Department of Biological Sciences

Faculty

Distinguished Teaching Professors

Stephen C. Brown, Ph.D.
University of Michigan

John S. Mackiewicz, Ph.D.
Cornell University

Margaret M. Stewart, Ph.D.
Cornell University

Professors Emeritae/i

Charles Edwards, Ph.D.
Johns Hopkins University

Samuel M. McGee-Russell, D.Phil.
Oxford University

John W. Saunders Jr., Ph.D.
Johns Hopkins University

Frederick H. Truscott, Ph.D.
Rutgers University

Professors

Kenneth P. Able, Ph.D.
University of Georgia

Corrado Baglioni, M.D.
University of Rome

Jerram L. Brown, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley

Richard P. Cunningham, Ph.D.
Johns Hopkins University

Helen T. Ghiradella, Ph.D.
University of California, Santa Barbara

Helmut V. B. Hirsch, Ph.D.
Stanford University

Colin S. Izzard, Ph.D.
Cambridge University (England)

Jon W. Jacklet, Ph.D.
University of Oregon

Joseph P. Mascarenhas, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley

Paulette McCormick, Ph.D.
University at Albany

Albert J. T. Millis, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania

John T. Schmidt, Ph.D.
University of Michigan

David A. Shub, Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Henry Tedeschi, Ph.D.
University of Chicago

Daniel L. Wulff, Ph.D. (Collins Fellow)
California Institute of Technology

Richard S. Zitomer, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania

Associate Professor Emeritae/i

Richard Kelly, Ed.D.
Syracuse University

Daniel L. McKinley, M.A.
University of Missouri

Associate Professors

Thomas B. Caraco, Ph.D.
Syracuse University

Gregory Lnenicka, Ph.D.
University of Virginia, Charlottesville

Caro-Beth Stewart, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley

Ben G. Szaro, Ph.D.
John Hopkins University

Sho-Ya Wang, Ph.D.
State University of New York at Stony Brook

Assistant Professors

Dmitry A. Belostotsky, Ph.D.
Ukraine Academy of Sciences

Robert Osuna, Ph.D.
University of Michigan

George Robinson, Ph.D.
University of California, Davis

Affiliated Faculty

Jeffrey L. Travis, Ph.D.
Dartmouth College

Suzannah Bliss Tieman, Ph.D.
Stanford University

Adjuncts (estimated): 41
Teaching Assistants (estimated): 29

The objective of the department is to provide the undergraduate student with a broad background in the biological sciences and adequate supporting strength in the physical sciences. Accordingly, most of the B.S. programs listed here are structured around a combined major/minor sequence.

The department also offers programs leading to the M.S. and the Ph.D. in which the graduate student is able to obtain an in-depth professional education in one of several more restricted areas of biological sciences.

Careers

The B.A., which specifies the major only and requires a separate minor sequence outside science and mathematics, is designed with the aims of the liberal or fine arts students in mind and as such is not intended for the professional biologist or teacher. The B.S. programs provide a strong background for further study either in graduate school or medicine and prepare the student for secondary school teaching and a variety of careers in biology at the technical level. Graduates with a B.S. degree often find technical-level positions with pharmaceutical companies or as research assistants in grant-related positions. Those who go on to graduate or professional school have a wide array of career opportunities in research, health fields, and business.

Degree Requirements for the Major in Biology

General Programs

B.A.: Major sequence consisting of a minimum of 36 credits.

Required courses are: A Bio 110F or 110N, 111N, 212; A Chm 120N, 121N, 122A, 122B; and 16 additional credits of biology major electives including two courses which are partially or exclusively laboratory courses. A Bio 399, 399Z, 499, and 499Z may contribute up to a total of 4 credits of non-laboratory major elective credit. Courses which do not yield credit toward the major are indicated in the individual bulletin descriptions. Major electives must be selected so that a total of 12 credits at the 300 level or above is included in the major. The minor sequence will consist of a minimum of 18 credits. The student may not have a minor in: atmospheric science, biology, chemistry, computer science, electronics, geology, mathematics, physics, or statistics.

Bachelor of Arts in Biology
Requirements

A Bio 110F& 111N                    8
A Bio 212                           4
Chemistry                           8
Subtotal                           20
Additional credits in biology      16
Total                              36
Plus nonscience/math minor      18-24

BS.: Combined major and minor sequence consisting of a minimum of 66 credits.

Required courses are: A Bio 110F or 110N, 111N, 212, 365; A Phy 105N, 106, 108N, 109; 6 credits in mathematics exclusive of A Mat 100, 101, 103, 105, 110; and A Chm 120N, 121N, 122A, 122B, 216A, 216B, 217A, 217B. 21 additional credits in biology are also required, and must include at least 3 laboratory courses. Credits in A Bio 399, 399Z, 499, and 499Z may be used to fulfill the requirement for 1 laboratory course if the student completes at least 4 credits over at least 2 semesters. A Bio 399, 399Z, 499, and 499Z may contribute a total of 4 credits towards the major. Courses which do not yield credit toward the major are so indicated in the individual bulletin descriptions. Courses in biology must be selected so that together with courses in chemistry a total of at least 12 credits in biology and chemistry at the 300 level or above is included in the major/minor sequence. Graduate courses are open to qualified seniors with appropriate departmental and instructor consent.

