Courses in Anthropology

A ANT 100 Culture, Society, and Biology (3)
Introduction to the issue of human diversity, the course poses the question of what it means to be human. Through study of biological anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and ethnology, students will explore the range of diversity within our shared humanity, and seek explanations that might account for it.

A ANT 104 Archaeology (3)
Introduction to the methods used by archaeologists to study ancient sites and artifacts. Topics include archaeological fieldwork, laboratory analysis, dating, interpretation of artifacts, and the reconstruction of past cultural patterns. Examples include studies of ancient and recent societies. Two lectures, one laboratory period per week.

A ANT 108/108Z Cultural Anthropology (3)
Survey of the theory, methods, and goals of cultural anthropology, emphasizing the nature of culture and the varied forms in which it is expressed among the peoples of the world. Two lectures, one discussion period per week. Only one version of A ANT 108 may be taken for credit.

A ANT 110 Introduction to Human Evolution (3)
Introduction to human evolution. This course spans the human fossil record from “Lucy” to Cro-Magnon. Topics include our primate past and the evolution of upright walking. The steady increase in our ancestors’ brain size is explored along with the cultural correlates of biological evolution such as stone tools, language origins and cave art.

A ANT 111 Introduction to the Primates (3)
Survey of the basic morphology and behavior of nonhuman primates. Prosimian and anthropoid primates are studied in terms of their comparative morphology and behavior, with reference to these same features among humans.

A ANT 119 The City and Human Health (3)
Survey of the history of health and disease from the earliest humans before the development of settlements to contemporary populations living in industrialized cities. Emphasizes the role of culture and behavior in disease.

A ANT 124Z Lost Languages and Ancient Scripts (4)
This course traces the origin and evolution of writing systems from their earliest precursors to the modern world. It is organized around a series of puzzles that guide participants through the processes of discovery and decipherment that led to our current understanding of writing systems. About half of the course is devoted to small-group workshops in which participants receive hands-on experience working together on problems in decipherment. The broader goal of the course is to learn how to do problem solving generally, using specific procedures and ways of thinking that can be applied in any discipline.

T ANT 124Z Lost Languages and Ancient Scripts (4)
T ANT 124Z is the Honors College version of A ANT 124Z; only one version may be taken for credit.

T ANT 125Z The Design of Language (3)
Constructed languages have played a prominent role in recent popular culture. Elvish, for example, is a language spoken by immortal elves in The Lord of the Rings. Klingon is spoken by humanoid aliens from another planet in Star Trek. Both languages attempt to imagine what the communication system of another intelligent species might be like. But in order to construct a credible fictional language, however, we have to think carefully about the nature of human language. This course asks which features of human language would be necessary components of any intelligent communication system and which features are contingent on the accidents of human biology. Open to Honors College students only.

A ANT 131 Ancient Peoples of the World (3)
Ancient cultures from around the world will be presented and analyzed from the available archaeological data. The gradual development of civilization in both the Old and New Worlds will be the focus of the course.

A ANT 133 Ancient History of the Near East and the Aegean (3)
An examination of key ancient Near Eastern civilizations in Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Syro-Palestine, and Turkey and the influence they exerted on the Minoan the Mycenaean civilizations. This is followed by the rise of Greece, the development of Athenian democracy, the decline of Greece leading to Macedonian domination, the conquests of Alexander the Great and the cosmopolitan Hellenistic world. Only one version of A ANT 133 may be taken for credit.

A ANT 140/140Z Anthropological Survey of World Cultures (3)
In-depth survey of selected ancient, historical, and modern world cultures. Major themes include production of goods and services, authority systems, legal processes, and religious and ritual life. Only one version of A ANT 140 may be taken for credit.

T ANT 141 Human Rights and Wrongs: Anthropological Explorations (3)
This course is designed to provide an overview of human rights and anthropology from theoretical and historical points of view and from the vantage point of engagement and practice. Using a critical approach, we will move away from the notion of a set category or monolithic legal structure toward an understanding of a flexible and elastic set of conceptual frameworks used to accomplish transitions, make claims and gain access to resources. In doing so, we will consider the increasing transnationalization of rights discourse and the growing terrain in which claims, legal and otherwise, are made through it. A series of international and national case studies will be examined. Open to Honors College students only.

