Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences offers students three distinct undergraduate degrees within two programs: [1] the Bachelor of Science degree (B.S.) in Geological Sciences or Earth Science (with NYS teaching certification) is offered within the Geological Sciences Program; and [2] the B.S. in Atmospheric Science is offered within the Atmospheric Science Program. All three degrees are recognized as particularly challenging and attract students of high caliber who are interested in studying the fundamental processes operating on-and-within the Earth and its atmosphere. Detailed descriptions of these two programs follow below.

Program in Geological Sciences

Faculty

Professors

William S. F. Kidd, Ph.D.
Cambridge University

Professor Emeritae/i

Winthrop D. Means, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley

Akiho Miyashiro, D.O.C.
Tokyo University

Associate Professors

John W. Delano, Ph.D. (Chairperson)
State University of New York at Stony Brook

Gregory D. Harper, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley

Associate Professor Emeritae/i

George W. Putman, Ph.D.
Pennsylvania State University

Assistant Professor

Andrei Lapenis, Ph.D.
State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg

Braddock K. Linsley, Ph.D.
University of New Mexico

Visiting Assistant Professor

John G. Arnason, Ph.D.
Stanford University

Adjuncts (estimated): 1
Teaching Assistants (estimated): 8

The department provides a broad introduction to the geological sciences. Developing shortages of raw materials for industry and fossil fuels, and increasing interest in environmental problems will lead to a growing demand for professional geologists.

Careers

Graduates with a B.S. in geology have found satisfying employment not only in jobs directly related to geology but also in a wide variety of other activities. Students graduating with a B.S. in geology who pursue advanced degrees in geology, computer science, business administration, or geophysics have a competitive edge in the job market. Professional opportunities in jobs using geological expertise are much wider for graduates with master’s degrees, in particular for employment with oil and mineral resource companies, and with state or federal agencies having responsibilities involving geological matters (geological surveys, water supply, environmental conservation, transport, etc.).

Special Programs or Opportunities

The department sponsors two weekly seminar series that provide students with a sampling of important topics in current geological research: (1) informal talks given by faculty and graduate students; and (2) formal seminars presented by outside speakers. The department sponsors field trips in New York, New England, and the Appalachians.

Degree Requirements for the Major in Geology

General Program

B.S.- Major in Geology

A minimum of 66 credits for the combined major and minor including: A Geo 100N or A Geo 100F or 105, 106, 190N, 210, 222, 230 (or 230Z), 330, 335, 400, 412 or 415, 435, 470 (or 470Z); A Mat 111 or 112 or 118 and 113 or 119, A Phy 105N, 106, 108N, 109, 107 or 110; A Chm 120N, 121, 122A, 122B. Students are encouraged to take the following additional courses: A Geo 315, 428, 480 (or 480Z); A Mat 108, 214, 220, 311; A Csi 101N or 201N; A Atm 210 or 210Z.

B.S.- Major in Earth Science

Teacher Education Program: 63 to 66 credits for the combined major and minor. Required courses include A Geo 100N or 100F or 105N, 106, 210, 230 (or 230Z), 330; A Atm 210 or 210Z, 211; A Mat 111 or 112 or 118 and 113 or 119; A Phy 105N, 106, 108N, 109; A Chm 120N, 121N, 122A, 122B; A Bio 110F/N and 111N; and three courses from the following: A Geo 222, 315, 335, 400, 412, 415, 428, 435, 440Z, 470 (or 470Z); A Atm 300Z, 305, 307. A Geo 190N is strongly recommended.

Students interested in a career in secondary school teaching must apply for and be admitted to the Teacher Education Program administered by the Department of Educational Theory and Practice before they can be officially enrolled in this major in the teacher education program. Qualified students may apply after satisfactorily completing one year of undergraduate study and a minimum of 24 graduation credits. Admission requirements are described in this bulletin under the section headed “Department of Educational Theory and Practice.” Students admitted to the program must complete the teacher education professional requirements described in this bulletin under “Undergraduate Professional Requirements” within the section headed “Department of Educational Theory and Practice.” They must also complete the courses within the major and related fields which are listed in this section.

Combined B.S./M.S. Program

The combined B.S./M.S. program in geology provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to fulfill integrated requirements of undergraduate and master’s degree programs from the beginning of the junior year. A carefully designed program can permit a student to earn the B.S. and M.S. degrees within ten semesters.