Bachelor of Science Requirements

A Bio 110F& 111N                    8
A Bio 212                           4
A Bio 365                           3
Chemistry                          16
Mathematics                         6
Physics                             8
Subtotal                           45
Additional credits in biology      21
Total                              66

Certificate Program

B.S. Teacher Education: Combined major and minor sequence consisting of a minimum of 65 credits.

Students interested in a career in secondary school teaching must apply for and be admitted to the Teacher Education Program administered by the Department of Educational Theory and Practice before they can be officially enrolled in this major in the teacher education program. Qualified students may apply after satisfactorily completing one year of undergraduate study and a minimum of 24 graduation credits. Admission requirements are described in this bulletin under the section headed “Department of Educational Theory and Practice.” Students admitted to the program must complete the teacher education professional requirements described in this bulletin under “Undergraduate Professional Requirements” within the section headed “Department of Educational Theory and Practice.” They must also complete those courses within the major and related fields which are listed in this section.

Required courses (65 credit minimum) are: A Bio 110F or 110N, 111N, 212, 365; A Phy 105N, 106, 108N, 109; 6 credits in geological sciences or atmospheric science; 6 credits in mathematics exclusive of A Mat 100, 101, 102N, 103, 105, 110; and the former A Mat 160N and A Chm 120N, 121N, 122A, 122B, 216A, 216B, 217A, 217B. 14 additional credits in biology are also required, and must include at least 3 laboratory courses. Credits in A Bio 399, 399Z, 499, and 499Z may be used to fulfill the requirement of 1 laboratory course if the student completes at least 4 credits over at least 2 semesters. A Bio 399, 399Z, 499, and 499Z may contribute a total of 4 credits toward the major. Courses in biology must be selected so that together with courses in chemistry a total of at least 12 credits in biology and chemistry at the 300 level or above is included in the major/minor sequence. Courses which do not yield credit toward the major are so indicated in the individual course descriptions.

Degree Requirements for the Interdisciplinary Major with a Concentration in Human Biology

B.S. Interdisciplinary Major with a Concentration in Human Biology consisting of a minimum of 66 credits.

The Human Biology program is an interdepartmental (Anthropology and Biology) combined major/minor designed for students interested in a liberal arts education with particular focus on the human organism. It provides a strong background in human evolution, structure, function and behavior. This program is especially suitable for those seeking careers (e.g. business, administration, journalism, public health) that deal directly or indirectly with human health and welfare.

Required courses (66 credit minimum) are: 31–32 credits as follows: A Ant 102; A Bio 110F, A Bio 111N, A Bio 212 (or A Bio 205), A Psy 101M, A Chm 120N, A Chm 121N, A Chm 122A, 122B; A Phy 105N; A Mat 108 (A Psy 210, or one semester of college mathematics exclusive of A Mat 100, 101, 102N, 103, 105, 110 and the former A Mat 160N) or A Csi 101N, 201N or equivalent.

Major electives must include a minimum of 15 credits from the following list: A Ant 313(or 313Z), 315, 319, 411, 413(or 413Z), 418 (or 418Z); 450 (or 450Z); A Bio 308, A Bio 410, 411Z, A Bio 419 (A Ant 412), A Bio 325.

Remaining major elective credits may be selected from the above list or from: A Ant 119N, 310, 364; A Bio 230N, 407, 438, 460; A Mat 308 or equivalent; A Phy 106, 108N, 109; A Psy 314, 385, 387. Additionally, up to three credits of major electives may be chosen from: A Bio 311N; A Gog 102M or 102G, or A Gog 380. With permission of the Human Biology program up to 3 credits of community service (R Ssw 290 or R Ssw 390) may be used.

Degree Requirements for the Interdisciplinary Major with a Concentration in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Admission: Students must obtain the approval of the Program Director before officially declaring this Faculty-Initiated Interdisciplinary Program as a major.

B.S. Interdisciplinary Major with a Concentration in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology consisting of a minimum of 65 credits.

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology program is a Faculty-Initiated Interdisciplinary major (Biology and Chemistry) designed for students interested in these rapidly developing fields of science. Students with training in these fields can pursue careers as researchers in academic or industrial settings or they can pursue further study in graduate or professional schools. Students must complete 40 graduation credits before application to the program, generally in the spring of the sophomore year. Students must obtain approval of the Program Director before officially declaring this interdisciplinary major.

Required courses (65 credits minimum) are: A Bio 110F or 110N, 111N, 212, 312, 313, 365, 366, 367; A Chm 120N, 121N, 122A, 122B, 216A, 216B, 217A, 217B; 441A, 441B, (or 340A, 340B); A Phy 120N, 124N; A Mat 111, 112 or 118; 113 or 119; and at least 2 credits of 300- or 400-level laboratory courses in either biology or chemistry. Credits in A Bio 399, 399Z, 499, 499Z, A Chm 425, 426 may be used to fulfill this 2 credit requirement if the student completes at least 4 credits over 2 semesters.

Selection of specific elective courses will depend on the student’s interests and future goals. The student is encouraged to meet with the Program Director for advisement in selection of these courses. Generally recommended electives include A Bio 301, 302Z, 304, 314, 315, 335, 335Z, 336Z, 341, 342, 399, 499; A Chm 225, 420A, 430; A Csi 201N, 204; A Mat 214; A Phy 122, 126 or 220.

