American Society of Criminology 2016 Presentations

(This is intended to be a comprehensive list of all presentations by current faculty and students. Please report any missing presentations to the webmaster.)

Do National Crime Rates Follow a Global Trend?

 

In Event: Trends in and Explanations of Cross-National Violence Rates

 

Is there a global trend in homicide rates? Recent research suggested a trend based on graphing homicide rates across time. Other scholars questioned the existence of a global trend but argued for a trend in homicide rates among economically elite nations. Similarly, modernization theory proposes a convergence in homicide rates in nations with similar levels of development, which should eventually converge into a global homicide rate trend as nations fully develop. We used annual homicide victimization rates from 1979 to 2010 for a sample of 86 nations and employed semi-partial squared correlation coefficients to search for global, regional, and within-level of development trends. Contrary to the strong conclusions drawn from one prior study, we found little evidence for a global trend in homicide rates. We also found no support for the modernization theory argument for convergence in trends and no support for a trend among economically elite or Western nations. We found evidence for a trend among nations in North America and among nations in Eastern Europe, but weak support for a trend among nations in Latin America, Asia, and Europe as a whole. We discuss the meaning of our findings for recent research, modernization theory, and cross-national homicide research.

 

Authors

Meghan L. Rogers, University at Albany, SUNY

William Alex Pridemore, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

The Comparative Lethality of Two World Regions: An Examination of Divergent Homicide Trends in Latin American and European Nations

 

In Event: Trends in and Explanations of Cross-National Violence Rates

 

Within recent decades, homicide rates in Latin American nations have strongly diverged from those of European nations, the former experiencing a sharp increase in the last two decades, while the latter have experienced the oft-characterized “modern crime decline” (LaFree, Curtis, & McDowall, 2015; Lappi-Seppälä & Lehti, 2014; Shaw, van Dijk, & Rhomberg, 2003). However, few studies have endeavored to explain this discrepancy, and many that do (Neopolitan, 1994) often attribute any differences to a regional dummy variable that characterizes some unique phenomenon occurring in the region (i.e. machismo) without modeling specifically for levels of said phenomenon. As such, this study uses a panel extension of well-known homicide model (Land, McCall, & Cohen, 1990) in time series analyses to understand and characterize the differences between these two regions. As such, this project examines each region in separate models to understand how the effects of social disorganization, strain, opportunity, and modernization might impact homicide differently in each region to bring about such drastic differences in homicide rates over the last few decades by using a long time series (1950-2015) to characterize these differences.

 

Author

Karise M. Curtis, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Population-Level Alcohol Consumption and National Homicide Rates

 

In Event: Trends in and Explanations of Cross-National Violence Rates

 

The aim of this study was to explore the association between population-level alcohol consumption and cross-national homicide rates. We are among the first to test this association and the first to test the four main hypotheses attempting to explain the nature of any association. We obtained data for 83 nations on population-level alcohol consumption and male- and female-specific homicide victimization rates. Controlling for several structural covariates we tested four explanations: a linear effect of total per capita consumption, a threshold effect, risky national drinking patterns, and beverage-specific effects (beer, wine, spirits, other). We found no support for the risky drinking patterns and threshold effects explanations. We found a positive impact of total per capita consumption on both male and female homicide victimization rates, though our other findings suggest this belies more complex beverage-specific effects. Per capita wine consumption was negatively and significantly associated with male and female homicide victimization rates. Per capita beer and spirits consumption were positively and significantly associated with male and female homicide victimization rates. All positive effects were stronger for men relative to women. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and for the cross-national homicide literature that has largely ignored population-level alcohol consumption.

 

Authors

Sara Margret Hockin, Georgia State University

Kirsten Hill, Georgia State University

Meghan L. Rogers, University at Albany, SUNY

William Alex Pridemore, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Cashlessness and Crime: A Cross-National Investigation of the Association Between Electronic Payment System Use and Instrumental Offending

 

In Event: Trends in and Explanations of Cross-National Violence Rates

 

Money that exists in a physical form of currency, often referred to as “cash,” has a special place in the etiology of instrumental crime. Cash has special properties – durable value, liquidity, and anonymity – that make it the goal of or the basis for much criminal activity. Over the last two decades cash has begun to lose its global preeminence to digital payment systems. A small literature suggests this shift may have the unexpected benefit of reducing some forms of crime. Some national governments have begun to encourage digital payment systems and discourage cash use in an effort to reduce criminal or terrorist activity and to promote stability in developing nations. Using data from the World Bank’s Global Financial Inclusion Index in samples of 58 to 71 countries, we investigated the relationship between national-level rates of digital payment system use and rates of instrumental street crime. Our results are equivocal, suggesting any cashless-crime association may vary substantially across nations, regions, and crime types.