A ANT 146/146Z (= A LCS 150/150Z) Puerto Rico: People, History, and Culture (3)
Survey of the Puerto Rican people, history, and culture on the island from the pre-Hispanic era to the present. Special emphasis on the change of sovereignty in 1898, the national question, migration, race, class, and culture. Only one version may be taken for credit.

A ANT 175 (= A REL 175) Anthropology and Folklore (3)
Introduction to the study of folklore as an aspect of culture, symbolically expressing people’s identity, beliefs and values. The focus is on oral text traditions—myths, folktales, and legends. Topics in folk custom and ritual, folk music and folk art are also included. Includes folklore from Western and non-Western cultures. Only one version may be taken for credit.

A ANT 189Z Writing in Anthropology (1)
Students who are concurrently registered in any 100 or 200 level anthropology course, may with permission of the instructor of that course, enroll in A ANT 189Z and fulfill a writing intensive version of that other course. The writing intensive version will involve: 1) a body of written work beyond that normally required by the companion course, 2) opportunities for students to receive assistance in progress, and 3) an opportunity for students to revise some pieces.

A ANT 197 Special Topics in Anthropology (1–4)
Study of a selected topic in anthropology. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Consult class schedule for specific topic.

A ANT 201 Critical Thinking and Skepticism in Anthropology (3)
How many people believe most everything they are told, or everything that they read? How can we tell the difference between statements that are based on fact, and those based only on opinion, ideology, error, or falsehood? Why should we care in the first place? This class will help you answer these questions, and hopefully raise many more. We will cover the ways in which your own brain and senses can trick you. We will cover the common mistakes made in reasoning, "logical fallacies" that can lead even the most critical of thinkers to false conclusions. We will cover several of the most common types of false information that people encounter today, such as psychics, astrology, or complementary and alternative medicine, and will explore why these are problematic. Our focus throughout will be on identifying current, real world examples of "uncritical thinking" in popular and news media. Hopefully at the end of the course, we will all be better consumers of knowledge.

T ANT 201 Critical Thinking and Skepticism (3)
T ANT 201 is the Honors College version of A ANT 201; only one version may be taken for credit.

A ANT 211 (formerly A ANT 411) Human Population Biology (3)
Biological variation in human populations, with emphasis on genetics, adaptability, demography and related aspects of population dynamics. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 110; or A BIO 110; or A BIO 120 recommended.

A ANT 220 (= A ENG 217 & A LIN 220) Introduction to Linguistics (3)
Introduction to the study of language, including examination of the characteristics and structural principles of natural language. After exploring the basic characteristics of sound, word formation and sentence structure, these principles are applied to such topics as: language variation, language change, psycholinguistics, pragmatics, and animal communication. Only one version may be taken for credit.

A ANT 233 (= A LCS 233) Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas (3)
Introductory survey of the archaeology and ethnohistory of the three best-known indigenous civilizations of the New World. Each is presented in terms of prehistoric background and evolution, social organization, politics and economics, religion and art. Consideration is given to the Spanish conquest of these three groups and to their modern legacies. Only one version may be taken for credit.

T ANT 233 (= T LCS 233) Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas (3)
T ANT 233 is the Honors College version of A ANT 233; only one version may be taken for credit.

A ANT 236 American Indian Archaeology (3)
Introductory survey of the prehistory of North America and Mesoamerica. Emphasis on the prehistoric developments in the Eastern Woodlands, Plains, Southwest, Mexico, and the Arctic. An introduction to current theoretical issues as applied in these culture areas.

A ANT 240 The North American Indian (3)
The nature and distribution of North American Indian cultures from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 100 or 108.