Honors Program

The honors program in biology is designed for outstanding students in the programs leading to the B.S. degree. Students may apply for admission to the honors program by submitting a letter of request to the departmental honors committee no later than April 15 of the freshman or sophomore year (for admission for the fall) or November 15 of the sophomore year (for admission in the spring). Junior transfers may apply at the time of their admission to the University. Students found acceptable by the committee must find a research adviser to supervise the independent study leading to an HONORS THESIS.

The requirements for admission include: (1) the candidate must declare the major and have completed (or have in progress at time of application) 12 credits of course work required for the biology major, including A Bio 110F or 110N, and 111N; (2) an overall grade point average of 3.50; (3) a grade point average of 3.50 in courses required for the major; and (4) a written recommendation from an adviser, professor or teaching assistant if possible. Primary emphasis will be placed on indications of academic ability and maturity sufficient for applicants to complete with distinction a program involving independent research.

Students in the program are required to complete a minimum of 65 or 66 credits as specified for the respective program for the B.S. in biology and must include: (1)
at least 6 credits of independent study (A Bio 399, 499); the independent study, or honors research project, which will result in an HONORS THESIS; (2)
at least 3 credits of course work at the 500 level or higher (not including A Bio 515) in the student’s area of interest; and (3) oral presentation of research at a public seminar.

Students in the program must maintain both a minimum grade point average of 3.50 overall and in biology courses taken to satisfy major requirements during the junior and senior years. The progress of participants in the honors program will be reviewed at the end of the sophomore and junior years by the student’s adviser and the departmental honors committee. Students not meeting academic and independent research standards may be precluded from continuing in the program during their senior year. These students may, of course, continue as majors.

After completion of the requirements above, the departmental honors committee will make its recommendation to the faculty to grant the degree “with honors in biology” based upon (1)
overall academic record, (2) performance and accomplishments of the independent study project(s), (3) the quality of the Oral Presentation (4) the evaluations of departmental faculty members who have supervised these activities.

Combined B.S./M.S. Program

The combined B.S./M.S. program in biology provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to fulfill integrated requirements of undergraduate and master’s degree programs from the beginning of the junior year. A carefully designed program can permit a student to earn the B.S. and M.S. degrees within nine semesters.

The combined program requires a minimum of 138 credits, of which at least 30 must be graduate credits. In qualifying for the B.S., students must meet all University and college requirements, including the requirements of the undergraduate major described previously, the minimum 60- credit liberal arts and sciences requirement, general education requirements, and residency requirements. In qualifying for the M.S., students must meet all University and college requirements as outlined in the Graduate Bulletin, including completion of a minimum of 30 graduate credits and any other conditions such as a research seminar, thesis, comprehensive examination, professional experience, and residency requirements. Up to 12 graduate credits may be applied simultaneously to both the B.S. and M.S. programs.

While satisfying B.S. and M.S. requirements, students must complete a coherent sequence of courses in one of the two core areas: ecology, evolution, and behavior (EEB); or, molecular, cellular, developmental, and neural biology (MCDN). This sequence of courses begins with a 400-level course and includes a minimum of three graduate courses up to a total of at least 9 credits. In addition, the sequence should include two semesters involving a discussion of the current literature in the field of biology selected by the student (one of the following: A Bio 650 or A Bio 633).

Students are considered as undergraduates until completion of all B.S. requirements. Upon meeting B.S. requirements, students are automatically considered as graduate students. Although the Graduate Record Examinations are not required for this program, students are encouraged to take the examinations in their senior year with the expectation that they will continue graduate studies.

Students may be admitted to the program at the beginning of the junior year or after the completion of 56 credits. Normally an application should be made at the completion of the sophomore year. Those students who are accepted into the program in their Junior year must complete at least three (3) semesters of research in the Bio 399-499 sequence. Seniors are not normally admitted into this program. However, students may be accepted if they have completed at least one semester of Bio 399 (for admittance at the beginning of first semester senior year) or one semester each of Bio 399 and 499 (for admittance at the beginning of second semester senior year). A minimum grade point average of 3.20 is required and the application should be supported by a minimum of three letters of recommendation from faculty. The application should be submitted to the department chair.

Joint Seven-Year Biology/Optometry Program

This combined program sponsored by the State College of Optometry, State University of New York, and the University at Albany, provides students an opportunity to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in biology and a Doctor of Optometry (D.O.) in seven years. Participating students will matriculate at the University at Albany for three years and begin their Optometry studies in year four of the program. Students will be awarded the B.S. degree after completion of their requirements at the end of the fourth year. At the end of the seventh year and completion of all program requirements, students will be awarded the D.O. degree.

Students interested in making application to this program shall submit the necessary materials to the Pre-Health adviser in the University’s Advisement Services Center by the stated deadline in the middle of the spring semester of the freshman or sophomore year (transfer students are ineligible). Selection will be based on written application materials, academic progress, and a personal interview. A minimum of a 3.2 grade point average on a scale of 4.0 in undergraduate courses completed at the time of application is required.

Students will complete three years (90 credits) of study at the University at Albany with a major in biology for a B.S. degree. Students attend SUNY- Optometry (New York, NY) for the fourth year of study (and pay SUNY-Optometry tuition), beginning the first year of the professional program. With the completion of the fourth year of study, the University at Albany will accept as transfer credits twenty-four credits of biology and six credits of physics electives, for a total of 30 credits. Students in this program should take the Optometry Admission Test (OAT) in October or February of the third year at the University at Albany.