The combined program requires a minimum of 138 credits, of which at least 30 must be graduate credits. In qualifying for the B.S., students must meet all University and college requirements, including the requirements of the undergraduate major described previously, the minimum 60- credit liberal arts and sciences requirement, general educational requirements, and residency requirements. In qualifying for the M.S., students must meet all University and college requirements as outlined in the Graduate Bulletin, including completion of a minimum of 30 graduate credits and any other conditions such as a research seminar, thesis, comprehensive examination, professional experience, and residency requirements. Up to 12 graduate credits may be applied simultaneously to both the B.S. and M.S. programs.

The following graduate courses may be substituted for required undergraduate courses: A Geo 512 for A Geo 412, A Geo 515 for A Geo 415, A Geo 517 for A Geo 470, A Geo 535 for A Geo 435, A Geo 545 for A Geo 440Z. A reading knowledge of a foreign language useful in the study of geology (French, German, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese) must be demonstrated before completion of the program, or satisfactory proficiency in a research skill such as computer programming may be substituted for the language requirement at the discretion of the department.

Students are considered as undergraduates until completion of 120 graduation credits and satisfactory completion of all B.S. requirements. Upon meeting B.S. requirements, students accepted into the combined B.S./M.S. program are automatically considered as graduate students.

Students may apply for admission to the combined degree program in geology at the beginning of their junior year or after the successful completion of 56 credits, but no later than the accumulation of 100 credits. A cumulative grade point average of 3.20 or higher and three supportive letters of recommendation from faculty are required for consideration.

Departmental Honors Program

Students who have achieved a GPA of 3.5 in the major, and an overall GPA of 3.25, may apply to the Department Chairperson not later than the end of their junior year to enter the Department Honors Program. In order to graduate with Honors, accepted students must take A Geo 498, Independent Honors Research (3 credits), and complete it with a grade of A or A-, as well as maintaining superior academic performance overall and in the major during their senior year. Proposals for research to be done in A Geo 498 must be approved in writing by the supervising faculty member and the Department Chairperson before the end of the spring semester of the student’s junior year. The other three required credits for Departmental Honors will consist of a total of three credits of A Geo 499 Seminar in Geology, one in each of the last three semesters of the degree program.

Courses

A Geo 100N Planet Earth (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Introduction to the Geological Sciences, including evidence for the major processes and significant events in the origin, history and present condition of the solid Earth. Major topics include geological time, earthquakes, volcanism, plate tectonics and the origin and movement of continents and oceans, mountain building, evidence for past climate change, including glaciation, formation of the earth-moon system, earth resources and geological constraints and consequences of energy use. Emphasis is placed on understanding why we think we know things about the Earth, to enable the student to understand common features of rocks and minerals and the larger-scale solid Earth, and to provide a lifetime background for making informed judgments on increasing number of public issues requiring geological knowledge. A Geo 100F is the writing intensive version of A Geo 100N; only one may be taken for credit. Fall and spring semesters.

A Geo 100F Planet Earth (3)
Meets General Education: NS & WI
A Geo 100F is the writing intensive version of A Geo 100N; only one may be taken for credit. Fall and spring semesters.

A Geo 105N Environmental Geology (3)
Meets General Education: NS if taken Fall
1997 or thereafter Introduction to and survey of the geological aspects of the environment, health and disease, waste disposal, water, mineral and energy resources and conservation, land reclamation, land- use planning, and geological hazards. Important scientific principles necessary for the understanding of the geological aspects of environment problems will be emphasized. Three lectures each week.

A Geo 106 Physical Geology Laboratory (1)
Elementary classification of minerals and rocks, and their identification in hand specimen. Introduction to geological maps and sections, both as sources of geological information and as aids in the solution of practical problems. Guided and self-guided field trips to building stones of downtown Albany. This course is required for majors in Geology and Earth Science. One lab each week. Corequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F or 105. Fall and spring semester.

A Geo 190N Earth Resources: Problems and Choices (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Exponential growth of the human population along with the demand for improvements in the quality of life are causing Earth’s resources to decline and global pollution to rise. The pro’s and con’s of various energy sources (e.g., nuclear fission, solar, hydroelectric, burning of fossil fuels), as well as the demand of strategic metals, will be examined from a geochemical perspectives. Optional field- trips occur for extra credit. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or A Chm 120N & 121N or A Phy 105N & 106 or permission of instructor.

A Geo 210 Mineralogy (4)
Crystal structures and crystal chemistry, with emphasis on the major rock- and soil-forming mineral groups. An introduction to optical mineralogy and use of the polarizing microscope. Selected minerals of commercial importance. Examples of mineral- forming processes, and use of mineral properties as indicators of geological conditions. Three lectures, one lab each week. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F or 105, 106; or permission of instructor. Fall semester only.