A ANT 269 (= A AFS 269 & A LCS 269) The Caribbean: Peoples, History and Culture (3)
This course introduces students to significant aspects of Anglophone Caribbean culture and history in the context of this region of the globe, the wider Caribbean, functioning as the crossroads of the world. Colonial conquest forced and forged the intersection of Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Caribbean so that while it is not large in terms of geographical area or total population, it resonates with global significance as a crucible of cultural hybridity and as a nurturing space of modernity. Only one version may be taken for credit.

T ANT 272 Global Latin American Cities: Transnational Politics and Space (3)
What are contemporary cities and how do we understand them in the contexts of globalization and transnationalism? How do anthropologists study such cities? In order to address these basic questions, this course is organized around a set of films and important theoretical concepts that have been debated in anthropology, urban studies, geography, sociology and other disciplines. Being an anthropology class, however, it will emphasize an anthropological perspective. The ethnographic readings and films presented in the class will primarily focus on Latin American topics. While this will give the class ethnographic focus, we will think about cities, urban life, and cosmopolitanisms from outside of Latin America. The films and readings on urban Latin America will serve as bases for cross-cultural analysis. It is expected that students taking this course will have already taken a course in anthropology, sociology, political science or geography. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

A ANT 304 Human Biomechanics (3)
This course explores how the human body moves with the goal of providing a strong foundation for future training and clinical practice. The first part of the course will cover fundamental concepts and terminology, basic joint mechanics, muscle physiology, and applied biomechanics. The rest of the class will focus on the regional biomechanics and evolution of the human upper extremity, axial skeleton, and lower extremity. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 110 and A ANT 211. Corequisite(s): A ANT 316.

A ANT 305 Archaeological Graphic Documentation (3)
This course teaches how to graphically record a typical range of archaeological artifacts, including ground and chipped stone tools, pottery, metal and clay figurines from UAlbany's New and Old World collections. Emphasis will be placed on the professional standards of artifact illustration for publication in journals and monographs. Students will learn how to scan, reduce and position individual drawings in order to produce a publishable end product. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

A ANT 309 Human Population History (3)
Birth, marriage, migration, and death — some of the most basic events in people's lives — are closely linked to larger economic and social phenomena. An understanding of these events can shed light on the economic and social world inhabited by people in the past and how these contexts interact to shape human populations and individual behavior. In this course, students will be introduced to the sources and methods used by historical demographers to reconstruct, measure, and compare past populations. In addition, the course will cover a broad range of problems in historical demography, including mortality crises, fertility control, the modern rise in population, and the influence of economic and social institutions on demographic change. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 110 and A ANT 211.

A ANT 311 Human Osteology (3)
This course is an intensive study of the anatomy of the human skeleton. This course will cover bone histology, growth and development of bones, common pathological conditions, the determination of age and sex from skeletal material, and the identification of whole and fragmented bones in archaeological and forensic contexts. This course will include a laboratory component to provide students with the opportunity to examine the material discussed in class. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

A ANT 312 (= A BIO 318; formerly A ANT 412/A BIO 419) Human Population Genetics (3)
Population genetics theory is the foundation of evolutionary biology and contributes heavily to modern ideas in ecology, systematics, and agriculture. This course is an introduction to that theory with special emphasis on evolution. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 211 or A BIO 205 or 212.

A ANT 314 Forensic Anthropology (3)
This course teaches the application of methods from biological anthropology and archaeology to the recovery and analysis of skeletonized human remains. The primary focus of this course is the application of these methods to investigations of unexplained deaths, including homicides, genocides, and mass disasters. Students will learn how to determine age at death, sex, ancestral affiliations, and stature from skeletal remains, and how to identify evidence of trauma and disease. Other topics include forensic botany, forensic entomology, and DNA fingerprinting. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

A ANT 316 Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4)
This course provides an introduction to human anatomy and physiology. These topics refer to the form and function of the human body, and are presented together in an integrated two-semester course sequence. This course focuses on basic concepts in anatomy and physiology, embryology, the peripheral nervous system, respiration, the cardiovascular system, and the musculoskeletal system of the upper limb, thorax and back. The course provides a foundation for students interested in human biology, biological anthropology, medicine, and allied health professions. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 120 or A BIO 131, A BIO 121 or A BIO 130, A BIO 201, A BIO 202, A CHM 120, and A CHM 121.