A minimum of 90 credits must be taken at the University at Albany. Summer course work completed the first and second year or between the second and third year at the University at Albany is acceptable for this program.

The following courses are required: A Bio 110F, 111N, 212, 16 credits of biology electives* (of which twelve credits must be the 300 or 400 level); A Chm 120N, 122a, 121N, 122b, 216a, 217a, 216b, 217b; A Mat 112, 108; A Phy 105N, 106, 108N, 109; and A Psy 101M. In addition to the General Education Program requirements, students are required to enroll in ten credits of electives.

*The biology electives MUST be 300-400 level courses in biology which are designated as courses which count towards the biology major. The following courses will not be used as biology electives: A Bio 303, 325, 341, 342, 365, 406, 410, and 411.

Courses

A Bio 102N General Biological Sciences (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Introduction to the major concepts in biology and a survey of the common structures of organisms, including humans, and their functions at the molecular, cellular, organismal and population levels. Emphasis placed on principles of ecology, inheritance, evolution and physiology relevant to human society. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit in A Bio 110N or A Bio 110F or A Bio 111N or other equivalent introductory courses. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A Bio 104 Introduction to Biodiversity and Field Ecology (3)
Local ecosystems will be studied in relation to their biodiversity using standard field ecology sampling techniques, data organization, and statistical analysis. Emphasis will be on practical fieldwork, with possible extended field trips to locally unique ecosystems. Prerequisite(s): a grade of 85 or higher on regents biology exam. Primarily intended for college bound students enrolled in secondary/high school programs. Offered summer only. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 110N General Biology I (4)
Meets General Education: NS
First course in a two semester sequence which offers a comprehensive survey of the structures and functions common to all living systems at the molecular, cellular, organismal, and population levels. This course emphasizes evolutionary principles, ecology, and behavior. Three class periods and one laboratory per week. A Bio 110F is the writing intensive version of A Bio 110N; only one may be taken for credit. Offered fall semester only. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 110F General Biology I (4)
Meets General Education: NS & WI
A Bio 110F is the writing intensive version of A Bio 110N; only one may be taken for credit. Offered fall semester only.

A Bio 111N General Biology II (4)
Meets General Education: NS
Second course in a two semester sequence which offers a comprehensive survey of the structures and functions common to all living systems at the molecular. cellular, organismal, and population levels. This course emphasizes structure and function at the cellular level as a basis for understanding function at the organismal level. Offered spring semester only. Three class periods and one laboratory per week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 110F or 110N.

A Bio 112 Anatomy and Physiology I (4)
This course (lecture and laboratory) will provide an introduction to the cell, tissues, skeleton, structure and function of muscle and the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system which compose the human body. Does not yield credit towards the major in biology. Offered summers only. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 113 Anatomy and Physiology II (4)
This course (lecture and laboratory) will provide an introduction to the structure and function of the human digestive, circulatory, respiratory, immune, urinary endocrine and reproductive systems with emphasis on the homeostatic functions of these systems. Does not yield credit towards the major in biology. Offered summers only. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 117N Nutrition (3)
Meets General Education: NS
The biological roles of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals; digestion, absorption, and storage of nutrients, the chemical nature of foods and food processing; assessment of nutritional status; interactions of nutrients and disease; food supplementation and community nutrition. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A Bio 199 Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences (1–3)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of biological sciences. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Intended for students interested in exploring in depth themes covered in large lecture classes. S/U or A/E graded. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 205 Human Genetics (3)
Survey of human genetics emphasizing the principles and mechanisms of inheritance and including the analysis of the genetic material of humans; the behavior of genes in individuals families, and populations; and the implications for human behavior and evolution, medicine, and society. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 110F and 111N or permission of instructor. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A Bio 207N “Cells”—An Overview of Modern Cell Biology (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Utilizes films and visual material to illustrate how the cell works. Considers the basics of modern cell biology, including origin and evolution of cellularity, cytoskeleton, and cell motility. Two lectures per week plus a one-hour discussion section. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Prerequisite(s): high school biology . May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 208N Marine Biology (3)
Meets General Education: NS
An exploration of life, its origin, evolutionary paths and present diversity in oceanic and near shore environments. Structure, function, behavior and ecology of the major groupings of organisms are related to existence in selected marine environments. Three lectures per week. Prerequisite(s): one year of high school biology. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 209N The Human Organism (3)
Meets General Education: NS
An introduction to the biology of the human organism from the perspective of its anatomy and physiology, emphasizing applications to modern life and human society. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A Bio 212 Introductory Genetics (4)
Genetics from the classical Mendelian Laws of inheritance to molecular genetics. Topics will include: DNA structure and replication; Mendelian genetics and recombination; population, fungal, somatic cell, and bacterial genetics; gene organization; the genetic code; mechanisms of gene expression and regulation; and applications of genetic technology. Three class periods and one discussion section. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N.