A Geo 222 Igneous and Metamorphic Geology (4)
Description, classification, and occurrence of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Introduction to phase diagrams, metamorphic facies, and petrogenetic grids. Laboratory section will involve practical identification of mineralogy and textures in hand specimens and thin sections. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F or 105, 106, 210; or permission from the instructor. Spring semester only.

A Geo 230 Stratigraphy (3)
Stratigraphic principles and correlation, identification and classification of sedimentary rocks, introduction to paleontology and historical geology. Two lectures and one lab each week. Offered fall semester only. Geology BS and Earth Science BS majors must also register concurrently for either A Geo 231 or A Geo 231Z, Field Excursions in Stratigraphy. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F or 105, 106, or permission of instructor.

A Geo 230Z Stratigraphy (3)
Meets General Education: WI A Geo 230Z is the writing intensive version of A Geo 230; only one may be taken for credit. Two lectures and one lab each week. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F or 105, 106; or permission of instructor.

A Geo 231 Field Excursions for Stratigraphy (2)
One lab per week and five full-day weekend field trips to be taken by Geology BS and Earth Science BS majors concurrently with A Geo 230 Stratigraphy. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 230 concurrent, and permission of instructor.

A Geo 231Z Field Excursions for Stratigraphy (2)
One lab per week and five full-day weekend field trips to be taken by Geology and Earth Science BS majors concurrently with A Geo 230 Stratigraphy. Extended written and illustrated reports must be submitted based on the observations made on each trip. A Geo 231Z is the writing intensive version of A Geo 231; only one may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 230 concurrent, and permission of instructor.

A Geo 315 (same as A Ant 310) Human Paleontology (3)
Examination of the human fossil record, and of the major theories dealing with that fossil record. Prerequisite: A Ant 102 or A Geo 230 or 230Z or permission of the instructor.

A Geo 317 (same as A Gog 317) Geomorphology (4)
A systematic introduction to the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Laboratory work and field trips are part of the course. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite(s): A Gog 101N; A Geo 100N or 100F or 105; or permission of instructor. Fall semester only. May not be offered during the 1998-99.

A Geo 330 Structural Geology I (4)
Descriptive structural geology, with emphasis on features seen on the outcrop and map scales. Selected examples of rock microstructures and their interpretation. Three lectures and one lab each week. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F, 105, 106, 210; or permission of instructor. Spring semester only.

A Geo 331 Field Excursions for Structural Geology I (1)
Five full-day weekend field trips to be taken by Geology and Earth Science BS majors concurrently with Structural Geology I. Several written and illustrated reports must be submitted based on the observations made. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor; corequisite: A Geo 330.

A Geo 335 Sedimentary Geology (4)
Introduction to the formation, physical properties, and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks and environments. Clastic carbonate, and chemical sediment analysis, mineralogy, and diagenesis. Economic, paleoclimatic, and resource aspects of sedimentary deposits. Two lectures and one lab each week. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N, 100F or 105, 106, 230 or 230Z; or permission from instructor. Spring semester only.

A Geo 400 Field Mapping (4)
Supervised geological mapping. Three weeks of field work (camping in the field) followed by independent study and laboratory sessions for preparation of report (in Albany). Field work starts in early August; laboratory sessions once a week in first quarter of fall semester. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 230 or 230Z, 330; or permission of instructor.

A Geo 410 Geochemical Thermodynamics (3)
Basic principles of the thermodynamics with applications to crystallization and fusion processes and mineral reactions. Treatment of silicate crystalline solutions. Analysis of phase diagrams of geological importance. Prerequisite(s): A Chm 120N, 121N; A Phy 124N; A Mat 113 or 119. Fall semester only. May not be offered during 1998-99 academic year.

A Geo 412 General Geochemistry (3)
Origins and histories of major geochemical systems and processes on Earth, including: a) planetary-scale differentiation and origins of the core, mantle, crust, atmosphere/hydrosphere; b) magmatism and igneous rocks; c) chemistry of sedimentary rocks and biosphere; and d) fluid/rock reactions during metamorphism. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 100N or 100F or 105, 106, 230 or 230Z; A Chm 120N or 121N; or permission of instructor. To be offered alternate years, alternating with A Geo 415. Fall semester only.