A ANT 317 Exercise Physiology (3)
This course will provide a broad introduction to the field of exercise physiology. Topics covered will include cellular energy metabolism, pulmonary and cardiovascular responses to exercise, muscle physiology, training, nutrition, bode composition, and exercise testing. Students will spend some time in the human performance laboratory where the focus will on be applied exercise physiology and performance testing. Specialized topics include exercise at high altitude, temperature regulation, sports nutrition, exercise performance during the growth and development period, and the relationship of exercise and physical activity to human health and disease. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 120, A BIO 121, A BIO 201, and A BIO 202.

A ANT 318 Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4)
This course provides an introduction to human anatomy and physiology. These topics refer to the form and function of the human body, and are presented together in an integrated two-semester course sequence. This course is the second in that sequence, and focuses on the gastro-intestinal tract, digestion, the urogenital, reproductive and endocrine systems, the cranial nerves, the visual, olfactory and auditory systems, and the musculoskeletal system of the lower limb, head and neck. The course provides a foundation for students interested in human biology, biological anthropology, medicine, and allied health professions. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 316.

A ANT 319 Physical Growth and Development (3)
Analysis of the pattern of human growth during the prenatal and postnatal periods and their variation around the world. The course focuses on the influence of social factors, nutrition, alcohol and cigarette use, race/ethnicity, pollution, and features of the physical environment which modify growth patterns. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 211.

A ANT 321 (= A LIN 321) Introduction to Syntax (3)
The human ability to produce and understand an infinite number of different sentences is one of the most remarkable capabilities we have. The study of the structure of sentences is called syntax, and this course is an introduction to syntactic theory. The particular approach we will be pursuing is called generative grammar, the approach to syntax pioneered by linguists such as Noam Chomsky. Chomsky argues that all humans are born with an unconscious knowledge of Universal Grammar, the basis on which the grammars of all languages are built. Through a detailed examination of English sentence structure, we will investigate the connections between English syntax and Universal Grammar. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 220 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 322 (= A LIN 322) Introduction to Phonology (3)
Introduction to the description and analysis of human speech sounds and their organization. Introduction to articulatory phonetics and the International Phonetic Alphabet followed by examination and generative phonological analysis of data from English and a wide range of other languages. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 220 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 325 (= A LIN 325) Sociolinguistics (3)
Introduction to the study of language as a social phenomenon. Includes basic sociolinguistic concepts, interactional sociolinguistics, social dialects, Black English, diglossia, bilingualism, and bilingual education. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 220 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 330 Topics in Archaeology (3)
Survey of a topic in archaeology or regional prehistory for upper division students. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Consult class schedule for specific topic. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104.

A ANT 332 Ethnoarchaeology (3)
Ethnoarchaeology combines the archaeologist’s interest in material culture with the cultural anthropologist’s interest in ongoing behavior. Included are the archaeology of living populations, action archaeology, experimental and replication studies, formation processes, and ethnographic analogy, among other subjects. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 334 The Earliest Cities (3)
Comparative treatment of the earliest urban settlements around the world. Case studies include Mesopotamia, Egypt, Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Southeast Asia, Mesoamerica, and the Andes. Cities are compared in terms of planning, political roles, religious features, economic patterns, and their rise and fall. Also covers archaeological methods for the study of early cities. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104.

A ANT 335 Introduction to Archaeological Field Techniques (3)
Introduction to data gathering techniques used by archaeologists in the field. Taught prior to A ANT 338 as basic training for students concentrating in archaeology. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 338/338Z Archaeological Field Research (6)
Directed archaeological excavation of selected sites, including experience in site location, mapping, excavation, preservation, analysis, classification, and interpretation. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 335 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 339 Archaeological Lab Techniques (3)
Survey and practical application of laboratory techniques using materials from the University collections. Emphasis on physical and chemical analysis, classification, and specialized analysis. Only one version of A ANT 339 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104.

A ANT 340 Topics in Ethnology (3)
Survey of the cultures of one of the major regions of the world. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Consult class schedule for specific topic. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 108.