A Bio 213 Microbiology in Health and Disease (4)
Course content will include a brief history of microbiology and immunology; microbial structure, metabolism, growth, and genetics. Aspects of microbiology relevant to the healthcare professional, including disinfection, antimicrobial drugs, epidemiology, and specific human microbial diseases will also be covered. The course includes lectures and laboratory sessions. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Offered summers only. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 214 Genetics II (3)
A continuation of A Bio 212. Topics to be covered will include viruses; genetics of organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts); genetic diseases; mutagenesis and repair of DNA; RNA splicing; gene regulation; transposition and other gene arrangements; developmental genetics; and genetic engineering. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212.

A Bio 217 Introductory Cell Biology (3)
An introduction to modern cell biology. This course will present the basic organization of eukaryotic cells while stressing their elaborate structural-functional integration. The cell’s fundamental properties conserved through evolution will be stressed. May not be taken for credit by students who have credit in A Bio 301 or A Bio 304. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212.

A Bio 230N People and Resources in Ecological Perspective (3)
Meets General Education: NS
Introduction to ecosystems, soils science, and the distribution of natural communities. The study of humans as a global population and its social implications for resource exploitation. A historical perspective on resource-oriented behavior. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A Bio 241N The Biology of Sex (3)
Meets General Education: NS
This course, designed for nonmajors, examines sex from a biological perspective in species from bacteria to humans. Topics covered include sexual and asexual reproduction, sexual selection, mate choice, sex determination, sexual dimorphisms, mating strategies, courtship, genetic and environmental determinants of sexual behavior, and genetic and neural bases of sexual orientation. This course focuses on biological rather than social or cultural constructions of sex and reproduction. Prerequisite(s): high school biology. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology.

A Bio 299 Research Tools for Independent Study (2)
The course consists of four modules covering laboratory techniques in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental, Neural, and Behavioral Biology. Laboratory exercises are drawn from upper division and graduate laboratory courses to provide students with basic, current laboratory skills. Advisement toward placement into faculty research labs will be included. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212.

A Bio 301 Cell Biology (3)
Molecular basis of cell structure and functions in eukaryotes. Topics include: basic genetic mechanisms and protein synthesis; recombinant DNA technology, cell nucleus and control of gene expression; plasma membrane structure, transport and excitability; intracellular compartments, protein sorting, exocytosis and endocytosis; cell signaling and cell communication. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212. Prerequisite or corequisite: A Bio 365.

A Bio 302Z (formerly Bio 302B) Cell Biology Laboratory (2)
Meets General Education: WI
Introduction to modern techniques in cell biology, including advanced optical microscopy, DNA extraction and analysis, protein electrophoresis and western blotting, cell homogenization and fractionation, and cell culture. These techniques are used to investigate cell motility, membrane structure and permeability, mitochondrial respiration, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and cell adhesion. One laboratory period per week; additional time as required. Prerequisite or corequisite: A Bio 301 or 304.

A Bio 303 (formerly A Bio 403) Developmental Biology (3)
The development of form and function in animals with emphasis on molecular analyses of organismal and cellular events underlying fertilization, early development, morphogenesis and growth. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212.

A Bio 304 (formerly Bio 301B) Cell Physiology (3)
The functional organization of the cell. The emphasis will be on the eukaryotic cell, its organization, the cell cycle, biosynthetic transport system, control of metabolism, oxidative- phosphorylation, photosynthesis, transport through membranes, electrical events and cell movement. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 301 or 365.

A Bio 305 Developmental Biology Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course examines the mechanisms of animal and plant development at the molecular and cellular level by modern and classical techniques. Topics include gametogenesis, fertilization, early and later development, cell division and morphogenesis. One laboratory period per week; additional time as required. Prerequisite or corequisite(s): A Bio 303.

A Bio 308 Parasitic Diseases and Human Welfare (3)
Ecological, medical, and social interrelationships of selected parasitic diseases of people and domestic animals in temperate, semi-tropical, and tropical climates; role of wild animals as reservoirs or vectors of parasitic diseases in humans. Prerequisite(s): 10 credits of biology or permission of instructor.

A Bio 309 Current Topics in Cell and Development (1)
This seminar course will examine the major issues in Cell and Developmental Biology, from classical experiments to present approaches, through readings and group discussion of primary scientific literature. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 301 or 303 or permission of instructor. S/U Graded. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 311N (same as A Gog 210N and U Uni 310N) World Food Crisis (3)
Meets General Education: CHP & NS
Interdisciplinary approach to understanding world food problems through analyses of social, political, economic, nutritional, agricultural, and environmental aspects of world hunger. Faculty from several departments in the sciences, humanities, and social and behavioral sciences present views from various disciplines. Does not yield credit toward the major in biology. Only one of A Bio 311N & U Uni 310N may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing, or permission of instructor.

A Bio 312 Molecular Biology (3)
Mechanisms of gene expression and regulation will be studied, using examples from bacteria and eukaryotes. Discussion will include experimental approaches to gene cloning and sequencing, analysis of DNA-protein interactions, and structure and function of RNA. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212; prerequisite or corequisite: A Bio 365 or A Chm 342.

A Bio 313 Laboratory in Molecular Biology (2)
Experiments in the modern techniques of recombinant DNA molecular biology will be performed including restriction mapping of plasmids, gene cloning, DNA blotting, DNA sequence analysis, plasmid constructions, and gene expression studies. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212; prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Bio 312.

