Stephen Weinberg, The First Three Minutes. Rev. Ed. New York: Basic\HarperCollins, 1988.
<>Richard S. Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. New York: Cambridge, 1980. 

Particular Fields

Ken Alder, The Measure of All Tings: The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World. New York: The Free Press, 2002.\
Martin Anderson, Impostors in the TempIe: American Intellectuals Are Destroying Our Universities and Cheating Our Students of Their Future. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Robert C. Bannister, Sociology and Scientism: The American Quest for Obiectivitv. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1987.
Loren Baritz, The Servants of Power: The Historv of the Use of Social Science In American Industrv. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1960.
Robert Bell, Impure Science: Fraud, Compromise and Political Influence In Scientific Research. New York: Wiley, 1992.
Alan D. Beyerchen, Scientists Under Hitler: Politics and the Physics Community In the Third Reich. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Eric Temple Bell, Men of Mathematics. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1937.
Edward H. Berman, The Ideology of Philanthropy: The Influence of the Carnegie, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations on American Foreign Policy. Albany: The State University of New York Press, 1986.
Lloyd A. Brown, The Story of Maps. New York: Dover, 1977.
Kenneth J. Carpenter, Beriberi, White Rice and Vitamin B: A Disease, a Cause, and a Cure. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2000.
Allan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus. New York: Knopf, 1977.
David H. Clark and Stephen P. H. Clark, Newton's Tyranny: The Suppressed Scientific Discoveries of Stephen Gray and John Flamsteed. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2001.
Jennet Conant, Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science That Changed the Course of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
Frances K. Conley, Walking Out on the Boys. New York: Farrar, Straus and Girous, 1997.
Michael A. Cremo and Richard L. Thompson, Forbidden Archeology. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta, 1998.
Alan Cutler, The Seashell on the Mountaintop: A Story of Science, Sainthood, and the Humble Genius Who Discovered a New History of the Earth. New York: Dutton, 2003.\
Devra Davism When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Deception and the Battle Against Pollution. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
Adrian Desmond, Huxley: From Devil's Disciple to Evolution's High Priest. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1997.
Freeman Dyson, Disturbing the Universe. New York: Harper Colophon, 1979.
Burton Feldman, The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige. New York: Arcade, 2000.
Kitty Ferguson, Tycho and Kepler: The Unlikely Partnership That Forever Changed Our Understanding of the Heavens. New York: Walker & Co., 2002.\;
Fleming, Fergus. Ninety Degrees North: The Quest for the North Pole. New York: Grove Press, 2001.
Jerry Gaston, Originality and Competition In Science: A Study of the British High Energy Physics Community. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973.
Jonathan Gathorne-Hardy, Sex The Measure of All Things: A Life of Alfred C. Kinsey. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2000 (Originally, London: Chatto & Windus, 1998).\
James Gleick, Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Viking, 1987.
Peter Goodchild, Oppenheimer: Shatter of Worlds. New York: Fromm, 1985.
Stephen Jay Gould, Ever Since Darwin: Reflections on Natural History. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.
Katie Hafner and John Markoff, Cvberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Compter Frontier. New York: A Touchstone Book, 1992.
Rudolph Hoess. Commandant of Auschwitz. Introduction by Primo Levi. London: Orion Publishing, 2000 (originally in Polish, 1951 and in English 1959, London: Weidenfeld Nicolson).
Banash Hoffman, The Strange Story of The Quantum. New York: Dover, 1959.
John R. Huizenga, Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press, 1992.
Roland Huntford, Nansen: The Explorer as Hero. London: Abacus, 2001 (originally, Little, Brown, 1997).\
James A. Inciardi, The War on Drugs: Heroin, Cocaine, Crime and Public Policy. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing, 1986.
Randal Keynes, Darwin, His Daughter and Human Evolution. New York: Riverhead Books, 2001.
James H. Jones, Alfred C. Kinsey. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.
Lucette Matalon Lagnado, and Dekel, Sheila Cohn. Children of the Flames: Dr. Joseph Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz. New York: Penguin, 1991.
Fred Leavitt, The Real Drug Abusers. New York: Rowan and Littlefield Publishing, 2003.
Rebecca S. Lowen, Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford. Berkeley, California: The University of California Press, 1997
Brenda Maddox, Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.\
Alexander Mitscherlich, and Fred Mielke. Doctors of Infamy: The Story of the Nazi Medical Crimes. New York: Schuman, 1949.
Jonathan D. Moreno, Undue Risk: Secret State Experimeents on Humans. New York: Freeman, 1999.
Benno Mueller-Hill, Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gvpsies, and Others, Germanv: 1933-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
 Peter Nichols, Evolution's Captain: The Dark Fate of the Man Who Sailed Charles Darwin Around the World. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.\
Derek Phillips, Abandoning Method. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass, 1973.
Theodore M. Porter, Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Charles E. Rosenberg, No Other Gods: On Science and American Social Thought. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.
Elizabeth Noble Shor, The Fossil Feud Between E. D. Cone and O. C. Marsh. Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press, 1974.
Thomas S. Szasz, Sex by Prescription. New York: Harper, 1971.
Thomas S. Szasz, Ceremonial Chemistry. New York: Harper, 1978.
Robert M. Wachter and Kaveh G. Shojania Internal Bleeding: The Truth Behind America's Terrifying Epidemic of Medical Mistakes. New York: Rugged Land, 2004.
Eileen Welsome, The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Experiments in the Cold War. New York: Dial, 1999.
Richard W. Wertz and Dorothy C. Wertz, Lying-ln: A History of Childbirth In America. New York: The Free Press, 1977.
G. Pascal Zachary, Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century. New York: The Free Press, 1997.
Zagorin, Perez. Francis Bacon. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998.