A ANT 341/341Z (= A LCS 341/341Z) Ethnology of Mesoamerica (3)
Survey of the cultures and history of the native peoples of Mexico and Central America. Beginning with the documents created by and about native peoples around the time of the Spanish invasion, the course follows the experiences of these societies through the colonial period and up to the present. Only one version of A ANT 341 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 100 or 108.

A ANT 343/343Z Native American Literature (3)
Survey of the literature of the native peoples of North America and Mesoamerica, from early colonial times to the present. Readings include oral narratives, songs, autobiography, and contemporary poetry and fiction. Discussion focuses on the use of texts for cultural analysis, Native American literary aesthetics, and the survival of native literary traditions. Only one version of A ANT 343 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

A ANT 351/351Z Ethnicity in North America (3)
Analysis of ethnicity, assimilation and pluralism with regard to one or more North American ethnic group(s). Social, political, economic and symbolic adaptations. Consideration of relative merits of integration and separation in modern society. This course is cross-listed with A JST 351/351Z when Jewish ethnicity and assimilation are a major focus of those courses. This course is cross-listed with A JST 351 and 351Z when Jewish ethnicity and assimilation are a major focus of those courses. Only one version of A ANT 351 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

A ANT 354 Culture & Economy in a Globalized World (3)
A central premise of economic anthropology and of this course is to view economics as culture – as a series of social relations and cultural contexts that are embedded in wider histories and larger processes. This course explores and critiques some of the cultural biases and assumptions inherent in such mainstream economic principles as work and leisure, poverty and wealth, gifts and commodities, and money and markets through a series of global case studies of culture, economy and development. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 108.

A ANT 355/355Z Environment, Economy, and Culture (3)
Cross-cultural survey of the systematic relations between environment, behavior and culture. Analysis of production and exchange systems at hunting and gathering, agricultural, and industrial stages of social evolution. Environmental and economic disruption, perception and management in cultural perspective. Only one version of A ANT 355 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 108 or 102 or 104 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 360/360Z Social Anthropology (3)
Comparative study of social systems, tribal, traditional, and modern societies. Deals with economic, kinship, political, and other aspects of social structure. Social systems in functionalist, evolutionary, and dialectic perspectives. Combines in one course kinship, political, economic, and stratificational anthropology. Only one version of A ANT 360 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 108.

A ANT 361/361Z Anthropology and Public Policy (3)
The practical application of anthropological theory and research to policy areas such as economic development, environment, welfare, and mass media. The ethics of applied anthropology. Only one version of A ANT 361 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): 3 credits in anthropology or political science or sociology.

A ANT 363 (= A REL 363) Ethnology of Religion (3)
Topical and theoretical survey of anthropological approaches to understanding human religious expression. Topics include myth, ritual, world view, shamanism, gender, and religious change. Emphasizes the religions of non-literate, non-Western peoples but also includes examples from major world religions and contemporary Western societies. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 100 or 108, or A REL 100.

A ANT 364 Introduction to Cultural Medical Anthropology (3)
Introduction to cultural approaches to medical anthropology. Cross-cultural examination of different views of health, disease, healing and the body, their effect on medical care and maintenance of health of individuals and communities. Also examines the intersection between health, sickness, and social and economic inequalities globally and in the U.S. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 108 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 365 (= A WSS 365) The Anthropology of New Reproductive Technologies (3)
A cross-cultural perspective on how new reproductive technologies (including in vitro fertilization, surrogacy, ultrasound, prenatal screening for disability, sex selection, fetal surgery, and neonatal intensive care) are transforming the experience of procreation and challenging cultural notions of kinship, personhood, and what it means to be human. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): 3 credits in anthropology, philosophy, or women's studies.

A ANT 372/372Z Urban Anthropology (3)
Introduction to urban anthropology. Emphasis on rural-urban migrations, adjustment and assimilation of urban migrants, urban kinship and family structure, poverty culture, rural-urban typologies, and the application of anthropological methods to the study of urban societies. Only one version of A ANT 372 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): one course in anthropology, sociology, political science, or geography.

