Graduate Classes

CRJ 504 Applied Statistics I (3)
Introduction to statistical techniques appropriate for use in the criminal justice field. Descriptive statistics; scales of measurement; measure of central tendency, variability, and association. Introduction to statistical inference including sampling distributions and tests of significance.  

CRJ 505 Research Design in Criminal Justice (3)
This course provides an introduction to methods of research used in criminal justice and social sciences. Major topics include the logic of social inquiry, causality, and conceptualization; sampling theory; data collection and measurement; and research design. The primary objectives of this course are: 1) to help students be informed consumers of contemporary criminal justice research and 2) to enable students to initiate and execute worthwhile research projects of their own.

CRJ 507 Theories of Crime (3)
Theories of crime causation ranging through biological, psychological, sociological, cultural, and political theories, giving close attention to the problems inherent in approaching the study of crime from a "causes of crime" perspective. Developed around key concepts used in theories of crime (e.g., responsibility, rationality), emphasizing the multidisciplinary source of these concepts, how they are changed when applied to criminological theory, and their importance for understanding the present state of criminological theory.

CRJ 540 Theoretical Foundations of Criminal Justice (3)
This course introduces students to theoretical work on criminal justice process and policy, from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Topics discussed include theoretical approaches to studying individual, organizational, system, and political behavior. Emphasis is placed on the practical utilization of theory to inform development of research problems and agendas.

CRJ 560 Introduction to Individual and Organizational Interventions (3)
Important general theories, methods of analysis, and techniques of planned change; interventions with individuals and organizations; deliberate efforts to introduce and encourage planned change with criminal justice clients and employees and criminal justice organizations; selected models and strategies used by change agents and the resultant dilemmas that must be confronted.

CRJ 561 Introduction to Community Intervention (3)
Important theories, methods of analysis and techniques employed in changing communities; deliberate efforts to involve criminal justice organizations and programs in community change; community organizing for the prevention of crime; selected models and strategies used by change agents and the resultant dilemmas that must be confronted.

CRJ 592 Data Utilization in Criminal Justice I (3)
This course will teach the basics of quantitative data file construction, cleaning, documentation, and use. This is a hands-on computer course where students will learn proper techniques for managing simple datasets. They will also learn how to use SPSS for data management and documentation. Students will apply their technical skills to major criminal justice data collections to learn how the technical and substantive skills are complementary.

CRJ 601 Crime, Deviation, and Conformity (3)
Crime and criminal behavior is viewed as one of many forms of deviation from political, moral, and conduct norms of the majority culture. Studies the parallel genesis of crime and other prevalent forms of deviance, and the relationship between some forms of deviance (such as mental illness and political extremism) and some forms of criminality. Studies the forces that produce conformity, and indirectly promote deviation.

CRJ 602 Psychological Factors of Crime (3)
Survey of psychological and social typologies of offenders which relate to understanding or prediction of crime. Rationale, theories, procedures, areas of criminological application, and implications for research. Comparison of classification schemes in terms of discrepant and overlapping concerns and in terms of implications for prevention and rehabilitation. Individual student projects include development of a research design involving a classification system.

CRJ 603 Structural Factors in Crime (3)
Introduction to major theories of how social and organizational contexts influence criminal behavior. Both theoretical development and empirical methods for evaluating models of structural factors are emphasized.

CRJ 604 Gender and Crime in American Culture (3)
Drawing from criminal justice research, gender studies, social history, and popular culture, this course examines the nexus between gender and crime in American culture. The role of gender expectations in shaping the behaviors of victims and offenders and societal/criminal justice system responses will be explored.

CRJ 605 Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime (3)
Examines the meaning of the concept of juvenile delinquency as a separable entity in the system of criminal justice. Considers the relationship between social attitudes and definitions of youthful law violation, and reviews studies on various forms of delinquency, such as auto theft, vagrancy, and sex delinquency. Also analyzes the diverse theoretical interpretation of delinquency including subcultural theories, ideas about distinct lower-class focal concerns, and views about delinquency and drift.