The Theory

<>Howard S. Becker, Outsiders. New York: The Free Press, 1973. 
Augustine Branigan, The Social Basis of Scientific Discoveries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
David Collingridge and Colin Reeve, Science Speaks to Power: The Role of Experts In Policy Making. London: Frances Pinter, 1986.
Jack Douglas, The Social Meaning of Suicide. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Henig, Robin Marantz. The Monk In The Garden: The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics. New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 2000.
Edwin M. Lemert, Human Deviance. Social Problems. and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967.
Robert A. Scott, The Making of Blind Men. New York: Russell Sage, 1969.
Thomas Scheff, Labeling Madness. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975.
David Sudnow, Passing On. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, t967.
Thomas S. Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness. New York: Harper: 1961.
Thomas S. Szasz, The Manufacture of Madness. New York: Harper, 1971.

        And for a recent application of the theory in a historically important case, see Patricia Fara, Newton: The Making of a Genius. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. 



In addition to individuals, fields, and generalities, there are special topics about which some of you may be interested. Included here are some topics for your consideration as possible points of interest in writing your term paper:


The Velikovsky Affair

The Story of Polywater

Student dishonesties in universities (Honor Codes)

The IQ movement

The Nobel prizes, A Nobel prize

Eugenics in the U.S.

Nazi Science


Textbook treatment of scientific dishonesty

Science's "origin myths"

Textbook "history" of ...

Whistle-blowing in science

Science and the press

Heresy and/or social control in science

Scientific revolutions

Professional structures of scientific organization

Social organization of scientists

Peer review

Science's mechanisms of social control

<>Individual cases: biographies


<>Taboo Topics<>


              Students are NOT to write papers concerning Creation Science, ET's, UFO's, and ESP phenomena. Please avoid such controversies as the assassination of President Kennedy. I restrict these topics: permission of the instructor is required in advance before students may submit papers on these topics. There is just too much misunderstanding concerning these topics as they are discussed in this course.


Some Definitions


The Cheating Game: Players. Here is a scorecard for use in identifying the games which scientists play. Here are the names of some of the players. Do NOT assume that because a name appears here, the individual is a cheat. There are "players" of all sorts here.


Ralph Alpher; Elias Alsabti; John Vincent Atanasoff; David Baltimore; Arrigo De Benedetti; Philip Berger; Donal M. Billig; Jeffrey Borer; Ronald Breslow; Stephen Breuning; David Bridges; Jacques Benveniste; Cyril Burt; James C. Burt; Joseph H. Cart; Paul H. Crefton; John Darsee; Paul deMan; Johannes Fibiger; Martin Fleischmann; Shervert H. Frazier; Robert Gallo; Francis Galton; Robert I. Glazer; Charles J. Glusck; Stephen Gratch; Elliot Gross; Robert Gullis; Viswa Jit Gupta; Eugene Hass; Robert Herman; Robert L. Houghton; Samuel Huntington; Karl Illmansee; Theresa Imanishi-Kari; Philip Lambert; Serge Lang; Walter J. Levy; John Long; Zoltan Lucas; Jeffrey Masson; Claudia Milanese; Robert A. Millikan; Egon Moniz; Joseph Moreno; Robert Tappan Morris; Stephen Masher; N. Eric Naftchi; Margot O'Toole; Richard Orville; Henry Fairfield Osborn; John A. Parrish; Robert E. Peary; B. Stanley Pons; M. J. Purves; James Repace; Arthur Rudolph; Raymond J. Shamberger; Paul Slutsky; Mark and Linda Sobell; Vijay Soman; Marc Spector; Robert Sprague;Mark Straus; Robert Straus; Walter Stewart; Gary Strobel; William T. Summerlin; Edward Teller; Gary M. Tischler; Scheffer C. G. Tseng; Immanuel Velikovsky; Wernher von Braun; James Watson; Leroy Wolins.