A ANT 376 (= A GLO 376) Global Ethnography (3)
This course is about globalization and its impact on local communities worldwide. The term globalization will be understood not as a large-scale abstract and deterritorialized process, but one that has impact, consequences, and influence on local communities on a daily basis. The course is titled "Global Ethnography," which means that the class will be reading first-hand accounts of scholars who have documented the effects of globalizations on local communities. Through these accounts students will be learning about the different ways globalization is affecting local communities at social, economic, and cultural levels. The class will also be hearing the voices of local people and understanding globalization from people's perspectives. The readings in this course will enable a better understanding of globalization as it is embedded, manifested, and negotiated by localities as well as its real-life personal, social, and communal repercussions in people's lives. The course will examine different globalizing "agents" in various contexts such as tourism, street vending, language, landscape, consumerism, capitalism, remittance housing, among others. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): at least one course of A ANT 108, A ANT 119, A GOG 102, A GOG/A USP 125, A GLO 103, or A SOC 115, or permission of instructor.

A ANT 381/381Z (= A WSS 381/381Z) Anthropology of Gender (3)
Cross-cultural analysis of gender roles. Focuses on non-Western societies, using data from other societies to better understand the gender system of our own culture. Issues include status of women and men, the meaning of “femaleness” and “maleness”, and women and health care systems. Only one version of A ANT 381 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): one course in anthropology or sociology.

A ANT 389Z Writing in Anthropology (1)
Students who are concurrently registered in any 300 or 400 level anthropology course, may with permission of the instructor of that course, enroll in A ANT 389Z and fulfill a writing intensive version of that other course. The writing intensive version will involve: 1) a body of written work beyond that normally required by the companion course, 2) opportunities for students to receive assistance in progress, and 3) an opportunity for students to revise some pieces.

A ANT 390 Ethnological Theory (3)
Historical survey of theoretical approaches to the study of culture, with emphasis on contemporary trends. Recommended for majors planning graduate work. Content may vary with instructor. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 108.

A ANT 409 Primate Evolutionary Biology (3)
This course addresses the principles and specifics involved in nonhuman primate evolution. The first portion of the class investigates the relationships between ecology, sociality, and phylogeny on the one hand and the diversity of adaptations among living primates on the other. The second portion of the class will apply principles derived from the living primates to understanding the adaptations and evolutionary relationships among fossil primates, and the relationships between extinct and living species. Particular attention will be paid to major research questions relevant to significant periods in primate evolution. Prerequisise(s): A ANT 110.

A ANT 414/414Z (formerly A ANT 313) Demographic Anthropology (3)
Demographic theory as it applies to anthropological populations, with emphases on birth, death and growth rates, population size and dispersion, mating, and migration. Aspects of historical and paleodemography accompany analyses of living populations. Only one version of A ANT 414 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 110 and 211.

A ANT 415 Nutritional Anthropology (3)
This course provides an introduction to the biological, ecological, and social factors influencing diet and nutrition. Basic nutritional physiology and biochemistry are presented in the first part of the course. Later topics include paleonutrition as well as nutritional issues of contemporary human population groups. The core focus is on the concept of energy balance. Time is spent in the metabolic laboratory learning how to measure metabolic energy expenditure and assess nutritional status in humans. Students participate in the collection and analysis of individual and class data on nutritional intake and energy expenditure, with an emphasis on basic techniques of data presentations, analysis, and interpretation. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 211.

A ANT 416 Topics in Human Biology (3)
Selected topics in biological anthropology. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Consult class schedule for specific topic. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 110 and 211.

A ANT 418/418Z Culture, Environment, and Health (3)
Anthropological study of health and disease patterns in human populations with emphasis on human-made influences on the health of contemporary societies. The effects of societal and cultural factors on disease patterns, and the assessment of health status through epidemiological and anthropological methods are explored. Only one version of A ANT 418 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 119.