A Bio 314 General Bacteriology (3)
Introduction to the morphology, physiology, genetics, and metabolism of bacteria, including the roles of bacteria in disease and in various natural habitats; bacterial viruses and bacterial plasmids. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212, or both A Bio 111N and 205; and A Chm 342 or A Bio 365.

A Bio 315 General Bacteriology Laboratory (2)
Laboratory techniques for the culture and study of bacteria, including experiments on the dynamics of bacterial growth, the physiological basis of bacterial identification, the genetics of bacteria, and selected aspects of medical microbiology. One laboratory per week plus additional flexible time depending on the experiments. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Bio 314 and permission of instructor.

A Bio 316 Biogeography (3)
Origin and differentiation of floras and faunas; biotic regions of the world, principles of distribution; migration, adaptation, evolution, and extinction. Three class periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N, or A Bio 102N.

A Bio 317 Comparative Animal Physiology (3)
The physiological mechanisms employed by animals in meeting the stresses imposed by different environments. Considers strategies of adaptive radiation including toleration, avoidance, and regulation from an evolutionary perspective. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 319Z Field Biology (3)
Meets General Education: WI
Introduction to those aspects of biology which are based on field study; local flora and fauna from an ecological viewpoint; selected field and laboratory techniques and related literature. Students are required to complete an independent field investigation. Two class periods, one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N, or A Bio 102N. Not open to freshmen.

A Bio 320 Ecology (3)
Introduction to the study of organisms, populations, and communities in relation to their environments. Stresses an integrated approach at all levels of biological organization. Topics include: the niche concept, species diversity, nutrient cycling, energy flow, population dynamics and control, biological rhythms, and other physiological mechanisms influenced by the environment. Three class periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N.

A Bio 321 The Insects (2)
The structure, function, behavior, evolution, and variety in insects and other arthropods. Some emphasis on the uniqueness of the adaptations of the arthropods as a group, as well as their importance in the economy of life on earth. Two two-hour sessions per week, second quarter. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N or equivalent. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 322 Plant Morphology (4)
Evolutionary survey of the plant kingdom. Structure, life cycles, relationships, and phylogenic trends of major plant groups. Principles of comparative plant morphology. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N, or A Bio 102N. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 323 Plant Physiology (3)
Basic course in plant physiology, including biochemical, genetic and developmental aspects of the plant life cycle. Topics include: photosynthesis, respiration, metabolism, water relations, plant hormones, embryogenesis and early development, flowering, stress physiology, response to pathogens and plant genetic engineering. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212.

A Bio 324 Invertebrate Zoology (4)
Functional morphology and adaptive radiation of invertebrates, with consideration of those aspects of fine structure, developmental biology, behavior, and comparative physiology particularly characteristic of invertebrate organisms. Laboratory work emphasizes living marine forms. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): 12 credits of biology or permission of instructor. Not open to freshmen. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 325 Comparative Anatomy of Chordates (4)
Comparative study of embryonic development, functional morphology, adaptive radiation, and evolution of chordates. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): 12 credits of biology or permission of instructor. Not open to freshmen.

A Bio 326 Environmental Microbiology Lab (2)
Microorganisms are an essential part of many environments. This course explores the role of microbes in natural and human-impacted systems; topics include nutrient cycling, waste degradation, bioremediation, waterborne disease, and pollution control. Some informal lectures and current events discussions are incorporated into laboratory exercises. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 314 or equivalent. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 335 Immunology (3)
The structure and function of the antibody molecule and of reactions between antigen and antibody. Also covers cellular interactions in the immune response as well as both the beneficial and harmful consequences of the response. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212; prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Chm 342 or A Bio 365.

A Bio 336Z (formerly A Bio 336) Laboratory in Immunology (2)
Meets General Education: WI
Modern laboratory techniques will be performed to study the cellular and humoral components of the immune system; immune cells and cell markers, immunoglobulin purification and characterization, antibody and antigen identification assays including immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, and enzyme-based immunoassays (ELISA). One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as required. The former A Bio 336 does not meet the writing intensive requirement. Only one of A Bio 336 and 336Z may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Bio 335.

A Bio 340 Aquatic Ecology (3)
Aquatic environments—interactions and adaptations of the organisms living there: form and functional adjustments, growth characteristics of individuals and populations, and ecology of changing environments. Considers the fundamentals of eutrophication of lakes and estuaries, biological treatment of domestic and industrial wastes and aquaculture. Two one-hour lectures, one three-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisite(s): one year of introductory college biology. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 341 Neurobiology (3)
The structure and function of the nervous system examined at the cellular level. Topics include: organization of nervous systems; morphology and physiology of nerve cells; synaptic transmission; sensory processing; cellular circuitry underlying “simple” behaviors; cellular basis of learning; and the development of neuronal connections. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N; prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Phy 108N.

A Bio 342 Neurobiology Laboratory (2)
Experimental analyses of the morphology and electrophysiology of nerve cells. Experiments include the visualization of individual nerve cells through selective staining, stimulation and recording of electrical potentials in nerve cells; and an examination of synaptic transmission. Experiments will be performed on invertebrate nervous systems. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Bio 341.

A Bio 358 Ichthyology (3)
Survey of modern fishes. Lectures include discussion on systematics, evolution, morphology, distribution, behavior, and ecology of fishes. Emphasis will be placed on fishes native to New York. Laboratory exercises will focus on fish identification and adaptations to life in an aquatic environment. Two class periods and one laboratory each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 365 (same as A Chm 342) Biological Chemistry (3)
The chemistry and biochemical interrelationship of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids; enzyme catalysis and introduction to metabolism. Only one of A Bio 365 & A Chm 342 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Chm 215 or 216B.