How many of them can you identify? By course's end, you should know most of them. In addition, you should know the context of the situation in which each of these players participated in "science."


The Language of Fraudulent Science


Here, in no particular order, are some terms concerning this view of science with which you ought to become familiar. If one is pretend to knowledge of the pathways to truth and the mechanisms of discovery, then one should know:

 Fraud: may be described as: cooking, trimming, serving up, finagling, diddling, faking, looking good, plagiary, fabrication, pathological science, and other such terms. Regrettably, there is no consistency, no standardization, in the ways in which such terms are used. Don't worry about classifications but be open to the wonderful variety of games.

Norms: R. K. Merton, sociologist of science, describes the institution of science in terms of: universalism, disinterestedness, communism, and organized skepticism. This normative approach to science served as an ideology for science in the 1950s and 60s but has since fallen from favor. Merton's "community of scientists" approach has been replaced by studies of the social construction of science and studies of the military-industrial-science-foundation-political complexes of modern society (including the idea that science may be used for ideological purposes).

Scientific revolution: as popularized by Thomas Kuhn, involves the terms: paradigm, anomaly, conversion, paradigm switch, normal science, and scientific revolution.

Personal factors in science are identified as: selective attention, definition of the situation, the self-fulfilling prophecy, trained incapacity, mental set, good Gestalt, pet hypothesis, cognitive dissonance, experimenter effect, situational factors, and so many others.

Funny research: hired hands research, wooden nickel research, Andrea Doria research, back-of-the-envelope stuff.

And note: creative penmanship, pork barrel science, priority war, gee whiz science, whistle-blowing, honorary authorship, multiple authorship, simultaneous invention, professionalism, creative malady, fossil salting, pirating artifacts, type lil error, industrialized science, Aryan physics, Golden Fleece Award, medical ethics and bioethics, paperclip conspiracy, defensive medicine, the N-rays, Grant Swinger, the Eureka phenomenon, enthusiasm, Robin Hooding, making the grade, multiple authorship, vita inflation, Least Publishable Unit (LPU), situational factors, demand characteristics, evaluation apprehension, experimenter effect, the managed textbook, grantsmanship, and, as in any area of interest, the vocabulary is constantly growing.

And do, all of you, enjoy: Daniel S. Greenberg, The Grant Swinger Papers. Washington, D.C.: Science and Government Reports, 1981. 

Additional Resources 

              I post to a discussion list called Notes each Sunday of the semester. You may earn extra credit by responding to these postings on a weekly basis. The first Note is to be posted on 8 February and every Sunday thereafter. Notes are posted at 2: o'clock each Sunday of the semester. You have 1 week in which to respond - for credit - to the posting. You can earn some 39 points for responding to each item during the semester and these points are added to your exam grades in determining your final grade. These 39 points can be very important in determining your final letter grade. 

              I maintain on the mainframe a database on fraud in science, called Scifraud. It is readily available for searching at Please consider this database a resource in thinking about the course and in the preparation of your papers. This database contains my annotations on every book and journal article on fraud in science I've read, a student would have to be an idiot to ignore reading my evaluations before preparing a term paper or a book report! )8364;SNuf said. In a week or so, I will assign some work to be done using this resource. Get used to using it. 

              I have organized a Listserver, Scifraud, and it's been on line since 1988. Here participants from around the world discuss and argue about fraud in science. Immediately available on the site are on-going discussions of some aspect of fraud in science. Also available are three years of discussions on the list and earlier materials, back to 1988, can be obtained upon request. There are topics here for a term paper. You would be wise to join the listserver and participate in the discussions for the semester. You should become aware of contemporary discussions on the server!