A Geo 415 Environmental Geochemistry (4)
Industrial pollution and fossil fuel waste-products are major sources of biotoxic and phytotoxic heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) in the environment. The mobilities and pathways of these elements into-and-through soil and groundwater are examined. Analytical methods and sampling strategies for tracing the historical trends of heavy metal fluxes in specific geographic regions are explored. 2-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): A Chm 120N or the historical trends of heavy metal fluxes in specific geographic regions are explored. Prerequisite(s): A Chm 120N or 121N; A Geo 210, 222, or permission of instructor. To be offered alternate years, alternating with A Geo 412. Fall semester only.

A Geo 428 (same as A Bio 428) Origins and Extinctions (3)
Detailed consideration of the data, interpretations, and controversies associated with the evolution of the earth and its biosphere, including cosmochemistry, planetary accretion, plate tectonics, biological evolution, and mass extinctions. Prerequisite(s): Biology or geology majors with senior class standing, or permission of instructor.

A Geo 435 Applied Superficial Geohydrology (3)
Classification, origin and properties of surficial materials; sampling and exploration methods; determination of groundwater and hydrologic properties; groundwater flow systems and introduction to modeling; hydrochemistry, geological factors in environmental studies and respect to remediation and regulatory policy; exercises in surficial well logging, pump test analysis, and brief research papers. Three lectures each week. One or two optional half-day field trips. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 317 or A Geo 335 or permission of instructor. Spring semester only.

A Geo 440Z Structural Geology III (3)
Meets General Education: WI
Structural analysis, mechanisms of rock fracture and flow, interpretation of regional stress and strain history from structural features. Three lectures each week with some field work. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 330 or permission of instructor. Spring semester only. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Geo 450 Special Topics (2-3)
A structured program of reading and seminars leading to an in-depth understanding of a chosen topic in geology. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 210, 230 or 230Z. Students may repeat course once for an additional two or three credits. Fall or spring semester.

A Geo 470 Tectonics (4)
Seismologic basis for plate tectonics, kinematics of plate motions, paleomagnetism. Study of modern mid-ocean ridges, magmatic arcs, transforms, and collisional belts. Three lectures and one lab per week. A Geo 470Z is the writing intensive version of A Geo 470; only one may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 230 or 230Z, 330; or permission of instructor. Fall semester only.

A Geo 470Z Tectonics (4)
Meets General Education: WI
A Geo 470Z is the writing intensive version of A Geo 470; only one may be taken for credit. Three lectures and one lab each week. Prerequisites(s): A Geo 230 or 230Z, 330; or permission of instructor. Fall semester only.

A Geo 480 World Historical Geology (3)
Integrated survey of the geologic history of the earth. Three lectures each week. A Geo 480Z is the writing intensive version of A Geo 480; only one may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 230 or 230Z, 330, or permission of instructor. Spring semester only.

A Geo 480Z World Historical Geology (3)
A Geo 480Z is the writing intensive version of A Geo 480; only one may be taken for credit. Three lectures each week. Prerequisite(s): A Geo 230 or 230Z, 330, or permission of instructor. Spring semester only.

A Geo 497 Independent Study (2-3)
Field or laboratory investigation of a chosen geologic problem, including the writing of a research report to be undertaken during the senior year. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor. Students may repeat course once for an additional two or three credits. Fall or spring semester.

A Geo 498 Undergraduate Honors Research (3)
Supervised research for undergraduates who intend to attempt the Department Honors Program. To be taken summer and/or fall semester at beginning of senior year. Written proposal for research must be approved no later than end of spring semester of junior year. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor and chair.

A Geo 499 Seminar in Geology (1)
Oral presentation by students of a research topic: attendance at weekly seminar given by other students in this course, and A Geo 500, and regular attendance at geological science seminars given by outside speakers [approximately once weekly in semester]. Students admitted to or intending to apply for the Departmental Honors Program must take this course in the last three semesters of their degree program.

Program in Atmospheric Science

Faculty

Professor Emeritae/i

Geirmundur Arnason, Ph.D.
University of Stockholm, Sweden

Duncan C. Blanchard, Ph.D.*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ulrich Czapski, Ph.D.
Hamburg University

Jai S. Kim, Ph.D.
University of Saskatchewan

Jon T. Scott, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin

Professors

Lance F. Bosart, Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Kenneth L. Demerjian, Ph.D.
Ohio State University