 

Authors

William Alex Pridemore, University at Albany, SUNY

Sean Patrick Roche, University at Albany, SUNY

Meghan L. Rogers, University at Albany, SUNY 

 

 

Access to Counsel: The Determination of Eligibility for Counsel in Upstate New York

 

In Event: Policy Panel: Addressing Barriers to Access to Counsel in Criminal Courts

 

In Gideon v. Wainwright the Supreme Court said those ‘too poor to hire a lawyer’ must be provided with counsel. But how poor is too poor? In New York, determination of financial eligibility for assignment of counsel is the sole province of the more than two-thousand judges presiding in the state’s courts of original jurisdiction. Mostly non-lawyers working with little external support or training, these judges must grant or deny access to legal services deemed fundamental to any person facing deprivation of liberty. Qualitative data from our survey of over a thousand of these magistrates suggest that these ‘street level bureaucrats’ share a sense of the rules, responsibilities and resource constraints which shape their work, yet that they vary in their approaches to deciding how to assign counsel in ways that can have a profound impact on the legal services defendants receive. Policy implications are discussed in the context of recent initiatives in New York to expand early access to counsel.

 

Authors

Alyssa Clark, NYS Office of Indigent Legal Services

Andrew L.B. Davies, NYS Indigent Legal Services / SUNY Albany

 

 

Court Reform: Why Simple Solutions Might Not Fail? – A Case Study of Implementation of Counsel at First Appearance

 

In Event: Policy Panel: Addressing Barriers to Access to Counsel in Criminal Courts

 

In 2008, the Supreme Court established in Rothgery vs. Gillespie County that a defendant's right to counsel in criminal cases begins with the first court appearance at which he is advised of charges against him. Advocates argue that when defendants are unrepresented by counsel at this critical early point, they face significant disadvantages as their cases unfold, disadvantages that may have a cumulative effect on case outcomes. Yet many state criminal courts do not consistently adhere to this standard in practice. This paper, based on research funded by the National Institute of Justice, examines the impact of six upstate New York counties’ programs designed to ensure legal representation at defendants' first appearances in criminal cases, and tests hypotheses implied by advocates' arguments. The counties represent the diversity of upstate New York: they include rural and urban jurisdictions, and public defender as well as assigned counsel programs. Using data coded from court cases disposed before and after CAFA programs were implemented, we assess the impact of CAFA on arraignment and pretrial release decisions, time spent by defendants in jail, early engagement of pretrial services, time to dispositions, and characteristics of dispositions (pleas to reduced charges, sentences, and post-conviction supervision).

 

Authors

Alissa Pollitz Worden, University at Albany, SUNY

Andrew L.B. Davies, NYS Indigent Legal Services / SUNY Albany

Reveka V. Shteynberg, University at Albany, SUNY

Kirstin A. Morgan, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Demographic Disparity in Criminal Justice Involvement: Focusing on Prevalence and Recidivism in the New York State Population

 

In Event: Race, Ethnicity, and Sex Disparities at Different Stages of Criminal Justice Processing

 

Blumstein and Graddy (1982), in their study exploring racial disparity in the criminal justice system, argued that the racial disparity in arrest statistics is mostly attributable to a large difference in the prevalence at arrest, but not in the probability of recidivism. This conclusion has not been tested by any other research so far, despite its importance to criminological theory and public policy. The current study contributes to the literature by examining the validity of their argument in an era of deeply entrenched criminal justice contact for young Americans. Using individual level state administrative data, I measure crime prevalence and recidivism as two aspects of criminal careers, separately and by different demographic groups. I estimate for each demographic group what proportion of 1980-1984 birth cohorts in New York Stat has ever been convicted (prevalence) and how many of them are recurring in the criminal justice system after their initial involvement (recidivism). Special attention is given to different ways of estimating the relevant population when using administrative data.