CRJ 606 Measure of Crime and Delinquency (3)
Describes the amount, distribution, and pattern of crime. Analyzes the Uniform Crime Reports, results of the National Crime Panel Victimization, self-reporting inventories of crime and delinquency, and considers correlates of these alternative measures of illegal activity. Selected topics are emphasized depending on currently available data.

CRJ 607 Theories of Crime (3)
Theories of crime causation ranging through biological, psychological, sociological, cultural, and political theories, giving close attention to the problems inherent in approaching the study of crime from a "causes of crime" perspective. Developed around key concepts used in theories of crime (e.g., responsibility, rationality), emphasizing the multidisciplinary source of these concepts, how they are changed when applied to criminological theory, and their importance for understanding the present state of criminological theory.

CRJ 608 Ideology and Crime (3)
The nature of ideology; the relevance of a wide range of political theories to the exploration of crime; the comparative influence of various ideologies upon criminological research; the paradigmatic view of science in relation to research in criminal justice; the problem of objectivity; the problem of progress; the role of the criminologist as researcher and practitioner; an introduction to the ideology of law.

CRJ 610 (formerly CRJ 700) Guns and Gun Control (3)
This course covers the spectrum of social science research on guns and gun control. Topics to be covered will include: a history of firearms ownership in the U.S. , patterns of firearms ownership and use, the role of guns in self-defense, crime, suicide, and accidents; gun control policies; and the politics underlying the positions of gun nuts and gun control nuts.

CRJ 611 (formerly CRJ 702) Race and Crime (3)
This course explores the relationship between race and crime. "Race" and "crime" are examined as "social constructs" which have acquired their meaning through the interaction of human groups within social and historical contexts. Various perspectives and theories about the race- crime correlation will be examined.

CRJ 612 Homicide Research (3)
Survey of scientific research and theory of the causes of homicide. Course is organized around a series of hypotheses about the causes of homicide (e.g., poverty causes homicide). In addition, an objective of the course is to develop skills necessary to make professional presentations and construct causal arguments.

CRJ 613 Nature of Youth Gangs (3)
This course examines the nature and extent of youth street gangs in America , including definitional issues; gangs in the historical context; theories of gang formation and gang joining; gang and gang member characteristics and behavior; the gang experience; types of gangs; and gangs in the international context.

CRJ 614 (formerly CRJ 609) Crime and Cities (3)
This course focuses on cities as ecological areas of "contested space." Cities are examined as a human invention. Tracing the evolution of cities, course looks at the demands that cities make on the people who live in them. Social, psychological, economic, political, and cultural dimensions of cities explored. The many different ways in which cities are perceived and experienced will be examined. Course will focus on crime as one aspect of urban life. Course will draw on materials from a variety of disciplines.

CRJ 620 The Law of Deprivation of Liberty (3)
Introduction to legal institutions, analysis, and doctrine through the device of studying those areas of the law which deprive persons of liberty either as an end or as a technique to achieve a particular end. The Socratic method of instruction is employed and heavy emphasis is placed on class discussion. Illustrative of the areas studied are: exploration of the difference between civil and criminal law; analysis of the various rationales and objectives of detention and the procedures through which they are sought to be attained; specific reference to hospitalization of the mentally and physically ill, defective delinquents and sex psychopaths, commitments based on incompetency and an adjudication of insanity, the juvenile delinquency process, commitment of alcoholics and narcotic addicts, intra- and inter-system transfers.

CRJ 623 Substantive Criminal Law (3)
The sources, uses, and limitations of the criminal liability, including mens rea, actus reus , causality, and accessorial conduct. An attempt is made to develop an understanding of the rational basis of a law of crimes by studying specific problem areas such as the definition of criminal conspiracies, the distinctions drawn between crimes against property and crime against the person, the issues of whether so-called "sexual" crimes or "victimless" crimes or "administrative" crimes constitute validly distinct categories of criminal conduct, and the realistic applicability of such defenses as mistake, duress, drug addiction, and insanity.