Daniel Keyser, Ph.D.
Pennsylvania State University

Arthur Z. Loesch, Ph.D.
University of Chicago

Volker A. Mohnen, Ph.D.
University of Munich

John E. Molinari, Ph.D.
Florida State University

Associate Professors

Vincent P. Idone, Ph.D.
University at Albany

Robert G. Keesee, Ph.D.
University of Colorado

Associated Faculty

Julius Chang, Ph.D.*
State University of New York at Stony Brook

David R. Fitzjarrald, Ph.D.*
University of Virginia

Lee C. Harrison, Ph.D.*
University of Washington, Seattle

David Knight, Ph.D.
University of Washington, Seattle

G. Garland Lala, Ph.D.*
University at Albany

Michael Landin, M.S.
University at Albany

Joseph J. Michalsky, Ph.D.*
University of Kentucky

Richard R. Perez, Ph.D.*
University at Albany

S.T. Rao, Ph.D.
University at Albany

James J. Schwab, Ph.D.*
Harvard University

Christopher J. Walcek, Ph.D.*
University of California, Los Angles

Wei-Chyung Wang, D.E.S.*
Columbia University

Visiting Professors

Petr Chylek, Ph.D.*
University of California, Riverside

Adjuncts (estimated): 1
Teaching Assistants (estimated):10

*Primary appointment with the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center as Research Professors.

The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) provide the University with the state’s largest program in atmospheric science and meteorology.

The undergraduate program provides a broad background in three fundamental areas of atmospheric science: synoptic (observations and weather forecasting), dynamic (theory and computer modeling), and physical (lightning, acid rain, cloud physics, atmospheric chemistry). Because the department has a highly active research program in these areas, many opportunities exist for undergraduate research projects and part-time jobs.

The first two years of the program provide basic training in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and introductory atmospheric science. All students are encouraged to take one or two 100-level courses for enjoyment and experience (these count as electives but not as courses for the major). In the junior and senior years, requirements in the fundamental areas of atmospheric science are combined with electives, including advanced courses on atmospheric physics, atmospheric dynamics, weather forecasting, tropical meteorology and hurricanes, solar energy, air pollution, climatology, and computer applications. Highly qualified students are eligible to enter an accelerated degree program in their junior year that leads to a combined B.S./M.S. degree.

Many opportunities exist for students to become involved in department activities. Each semester, several students take part in an internship program with the local office of the National Weather Service (NWS), gaining experience with weather forecasting and familiarity with the responsibilities of a NWS meteorologist. In addition, a weather forecasting competition is held in the department each semester while classes are in session. The forecasting, along with concurrent weather discussions led by a faculty member, are open to all undergraduate majors. Undergraduates hired part-time and during the summer through research grants have the chance to work closely with a faculty member while contributing to current meteorological research. The Eastern New York Chapter of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) meets regularly and provides speakers of general interest on a variety of meteorological topics. Through these and other activities, the department offers exciting and varied opportunities to any student curious about the science of the atmosphere around us.

Careers

Graduates obtain employment in weather forecasting, environmental engineering, radio and TV broadcasting, scientific consulting, and other private firms; in university departments and research laboratories; and in federal and state agencies such as the National Weather Service, U.S. Air Force, and State Department of Energy Conservation. About half our graduates choose to go on to graduate school for an advanced degree (the department offers full financial support and a complete tuition waiver to most students accepted into our graduate program).

Degree Requirements for the Major in Atmospheric Science

General Program B.S. (combined major and minor sequence): A Atm 210 or 210Z, 211, 320, 321, 333, 410 and 411. At least 12 additional credits from A Atm 307 or 307Z and higher level courses as advised; A Phy 120N, 124N, 220 and 221; A Mat 111 or 112 or Mat 118, 113 or 119, 214 and 311; A Chm 120N and 122A. No more than 6 credits from A Atm 490, 497, 498 and 499 may be applied toward the major requirements; further, a maximum of 3 credits from A Atm 490 will apply.

A solid foundation in physics and mathematics is recommended for all students planning to major in atmospheric science. It is recommended that all students considering this major meet with a representative of the department before each of the freshman and sophomore registration sessions.

Honors Program: Students who have by the end of their fourth semester attained a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.25 and a grade point average of at least 3.5 in courses required of the major in atmospheric science may apply to the department chair for the program leading to a B.S. degree with honors in atmospheric science. Applications must be submitted before the end of the first semester of the student’s junior year and must be accompanied by letters of recommendation from at least two faculty members.

To be admitted to the program, a student must have completed three semesters of physics (A Phy 120N, 124N, 220, and 221), three semesters of mathematics (A Mat 111 or 112 or 118, 113 or 119, and 214), and must be enrolled in or have completed A Atm 333. These requirements may be altered, upon request, for qualified transfer students. At the end of the junior year, the student’s program will be reviewed by the Honors Committee to see if satisfactory progress is being made.