A Bio 366 Biological Chemistry II (3)
Control and regulation of metabolic pathways, expression and transmission of genetic information, and a variety of selected current topics. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 365.

A Bio 367 Biochemistry Laboratory (2)
This laboratory course is designed to provide basic training in various procedures used in present day biochemical research. These will include methods for protein purification, enzyme kinetics, peptide sequencing, and fractionation of intracellular components. In addition, biochemical processes such as glucose metabolism and photosynthesis will be studied. One laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): A Bio 365 or equivalent and permission of instructor.

A Bio 369 Introduction to Computer Applications in Molecular Biology (3)
Basic computer skills for molecular biologists, including DNA sequence manipulation, genetic linkage mapping, database searching, RNA folding, protein structure, and phylogenetic tree building. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212 and permission of instructor.

A Bio 389Z Writing in Biology (1)
Meets General Education: WI
Students who are concurrently registered in, or have previously taken, any 300- or 400-level biology course which yields credit toward the major, may with permission of the instructor of that course, enroll in A Bio 389Z and fulfill a writing intensive version of that other course. One additional meeting per week in which writing techniques and experiences are stressed is required. Written work which will be used for credit in A Bio 389Z must be in addition to any writings required for the companion course. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): a companion biology course at the 300 or 400 level. S/U graded.

A Bio 399 Supervised Research for Juniors (1–3)
Individual, independent research on selected topics in biology. Critical analysis of selected research papers. Junior majors in the department of biological sciences apply for this course through the office of the department chair. A copy of the final written report of each semester’s work, preferably typewritten and in journal format, is kept on permanent file in the department. May be taken either semester. A maximum of 6 credits may be earned in A Bio 399 and 399Z.

A Bio 399Z Supervised Research for Juniors (2–3)
Meets General Education: WI
Writing intensive version of A Bio 399 open to junior majors in biology who have completed a minimum of one previous semester in A Bio 399 for at least two credits. Requires permission of the department chair. A maximum of 6 credits may be earned in A Bio 399 and 399Z. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 399.

A Bio 402 Evolution (3)
Origins of life—mechanisms and processes of organic evolution stressing evidence from population genetics, systematics, paleontology, and comparative physiology; biochemistry; the evolution of humans and human culture. Three class periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 406 Vertebrate Histology (4)
Microanatomy and function of animal cells, tissues and major vertebrate organs, excluding the brain. Practical work with bright-field microscopy and preparation of formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded, sectioned and stained tissues. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Extra time may be needed to complete individual projects. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212; A Bio 325 and/or A Bio 410 recommended but not required. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 407 Parasitology (4)
Biology of host-parasite systems: factors influencing evolution, distribution, and host specificity of animal parasites. Host-parasite relationships as illustrated by physiological and morphological adaptations, ecology, and life cycles of selected protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites. Two class periods, one discussion period, one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): 14 credits in biology.

A Bio 408 Parasitology Update (2)
Recent research in parasitic diseases and human welfare and general parasitology as reflected in current journals. Seminar format with emphasis on student presentations and discussion. Of particular value to students anticipating graduate school, a health-related job, or the medical profession. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 308 or 407, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

A Bio 409 Current Topics in Cell and Development for Seniors (1)
This advanced seminar will examine the major issues in Cell and Development Biology, from classical experiments to present approaches, through readings and group discussion of primary scientific literature. Oral reports will be presented. Given jointly with Bio 309. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 309; or permission of instructor. S/U graded. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 410 Human Physiology (3)
The functions of organ systems and their contributions to the functions of the human body as a whole. Topics to include: nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal systems and energy metabolism and temperature regulation. Two 1 1/2-hour lecture periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N and A Chm 121N.

A Bio 411Z Human Physiology Laboratory (2)
Meets General Education: WI
Experimental investigations in systemic physiology with emphasis on membrane transport, nerve excitability, muscle contraction, sensory mechanisms, cardiac activity, and special problems. Three hour laboratory and one hour discussion per week. Emphasis will be placed on writing of scientific laboratory reports. The former A Bio 411 does not yield writing intensive credit. Corequisite(s): A Bio 410.

A Bio 412 Biological Movement (3)
Biological movements at the level of molecules, organelles, cells, and tissues examined in terms of their contractile and/or other basis. Emphasizes the role of molecular assembly, reorganization and interaction in producing movement, and intrinsic and extrinsic control of movement. Three class periods each week. Prerequisite(s): a course in biochemistry. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 415Z (formerly A Bio 415) Vertebrate Biology (4)
Meets General Education: WI
Characteristics, systematics, distribution, adaptation, behavior, population dynamics, and ecology of the vertebrates. Appropriate field and laboratory techniques. Three class periods, one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 319Z or 320. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 419 (same as A Ant 412) Human Population Genetics (3)
Population genetics theory is the foundation of evolutionary biology and contributes heavily to modern ideas in ecology, systematics, and agriculture. This course is an introduction to that theory with special emphasis on evolution. Only one of A Ant 412 & A Bio 419 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A Ant 102, A Bio 212 or 205; or permission of instructor. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 420 Plant and Animal Morphogenesis (3)
Cellular basis and control of morphogenesis during development of the embryo in animals and plants, and in vegetative and reproductive growth from plant meristems. Topics examined in terms of cell division, motility and adhesion, cellular rearrangements, matrices produced by cells, hormonal factors, and gene expression. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 212. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 421 Developmental Neurobiology (3)
The cellular and molecular basis of neural development. Topics will include pattern-forming events underlying the regional organization of the nervous system, neuronal and glial cell differentiation, and the establishment and maintenance of connections between neurons. General concepts will be combined with readings and discussion of the current scientific literature. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 301 or A Bio 341 or permission of instructor.