CRJ 625 Principles of Punishment (3)
Five main aspects of punishment are dealt with: the problem of the definition of punishment; the philosophical justifications for punishment, including utilitarianism, retributivism, social defense, deterrence, reductivism, and other variants of these; social and psychological research on punishment; the cultural significance of punishment in society, such as its relationship to authority, obedience, and subordination; and special topics such as capital punishment, physical control of the brain, and other types of penal treatment.

CRJ 626 Law and Science in Criminal Justice (3)
The different methods and objectives of legal and scientific inquiry are explored. Different uses of the social and natural sciences in law are considered, focusing on the introduction of scientific evidence to prove disputed facts in trial courts and appellate courts' consideration of scientific research evidence in announcing and applying rules of law. Illustrative topics include the admissibility of scientific evidence (e.g., DNA analysis) in criminal trials, and the uses and potential uses of social science research to help inform judicial decision making in areas such as the reliability of eyewitness identification, jury decision making, and the law of punishment.

CRJ 629 Constitutional Criminal Procedure (4)
The development of constitutional doctrine as a series of controls on the administration of criminal justice utilizing the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court as the basis for study. The areas of study for the course are: the nature of due process and equal protection, police practices - with especially heavy emphasis on the fourth amendment - wire tapping, interrogation, line-ups, etc.

CRJ 630 The Legal Rights of Children (3)
This class examines the legal rights of children in diverse contexts. Principal focus is on the juvenile justice system, including procedural and substantive issues relating to juvenile delinquency and status offenses. Consideration also is given to select legal issues involving children's rights in the schools (e.g., expulsion, drug-testing, freedom of expression), to personal autonomy (e.g., abortion and medical decisions), and in the context of the family (e.g. parental custody and visitation rights).

CRJ 632 Decision Making and Deterrence (3) (Doctoral Students Only)
This seminar surveys academic research relating to offender decision-making, deterrence, and punishment. Students will study the deterrence/rational choice theoretical approach to explaining crime, survey various empirical investigations of deterrence and offender decision-making, and use these substantive topics as the context within which to better understand the process of conducting academic research.

CRJ 636 Juvenile Justice (3)
Course covers the development, original philosophy, purpose, and operation of the juvenile court in the U.S. ; traces the evolution of the juvenile court and justice system; examines influential players, social movements, theory, research, and policy; and considers key contemporary debates.

CRJ 640 Theory and Criminal Justice (3)
This course introduces students to theoretical work on criminal justice process and policy, from multidisciplinary perspectives. Topics discussed include theoretical approaches to studying individual, organizational, system, and political behavior. Emphasis is placed on the practical utilization of theory to inform development of research problems and agendas.

CRJ 641 Comparative Criminal Justice (3)
This course will examine criminal justice institutions comparatively in several countries. The purpose will be to describe the variety of criminal justice experience, to understand the determinants of these variations, and to prompt Americans to reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of their own criminal justice institutions.

CRJ 642 Issues in Policing (3)
Examination of issues in the performance of the police; reading critically seminal research studies of police effectiveness. Acquaints students with police performance, to appraise attempts at evaluating police performance, and to develop skill in social science research.

CRJ 643 Community Supervision and Treatment of Convicted Persons (3)
Analysis of theories and practice of probation and parole, responses of paroling authorities to public pressures and court controls and their implications for rehabilitative efforts. Analysis of efforts to create admixtures of institutional settings and normal community life; feasibility and effectiveness of treatment of individuals under sentence in the community.

CRJ 644 The Incarceration Process (3)
Theory and practice of correctional institutions and their functions; the prison as a total institution; characteristics of various types of correctional facilities; problems of rehabilitation in institutional settings; analysis of the prison community; adjustment to prison life by personnel and inmates; the impact of institutionalization on the offender.

CRJ 645 Prison Environments (3)
Sociological and psychological aspects of imprisonment. Description of the inmate culture and its variations. The impact of institutionalization on the inmate, and the attributes of prison-and of other total institutions as living environments. Problems of coping with prison life and of adjusting to incarceration. Prison careers and their relationships to outside careers. Relationships of staff and inmates; role and adjustment problems of prison staff. Pains of imprisonment and their amelioration. Crisis intervention in prisons.