A ANT 419 Human Evolutionary and Environmental Physiology (3)
This course will focus on human (and animal) adaptation to the environment. We will cover the basic physiology of high altitude, thermoregulation (temperature), water-balance, hyperbaria (deep sea diving), energy production and procurement, and the weightlessness of space (micro-gravity). While the focus is on humans, the course will take a comparative approach, examining how different species have adapted to various environments, including evolutionary, developmental, and homeostatic modes of adaptive response. The course meets twice a week, with class time divided between lecture, student presentation/discussion, and laboratory activities in the SUNY Albany Human Performance Laboratory. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 120 or A BIO 131, A BIO 121 or A BIO 130.

A ANT 421Z (= A LIN 421Z) Advanced Syntax (3)
This course continues the investigation of the relationship between the grammars of particular languages and Universal Grammar. We will examine the syntax of several languages from around the world asking ourselves the following questions: a.) How do the principles that organize the grammars of other languages around the world compare to English? b.) What grammatical properties are true for all languages? We will discuss the answers to these questions in the light of generative grammar. Only one version may be taken for credit. The former A LIN 421 & A ANT 421 do not yield writing intensive credit. Prerequisite(s): A LIN 321 with grade of C or higher.

A ANT 422 (= A LIN 422) Advanced Phonology (3)
Advanced studies in generative phonological theory, with a focus on the analysis of prosodic phenomena such as stress, tone, and accent. Discussion of recent theoretical trends in phonology. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 322 with grade of C or higher.

A ANT 423 Linguistic Structures (3)
Investigation of the structure of a selected language, language family, or language area. Prerequisite(s): a prior course in linguistics or permission of instructor.

A ANT 424 Language and Culture (3)
Study of the nature of the interrelationships that exist between linguistic behavior and other aspects of culture. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 221 or A LIN 220 or permission of instructor.

A ANT 425 (= A LIN 425) Comparative and Historical Linguistics (3)
Language development and change. Language classification, linguistic reconstruction. Only one version of A ANT 425 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 322.

A ANT 430 Archaeological Theory (3)
Advanced theory and method in archaeology, emphasizing topics such as quantitative applications, spatial analysis, cultural processes, systems analysis, the application of dating techniques, and the reconstruction of extinct cultures. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104.

A ANT 431 Seminar in Social Archaeology (3)
Seminar on selected topics in the archaeological study of past social organization. Topics will vary. Examples include settlement patterns, household organization, economic processes, urbanism, and world systems. Topics will be approached in terms of methods, theories, and comparative analysis. May be repeated for credit.

A ANT 433 Mesoamerican Archaeology (3)
Archaeological study of the ancient peoples and cultures of Mesoamerica from the earliest inhabitants to the Spanish conquest. Coverage is chronological and evolutionary, with application of anthropological models of cultural change. Emphasis on the major transformation such as the origin of agriculture, the rise of cities, and the expansion of states and empires. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.

A ANT 434 Seminar in Mesoamerican Writing Systems (3)
Seminar on selected Mesoamerican writing systems. Focus varies, but Classic Mayan writing is usually emphasized. Topics include the structure and evolution of the scripts; relations between writing and other communication systems; and anthropological research using hieroglyphic evidence. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): course work in Mesoamerican archaeology, ethnology, or linguistics is recommended.

A ANT 435 Archaeological Surveys (3)
Survey of the archaeology of a selected region of the world. Topics vary according to the regional specialty of the professor in charge. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104.

A ANT 437 Northeast Archaeology (3)
Seminar that focuses on a current or important issue in the archaeology of the cultural complexes and sequences of Northeastern North America from the time of earliest occupation through European contact.

A ANT 438 Museum Research and Curation (3)
The course emphasizes collections management and research with existing collections, including database management, basic museum methods for anthropologists, and approaches to problems of using data collected by other researchers. Students design and complete projects using existing collections. Prerequisite(s): A ANT 104.