To be eligible for a degree with honors, students must complete a minimum of 74 credits specified as follows: (1) the physics, mathematics, and chemistry requirements of the major; (2) the core sequence in atmospheric science (A Atm 210 or 210Z, 211, 320, 321, 333, 410 and 411) plus any three A Atm courses at the 400 or 500 level; (3) a coherent core of three upper-division courses in any discipline besides atmospheric science; and (4) 6 credits of A Atm 499 taken over at least two semesters culminating in a significant undergraduate thesis and an honors seminar in the student’s final semester. Students in the program must maintain both a minimum grade point average of 3.25 overall and 3.5 in atmospheric science courses taken to satisfy major requirements during the junior and senior years.

Upon completion of the requirements, the honors committee will make its recommendation to the faculty to grant the degree with honors in atmospheric science based upon the candidate’s (1) academic record, (2) research project report, (3) honors seminar, and (4) faculty recommendations.

Combined B.S./M.S. Program: The combined B.S./M.S. program in atmospheric science provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to fulfill simultaneously undergraduate and graduate course requirements in their senior year, thereby accelerating progress toward the M.S. degree. A carefully designed program can permit a student to complete the B.S. and M.S. degrees one year sooner than is otherwise possible.

The combined program requires a minimum of 138 credits, of which at least 30 must be graduate credits. In qualifying for the B.S., students must meet all University and college requirements, including the requirements of the undergraduate major described previously, the minimum 60-credit liberal arts and sciences requirement, the general education requirements, and residency requirements. In qualifying for the M.S., students must meet all University and college requirements as outlined in the Graduate Bulletin, including completion of a minimum of 30 graduate credits and any other conditions such as a research seminar, thesis, comprehensive examination, professional experience, and residency requirements. Up to 9 graduate credits may be applied simultaneously to both the B.S. and M.S. programs.

In the summer following the senior year, the student will begin work on his or her graduate research. In preparation for this accelerated research program, the student will be required to take two semesters (6 credits) of A Atm 499, Undergraduate Research, during the junior or senior year. These 6 credits may be counted toward the undergraduate elective requirement from either of the following requirements: (1) from any four additional A Atm courses at the 400 or 500 level as advised or (2) from 6 additional credits in mathematics or sciences as advised.

Students are considered as undergraduates until completion of 120 graduation credits and satisfactory completion of all B.S. requirements. Upon meeting B.S. requirements, students are automatically considered as graduate students.

Students may apply for admission to the combined degree program in atmospheric science at the beginning of their junior year or after the successful completion of 56 credits, but not later than the accumulation of 100 credits. A cumulative grade point average of 3.2 or higher and three supportive letters of recommendation from faculty are required for consideration.

Courses

A Atm 100N The Atmosphere (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Nontechnical survey of the atmosphere; the physical environment of society and its historical development; intentional and unintentional modifications of the environment; cloud types and structure; severe storms; weather forecasting; air pollution; major wind and weather systems. Does not yield credit toward the major in atmospheric science. Two lectures, one-two-hour discussion each week. May not be taken for credit by students with credit for A Atm 210 or 210Z or 320.

A Atm 101N The Upper Atmosphere (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Elementary survey of the properties and geophysical phenomena of the upper atmosphere; ionosphere, magnetosphere, and interplanetary space, ionospheric and magnetic storms; aurora and airglow; observational techniques including rockets and satellites. Does not yield credit toward the major in atmospheric science. Two lectures, one two-hour discussion each week. May not be offered during the 1998-99 academic year.

A Atm 102N Science and Major Environmental Issues (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Study of the role of science in creating, defining, evaluating, and resolving major issues relating to energy production and its use and impact on the physical environments; case studies of such issues as change in climate, air pollution, the fluorocarbon/ozone link, etc. Three lectures each week. Does not yield credit toward the major in atmospheric science.

A Atm 105N Oceanus and Gaia (3)
Meets General Education: NS
A multidisciplinary discourse on the science of the planet Oceanus (Earth) and how scientists operate to produce new viewpoints about the nature of the planetary-scale processes; emphasis is on the regulation of environment by Gaia (life), climatic change, human-produced perturbations on the planet and their social consequences. Does not yield credit toward the major in atmospheric science. May not be offered during the 1998-99 academic year.

A Atm 107N The Oceans (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Introductory survey of the physical, chemical, geological, and biological processes in the marine environment; promise and problems of the oceans as a natural resource. Does not yield credit toward the major in atmospheric science. Three lectures each week.