CRJ 646 Sentencing (3)
Analysis of various sentence structures for both misdemeanor and felony offenders. Particular attention is paid to extended terms for dangerous offenders and to the relationship between type and length of sentence to time and conditions of sentences actually served.

CRJ 647 Innovations in Policing (3)
This course will examine current thinking as well as experience with respect to changing and reforming police instructions and practices. The course will focus primarily on the United States . Its purpose will be to describe major innovations, to explore their rationale, and to examine impediments to their implementation.

CRJ 648 Terrorism and Public Security (3)
This course reviews the role of domestic law enforcement in homeland security, including the prevention of and response to terrorism. Consideration of strategic issues that arise with respect to specific forms of terrorist threats, and of managerial issues, including the collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence, risk assessment and resource allocation, intergovernmental and interagency cooperation and conflict, and investigative authority and civil liberties.

CRJ 649 Gender, Administration, and Policy (3)
Review of theories and empirical knowledge about gender issues in criminal justice administration and policy. Discussion of the impact of the integration of women into the criminal justice professions; consideration of the relevance of gender in the treatment of convicted offenders and in reforms in the adjudication of female defendants; examination of social and policy questions in criminal justice responses to female victimization, particularly in domestic violence and rape cases.

CRJ 651 Policing in America (3)
Examines seminal and current scholarship on the forces that shape the exercise of police discretion, including sociological, psychological, organizational and political approaches to explaining police behavior. Considers the implications of research findings for organizational and political reforms.

CRJ 652 Prosecution and Adjudication (3)
Criminal court judges as participants in the definition of criminal law as well as participants in the operation of the criminal justice process. Also scheduled is the prosecutor in his dual-capacity as law enforcement agent and officer of the court, with emphasis on his resolution of demands and pressure from the community, the police and the courts. Attention is given to the detention of the accused before adjudication.  

CRJ 655 Crime, Criminal Justice and Public Policy (3)
Analysis and evaluation of crime control policy and criminal justice. Overview of concepts of policy analysis and principles of evaluation research as applied to crime and criminal justice problems.  Consideration of deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and prevention as policy objectives, and intensive examination of selected policy initiatives.  Analysis of the criminal justice policy process.

CRJ 656 Social Response to Youth Gangs (3)
This course examines social responses to youth street gangs in America and abroad, including legislation; prevention, intervention, and suppression approaches; including approaches that focus on individuals, groups, and on individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors.

CRJ 659 Special Topics in Criminal Justice Process and Policy (3)
Select topics in the Administration of the Criminal Justice Process are examined. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be taken for credit more than once provided subject matter is not repeated

CRJ 661 Modes of Correctional Intervention (3)
Analysis of specific treatment and rehabilitation practices attempted with various types of offenders; problems of matching therapists and therapy methods to personality and setting; difficulties in control and treatment of nonamenable and dangerous offenders. Low-cost, short-term reeducation and treatment methods uniquely suited to institutional settings and to utilization of personnel with limited professional training are studied as are impediments, limitations, objectives and evaluation of limited therapeutic interventions.

CRJ 662 Community Intervention & CRJ (3)
This course examines planned community changes that (1) involve one or more criminal justice agencies as one of the change agents or change targets or (2) crime in specific localities as an objective of intervention. The causes and consequences of community participation, mobilization, identification, coordination, and control of space are analyzed.

CRJ 663 Organizational Change (3)
Exploration of significant theories and methods of organizational change with special emphasis on issues involved in their application to criminal justice agencies and on methods of developing a continuous capacity for change in these organizations.

CRJ 667 (formerly CRJ 761) Prison Reform (3)
History and current status of efforts to change conditions of confinement; reforms during the progressive era, and more contemporary developments, including ongoing innovations. Critiques and proposals for reform. Problems of implementation and evaluation. Application of principles of planned change to change in corrections.

CRJ 669 – Topic: Planned Change in CRJ (3)
Select topics in Planned Change in Criminal Justice are examined. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be taken for credit more than once provided subject matter is not repeated.  