A Bio 422 (formerly A Bio 304) Biological Architecture (3)
An analysis of the basic physical and architectural principles underlying the design of biological organisms. Topics to be covered include architecture and materials of skeletons, biological design for swimming and flight, structural colors, patterns of branching and fractal growth. Three lectures per week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 110F or 110N, 6 credits of upper level biology or permission of instructor.

A Bio 428 (same as A Geo 428) Origins and Extinctions(3)
Detailed consideration of the data, interpretations, and controversies associated with the evolution of the earth and its biosphere, including cosmochemistry, planetary accretion, plate tectonics, biological evolution, and mass extinctions. Prerequisite(s): biology or geology majors with senior class standing, or permission of instructor. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 431 Animal Behavior Laboratory (2)
Laboratory and field investigations of whole- animal behavior. Provides structured laboratory sessions and independent research designed to demonstrate concepts of animal behavior. Emphasizes techniques used in animal behavior study, simple maintenance behaviors, mating and territorial behavior orientation, simple learning and social behavior. One three-hour laboratory period each week. Corequisite(s): A Bio 432 and permission of instructor. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 432 Animal Behavior (3)
The organization, causation, development, and evolution of behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates. Emphasizes a synthesis of information from both field and laboratory. Topics include stimuli and responsiveness, motivation, conflict behavior, social behavior with emphasis on ecological aspects, orientation and navigation, rhythmicity, learning, and the neural organization responsible for behavior. Three class periods each week. Prerequisite(s): 15 credits in biology.

A Bio 436 Sensory Ecology and Biophysics of Behavior (3)
An examination of the interface and transfer of information between organisms and environment. Topics covered will include (1) informational needs of organisms, (2) strategies of receptor design and behavioral adaptations to meet these needs, and (3) the influence of size and scale (from microbes to larger vertebrates) on the perceived environment and on the design of sense organs for this perception. Designed to be of interest to biological-psychology and physics students as well as biology majors. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 111N and at least one of the following: A Bio 422, A Bio 460, A Phy 105, A Psy 214, A Psy 382 or consent of instructor. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 450 Biodiversity (3)
Lectures, readings, discussions, and students presentations examine theoretical and empirical studies of the extent and distribution of faunal and floral diversity; of patterns of relative abundance of species in major ecosystems; and of the significance of diversity loss. Approaches to preserve, restore, and manage ecosystem structure and function will be examined. Prerequisite(s): Ecology or Field Biology. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 455 Plant Ecology (4)
In lectures, laboratories, field trips, class experiments, and demonstrations, we will examine current and historic issues in plant ecology. Topics will include community and population dynamic models, evolutionary aspects of life history traits, physiological responses to environmental stresses, interactions with animal mutualists and antagonists, and the role of vegetation in ecosystem processes. Lecture plus lab, including two or three weekend field trips. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 319, 319Z, or A Bio 320 or permission of instructor.

A Bio 460 Neural Basis of Behavior (3)
Critical examination of the interrelationships of complex behavior with the development, structure, and function of the central nervous system in higher vertebrates. Two 1 1/2-hour lecture periods each week. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing and permission of instructor. May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 468 Behavioral Ecology (3)
Recent theoretical models of the evolution of behavior by natural selection applied to animals, especially to social insects, birds, and mammals. Includes sociobiology and optimal foraging. Three class periods each week. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 320 (A Bio 402 and 432 recommended).May not be offered during 1998-99.

A Bio 497 Topics in Biology (1–3)
Issues from the current literature in selected areas of biology. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields credit toward the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing, and permission of instructor. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 498 Topics in Biology, with Laboratory (1–3)
Issues in selected areas of biology. Particular areas of study to be announced each semester. Yields laboratory credit toward the major in biological sciences. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing, and permission of instructor. May not be offered during 1998–99.

A Bio 499 Supervised Research for Seniors (1–4)
Individual, independent research on selected topics in biology. Critical analysis of selected papers. Senior majors in this department apply for this course through the office of the department chair. A copy of the final written report of each semester’s work, preferably typewritten and in journal format, is kept on permanent file in the department. May be taken either semester. A maximum of 8 credits may be earned in A Bio 499 and 499Z.

A Bio 499Z Supervised Research for Seniors (2–4)
Meets General Education: WI
Writing intensive version of A Bio 499 open to senior majors in biology who have completed a minimum of one previous semester in A Bio 399 or 499 for at least two credits. Requires permission of the department chair. A maximum of 8 credits may be earned in A Bio 499 and 499Z. Prerequisite(s): A Bio 399 or 499.


Undergraduate Bulletin — Table of Contents
University at Albany
State University of New York