A Atm 199 Contemporary Issues in Atmospheric Science (1)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of atmospheric science. Particular areas of study to be announced each term. Intended for students interested in exploring in depth themes covered in large lecture courses. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor. S/U graded.

A Atm 210 Atmospheric Structure (3)
Technical survey of the atmosphere with application of elementary physical and mathematical concepts to the understanding of atmospheric horizontal and vertical structure; planetary, regional and local circulations with emphasis on weather analysis and forecasting and climate; atmospheric radiation; precipitation physics and thermodynamics; current weather discussions and McIDAS interpretation. Three lectures each week. Pre- or corequisites: A Mat 111, 113 or 119, and A Phy 108 or 124N.

A Atm 210Z Atmospheric Structure (3)
Meets General Education: WI
A Atm 210Z is writing intensive version of A Atm 210; only one may be taken for credit.

A Atm 211 Weather Analysis and Forecasting I (4)
Applications of physical principles to weather analysis and forecasting, use of National Meteorological Center forecast guidance products; introduction to use and interpretation of observed weather data and numerical models of the atmosphere, including interactive weather display systems; satellite imagery; temperature; pressure; precipitation processes; cloud types; atmospheric optical phenomena. Two lectures and one lab- weather map discussion per week. Prerequisite: A Atm 210 or Atm 210Z or permission of instructor.

A Atm 297 Independent Study I (1-3)
By advisement only and may be repeated once for credit. S/U graded.

A Atm 300Z Solar Energy (3)
Meets General Education: WI
Discussion of solar energy technology, including solar energy measurement and distribution; direct use of the sun’s energy; solar architecture; energy from wind, tides, waves, currents, and salinity gradients; biomass and geothermal energy; energy use, conservation, and other major environmental issues. Prerequisite(s): 6 credits in mathematics including one course in calculus: A Phy 108N or 124N; and junior or senior class standing. May not be offered during the 1998-99 academic year.

A Atm 304 Air Quality (3)
Designed for undergraduate students not pursuing a B.S. in Atmospheric Science. Topics include air pollution criteria standards and regulations, basic air pollution monitoring (including quality assurance), simple statistical analysis of data, and pollutant transport, transformation and deposition. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 111 or 112 or 118 and A Phy 108 or 124.

A Atm 305 Global Physical Climatology (3)
The physical basis of climate and climate variability from a coupled atmosphere-ocean perspective. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the causes of regional climate differences and regional climate variability and the role that the global atmosphere and oceans play in the process. (This course is likely to be offered every other year.) Prerequisite(s): A Atm 210 or 210Z.

A Atm 307 (same as A Chm 307) Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry (3)
Chemical principles and concepts leading to understanding the composition and change in the chemical/atmospheric environment; sources and links of chemical constituents; chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere; measurement and theory; greenhouse gases; global pollution and ozone depletion. A Atm 307Z is the writing intensive version of A Atm 307 and A Chm 307; only one may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 113 or 119; A Phy 108 or 124N and A Chm 120N.

A Atm 307Z (same as A Chm 307) Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry (3)
Meets General Education: WI
A Atm 307Z is the writing intensive version of A Atm 307; only one may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 113 or 119; A Phy 108 or 124N; and A Chm 120N.

A Atm 311 Weather Analysis and Forecasting II (4)
Continuation of Atm 211, with emphasis on synoptic, regional and local weather systems in relation to operational forecasting; introduction to weather analysis computer software; Doppler radar; air pollution; thunderstorms; tornadoes; hurricanes; world climate; climate change. Two lectures and one lab-weather map discussion per week. Prerequisite: A Atm 211.

A Atm 320 Atmospheric Thermodynamics (3)
Equation of state; principles of thermodynamics; water vapor and moist air thermodynamics; changes of phase and latent heat; hydrostatic equilibrium; atmospheric convection; thermodynamic diagrams; atmospheric stability and severe weather events. Prerequisite(s): A Atm 210 or 210Z.

A Atm 321 Physical Meteorology (4)
Atmospheric physics, including radiation, optics, and visibility; atmospheric electricity; cloud and aerosol physics; acoustics; upper atmospheric processes; radar meteorology. Three lectures and one lab discussion per week. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 214 and A Atm 210 or 210Z. Corequisite: A Atm 320

A Atm 333 Quantitative Methods in Geophysics (3)
Important topics in atmospheric and geophysical science studied using various analytical and numerical techniques. Description and analysis of specific but disparate geophysical phenomena will expose the student of the commonality of application of certain classical and modern mathematical approaches used to expound the underlying physical principles. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 214 and 311.