CRJ 681 Statistical Techniques in Criminal Justice Research I (3) (Doctoral Students)
This course is an introduction to statistics, and provides the background necessary for Statistics II. The topics to be covered include descriptive statistics, point and interval estimation, statistical inference, measures of association for discrete variables, and regression. No previous knowledge of statistics is necessary, and no more than a working knowledge of high school algebra is required to follow the material. However, the course assumes that the students will eventually want to use statistics in their own research and the subject matter will be covered in enough depth for this to be possible.

CRJ 682 Research Design in Criminal Justice I (3) (Doctoral Students)
Development of research design of the kind most useful to criminal justice problems, construction of descriptive systems for qualitative analysis; use of various data collection methods including observation, development of interview schedules, questionnaire construction and sociometric devices, questions of validity and reliability.

CRJ 683 Research in the Criminal Justice Process (3) (Doctoral Students)
Critical examination of current research in criminal justice with regard to methodological adequacy and significance and import of its contributions; problems in the design and execution of criminal justice research; the posing of research questions in context; social policy implications of criminal justice research; questions relating to the selection of designs, methods and feedback techniques; problems in the implementation of research findings in innovation.

CRJ 687 Statistical Techniques in Criminal Justice Research II (4) (Doctoral Students)
Introduction to multivariate analysis of cross-sectional data. Techniques include multi-way contingency tables, partial and multiple correlation and multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance and covariance, analysis of qualitative dependent variables, and data reduction using weighted and unweighted additive scales. The use of the computer for data analysis will be an integral part of the course. Prerequisite: one course in univariate and bivariate descriptive and inferential statistics at the level of CRJ 681.

CRJ 688 Research Design in Criminal Justice II (4) (Doctoral Students)
Examines research design problems in criminal justice at an advanced level; use of sophisticated classical research designs and data-gathering techniques; analysis of problems related to sampling theory and procedures; application of mathematical models to problems in research design and analysis; use of techniques permitting causal inferences.

CRJ 690 Statistical Techniques in Criminal Justice Research III (3) (Doctoral Students)
Topics vary from year to year and may include one or more of the following; design and analysis of longitudinal research; time series analysis; categorical data analysis including log-linear, logit, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, and probit analysis models; or structural equation (LISREL) models. The course may be repeated for credit when topics change. The use of the computer for data analysis will be an integral part of the course. Prerequisite: specific prerequisites may vary depending on the topics covered in the course, but one course in multivariate analysis at the level of CRJ 687 is recommended.

CRJ 691 Program Evaluation (3)
Systematic review of efforts to evaluate intervention programs and assess effectiveness of crime prevention schemes and methods for the treatment of offenders, both in ongoing operations and under experimental conditions. The use of prediction techniques and other forms of matching and operational research methods, with special reference to problems of criteria and measurements of effectiveness or performance. Students should have some familiarity with multivariate statistical methods before taking this course.

CRJ 692 Data Utilization in Criminal Justice II (3)
This advanced data utilization course was designed to teach graduate students some of the technical skills needed to work with large and complicated datasets. This course will introduce students to four major criminal justice data collections. There will be opportunities for hands-on classroom experience with some of the complexities of these datasets. The technical skills covered in this course can be applied to other crime and justice data collections, as well as complex datasets from other substantive fields.

CRJ 693 Geographic Information Systems in Criminal Justice I (4)
Exploration of theory and techniques associated with collection, display, analysis, storage of geographic information in the criminal justice environment. Laboratory work will supplement information within lecture component by exposing students to operational geographic information system and databases, supplemented by GIS applications in planning, census and demographic studies, and community and economic planning/development.

CRJ 694 Spatial Data Analysis - Criminal Justice (4)
This course introduces the student to a variety of methods and techniques for the visualization, exploration, and modeling of spatial data.  The emphasis is on understanding concepts underlying spatial data analysis and on description and exploration of data.  The main objectives are to teach students about geographic data and its organizations, basic concepts of spatial statistics, applications of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) techniques, point and area pattern analysis and spatial autocorrelation.  Course will consist of both lecture and lab work. Prerequisite CRJ693.