A ANT 450/450Z Special Topics in Medical Anthropology (3)
Study of a selected topic in medical anthropology. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Consult class schedule for specific topic. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

A ANT 472 (= A LCS 472) Social Movements in Latin America (3)
This class takes an anthropological perspective to discuss contemporary Latin American social movements. It considers why the intensification of social movements throughout the region may follow some traditional forms of resistance and mobilization, but also why it is a response to neoliberal globalization. These new movements seek to define a novel relation to the political realm. Unlike traditional guerrilla movements or electoral expressions of the left, they are not fundamentally organized to seize state power. Yet they have contributed to destabilizing, even, ousting governments. Social movement formation and resistance to neoliberalism are explored. Social movements, such as the indigenous mobilizations in Ecuador, mobilizations against water privatizations and gas pipeline investments in Bolivia, the Zapatista movement in Mexico, landless rural workers in Brazil, Afro-Colombians resisting investors, and the urban worker strikes in Argentina, are covered. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): one course in anthropology, sociology, political science or geography.

A ANT 475 The Folktale (3)
This course examines the folktale in its oral and literary forms, with principal emphasis on the fairy tale or magic tale. Folktales are artistic creations that organize emotional experiences into a story form that has universal appeal, but which varies in accordance with ethnicity, gender, class, and other cultural and social factors. The course traces the folktale's history in Europe, from the earliest publications to the present, and explores different approaches to understanding this narrative form. Course material also includes contemporary oral tale-telling traditions from around the world and retellings of traditional tales in literature and film. Students gain experience in oral tale-telling and tale composition. The course is inter-disciplinary, combining anthropological, folkloristic, and literary approaches. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

A ANT 480 Introduction to Ethnographic Field Research (3)
Ethnographic fieldwork experience for qualified undergraduates. Study of fieldwork methodology and principles together with actual fieldwork on selected topics under faculty supervision. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

A ANT 481 (= A LCS 491) Research Projects (3–6)
Introduction to basic research skills required to answer questions on human behavior, with special emphasis on cross-cultural communication and learning and dynamics of cross-cultural interaction. Specific research projects familiarize students with the basic research methods including data collection, processing, and analysis. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

A ANT 482 Honors Seminar In Anthropology (3)
Students in the honors program should enroll in both A ANT 482 and 483 for a total of 6 credits during the fall and spring of their senior year. Students will write an honors thesis under the supervision of a member of the Anthropology Department, present periodic progress reports, and deliver an oral summary of the completed thesis. Prerequisite(s): admission to the Anthropology Department honors program.

A ANT 483 Senior Honors Thesis Seminar (3)
Students in the honors program should enroll in both A ANT 482 and 483 for a total of 6 credits during the fall and spring of their senior year. Students will write an honors thesis under the supervision of a member of the Anthropology Department, present periodic progress reports, and deliver an oral summary of the completed thesis. Prerequisite(s): admission to the Anthropology Department honors program.

A ANT 490 (= A CLA 490) Internship in Archaeological Conservation and Documentation (3–9)
Supervised placement in an agency engaged in conservation and documentation of archaeological artifacts, such as the New York State Museum or State Conservation Laboratory. Provides practical experience. Anthropology majors may use up to 3 credits toward major elective credit. May be taken by majors in anthropology only. Internships are open only to qualified juniors and seniors who have an overall grade point average of 2.50 or higher. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor. S/U graded.

A ANT 493 Fieldwork in Mesoamerica: An Orientation (1)
General overview of the social and economic contexts of an ethnographic field site in Mesoamerica. Emphasis is on the pragmatics of living in another cultural setting and preparing for a one-month intensive ethnographic research project. Discusses IRB guidelines and the specific ethnographic field project. Specific content of the course varies according to location of ethnographic project and location of that project. Specific content of the course varies according to ethnographic project and location of that project. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor. S/U graded.

A ANT 497 Topics in Anthropology (3)
Advanced course on selected topic in anthropology. May focus on geographic or theoretical area. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

A ANT 498 Independent Study in Anthropology (1-6)
Independent reading or research on selected topics under the direction of a faculty member. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

A ANT 499 Senior Seminar in Anthropology (3)
Seminar on selected topics in anthropology. Open to seniors with permission of instructor. Recommended for majors planning graduate work. May be repeated for credit.