A Atm 400 Synoptic Meteorology 1 (3)
Electronic meteorological database description and analysis procedures; use of meteorological software packages and remote sensing technologies in weather analysis and forecasting; operational numerical weather prediction model procedures; application of fundamental thermodynamic and dynamic principles to multiscale weather events; scientific issues in weather forecasting. Two joint lecture-laboratory periods each week. Corequisites: A Atm 311 and 410.

A Atm 401 Synoptic Meteorology II (3)
Application of more advanced thermodynamic and dynamic concepts, laws and remote sensing technologies to multiscale weather analysis and prediction; structure of global scale temperature, wind and precipitation regimes and their causes; use of operational weather prediction models and products for research and weather forecasting; severe weather and heavy precipitation analysis and forecasting. Two joint class/laboratory periods each week. Prerequisite: A Atm 400; corequisite: A Atm 411.

A Atm 408 Hydrometeorology (3)
The role of the atmosphere in the water cycle. Two lectures and one two-hour discussion each. Prerequisite(s): A Atm 210 or 210Z. May not be offered during the 1998-99 academic year.

A Atm 410 Dynamic Meteorology I (3)
Forces and force balances in the atmosphere; thermal wind, vorticity and circulation; structure and dynamics of the middle latitudes and tropical cyclones. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 214 and A Atm 210 or 210Z and 333.

A Atm 411 Dynamic Meteorology II (3)
Derivation and scaling of the equations of atmospheric motion; major forces in the atmosphere; dynamics of frontal cyclones; mathematics of weather prediction. Prerequisites(s): A Atm 410.

A Atm 414 Air Pollution (3)
Physical and chemical processes affecting air suspensoids; pollutant dispersion; effects of pollutants on materials, vegetation, and animal life; environmental gas cycles; applications to instruments and industrial removal processes. Prerequisite(s): A Atm 410 or permission of instructor.

A Atm 421 Tropical Meteorology (3)
Tropical cyclone dynamics and thermodynamics; tropical cyclone formation; monsoons; tropical waves; El Niño. Prerequisite(s): A Atm 410 or equivalent.

A Atm 424 Fundamentals of Atmospheric Electricity (3)
An introduction to the basic electrical processes operating in the atmosphere; fair weather electricity and the global circuit; electrical properties of clouds and thunderstorms; thunderstorm electrification; the lightning flash; observation and measurement techniques. Prerequisite(s): A Mat 214 and A Phy 220 and A Atm 321.

A Atm 430 Solar Radiation and Applications (3)
Definition of solar and terrestrial radiation components; basic celestial geometry; introduction to the measurement of solar radiation; principles of solar radiation transfer through the Earth’s atmosphere; study of the interrelationship between solar radiation components; applied solar radiation examples. Prerequisite(s) A Mat 113 or 119 and A Phy 124N.

A Atm 450 Computer Applications in Atmospheric Science (3)
FORTRAN programming and numerical methods for solving atmospheric science problems; data handling and storage; examination of currently used programs in atmospheric science research; iterative methods; numerical weather prediction. Prerequisite(s): A Atm 333 and A Csi 204, or permission of instructor.

A Atm 490 Internship in Atmospheric Science (1-3)
Research or operational experience in atmospheric-related activities with local governmental agencies or private industry. No more than 3 credits for A Atm 490 may be applied toward major requirements in atmospheric science. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing in atmospheric science. S/U graded, may be repeated for credit.

A Atm 497 Independent Study II (1-3)
May be repeated once for credit. No more than 6 credits from A Atm 490, 497, 498, and 499 may be applied toward major requirements in atmospheric science. Prerequisite(s): junior senior class standing, and by advisement only.

A Atm 498 Computer Applications in Meteorological Research (3)
Directed individual study of a particular problem in atmospheric science which requires use of the University Computing Center and/or departmental computers. May be repeated once for credit. No more than 6 credits from A Atm 490, 497, 498, and 499 may be applied toward major requirements in atmospheric science. Prerequisite(s): A Csi 201N or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

A Atm 499 Undergraduate Research (3)
Guided research leading to a senior thesis. Oral presentation of results required. May be repeated for credit. No more than 6 credits from A Atm 490, 497, 498, and 499 may be applied toward major requirements in atmospheric science. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing, and permission of department chair. S/U graded.


Undergraduate Bulletin — Table of Contents
University at Albany
State University of New York