CRJ 695 Responsible Use of Criminal Justice Information (3)
This course introduces students to the policy implications of the increased usage of information technology in criminal justice. Emphasis is on identifying issues that are important to policy makers and managers of information technology. The discussion is non-technical and the focus is on gaining a broad perspective of the role of information technology in criminal justice rather than learning specific technologies. Topics will include nature of information technology currently in use, future technology needs, legal and ethical concerns regarding information access and expected effects on organizational structure

CRJ 696 Geographic Information Systems in Criminal Justice II (4)
In this course students will explore advanced topics in Geographic Information Systems. The course covers Avenue (Arcview's scripting language), raster modeling, network analysis and internet mapping. While new material will be introduced through lectures and laboratory work, the focus is on advancing student knowledge in an applied fashion and there will be considerable emphasis on the development of individual (or group) projects. Students will define a problem, develop GIS applications to analyze the problem and present solutions and recommendations. Prerequisite: CRJ693 Geographic Information Systems in Criminal Justice I, or equivalent.

CRJ 700 Seminars on Specific Problems in the Nature of Crime (2-4)
Seminar series probing specific subtopics relating to the nature of crime. Recent examples include: Homicide; Crime and Cities; Guns and Gun Control; Violence, Sex, Violence and Juvenile Street Gangs.

CRJ 720 Seminars on Specific Problems in Law and Social (2-4)
Seminar series probing specific subtopics relating to law and social control. Topics include mental illness and the law, individual rights and public welfare, comparative criminal law and procedure, sanction law and public order, authority and power, and indirect social control in criminal justice.

CRJ 721 Capital Punishment (2-4)
Legal, empirical, historical, and philosophical issues related to the death penalty and its administration are explored through considering judicial decisions, legal and other commentary, social science research, and related materials. (S/U graded).

CRJ 740 Seminars on Specific Problems in the Criminal Justice Process (2-4)
Seminar series analyzing specific topics relating to the criminal justice process; more than one topic may be covered in the same session. Recent examples include: Issues in Sentencing; Restorative Justice in Theory and Practice; Drugs, Crime & Public Policy.

CRJ 747 Violence in Criminal Justice (2-4)
This seminar provides an overview of violent behavior that is of interest to the criminal justice system. Subjects covered include domestic violence, police-citizen conflict and violence in prisons and schools, guns, mental health issues, and violence and the media. Problems of causation are discussed, as are proposals aimed at the prevention and reduction of violence.

CRJ 760 Seminars in Change and Innovation in Criminal Justice (2-4)
Seminar series examining specific topics related to the area; more than one topic may be covered in the same session. Sample topics include self- help efforts by offender and deviates; the clients of the criminal justice system as change agents, the demonstration project as a dissemination technique, the utility of survey feedback methods, laboratory training and change, legislation as an instrument of reform, and problems in reorganizing political subdivisions for criminal justice improvement.

CRJ 786: Teaching at the College and University Level
Workshop that addresses theories of learning and motivation, construction of syllabi, design and evaluation of writing assignments, ethics in teaching and learning, strategies for teaching in multidisciplinary environments, teaching strategies for different class sizes and formats, approaches to teaching research methodology to undergraduates, role of technology in teaching, and curriculum building in multidisciplinary departments. 

CRJ 788 Special Methods Seminars (2-4)
Designed to permit the exploration of data gathering and analysis techniques that attach to a specific research function in the criminal justice process.

CRJ 788 Historical Research Methods (2-4)
Introduction to the use of historical research methods in criminal justice research, examining the issues and problems related to collecting and analyzing historical data; the need to provide historical context when dealing with criminal justice topics; selection of specific research topics by individual students.

CRJ 800 Individual Study in Criminal Justice (2-15)

CRJ 801 Individual Research in Criminal Justice (2-15)

CRJ 893 General Reading (1-12)
Exploration of theory and techniques associated with collection, display, analysis, storage of geographic information in the criminal justice environment. Laboratory work will supplement information within lecture component by exposing students to operational geographic information system and databases, supplemented by GIS applications in planning, census and demographic studies, and community and economic planning/development

CRJ 895 Independent Research (1-12)
Individual work in preparation for dissertation prospectus

CRJ 899 Dissertation Research, Writing and Defense (1 credit, full-time status)