 

Author

Jaeok Kim, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Racial Disparity in Criminal Justice Processing: Updating the Blumstein Approach in New York State

 

In Event: Race, Ethnicity, and Sex Disparities at Different Stages of Criminal Justice Processing

 

This paper adds to literature on racial disparity in sentencing to prison with an updated version of Blumstein’s (1982) approach, using 20 years of criminal case processing data from New York State. Rather than using aggregate data, we use criminal rapsheet data that starts at arrest and includes dispositions. Rapsheets facilitate the addition of criminal history as an improvement on Blumstein’s original work, as that this might help explain any differential treatment by the criminal justice system we find. Our data also allows us to provide estimates for each of four regions in NY State to account for localized differences. We find that a significant amount of the racial disparity in prisons may be explained by arrest and criminal history; that the proportion which we can explain decreases over time from 1990 to 2010; and finally that regional differences can easily be masked by state aggregation. We conclude with an exploration of how the Blumstein method relates to the standard criminological approach.

 

Authors

André Kiesel, University at Albany, SUNY

Jaeok Kim, University at Albany, SUNY

Shawn Bushway, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Delinquent Consequences of Family Instability by Sex of Youth

 

In Event: Gender in a Criminological Context: Understanding Gender Differences in Behaviors, Attitudes, and Identity

 

Adolescents in the United States are experiencing family instability (movement from one type of family structure to a different type of family structure) more than in previous decades. One of the most salient consequences for youth in unstable families is increased delinquency. However, a large gap in the literature is how the sex of youth who experience family instability influences externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors. As research indicates the sex of the youth can determine how the youth cope with the same risk factors. Furthermore, evidence from family instability literature suggests that family instability and whether the youth is male or female could influence the types of delinquency youth commit. This study employs longitudinal, adolescent self-reported data from the second National Evaluation of G.R.E.A.T. to examine whether the effect of family instability interacts with sex of the youth to influence specific types of delinquency.

 

Author

Walter Shelley, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Collateral Effects of Gang Membership and Affiliation for Adolescent Females and Males

 

In Event: Gender in a Criminological Context: Understanding Gender Differences in Behaviors, Attitudes, and Identity

 

Involvement with gangs has far-reaching effects on young people, not just those in gangs, but those around them, and these effects can differ by gender. Using self-report data from students in a multi-site evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. program, this study examines attitudes and behaviors of female and male adolescents who report being members of gangs, those who report varying levels of affiliation, and those with no gang ties.

 

Authors

Dana Peterson, University at Albany, SUNY

Vanessa Panfil, Old Dominion University

Yu Gao, Florida State University

 

 

Why Women Are More Punitive Toward Sex Offenders: A Test of Three Hypotheses

 

In Event: Gender in a Criminological Context: Understanding Gender Differences in Behaviors, Attitudes, and Identity

 

Research consistently finds that women are more punitive toward sex offenders than are men, despite tending to be less punitive in other contexts. This study presents and tests three hypotheses that may explain women’s greater punitiveness toward sex offenders. First, women’s victimization experiences, which disproportionately involve sex offenses, may increase punitiveness toward sex offenders. Second, women’s fear of crime may produce greater punitiveness toward sex offenders because all offenses carry the “shadow of sexual assault.” Third, women’s greater tendency to view issues related to purity and bodily integrity as moral (i.e., to endorse the moral foundation “purity”; see Graham et al., 2011), may elicit greater punitiveness toward crimes that involve these elements. Data from a national, online survey (N=1,025) provide strong support for the fear of crime hypothesis, as well as mixed support for the “purity” foundation hypothesis.

 

Author

Jasmine Silver, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Bullying Victimization, Body Image, and Youth Suicidality: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of South Korea

 

In Event: Trauma and Victimization among Offenders with Mental Illness

 

School bullying can negatively influence mental health and well-being. Although previous research has documented that criminal victimization is associated with suicidality, however, it was not until 2013 that empirical research began to explore the relationship between bullying victimization and suicidality among the youth. Using the 6-year panel survey data collected by the Nation Youth Policy Institute (NYPI) in South Korea, we examine the dynamic relationship between bullying victimization, body image dissatisfaction, and suicidal ideation during the middle school years. Implications for policy and research will be discussed.

 

Authors

Shao-Chiu Juan, University at Albany, SUNY

Haemi Won, University at Albany, SUNY

Weng-Fong Chao, University at Albany, SUNY

Andrew Kuo, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

The Legacy of Wallace Wilkerson and His Execution by Firing Squad

 

In Event: Capital Punishment: Execution Methods, Youthful Offenders, and Consequences

 

Wallace Wilkerson was convicted of murder in 1877 in territorial Utah. Pursuant to law then in effect, he was sentenced to death by firing squad. In Wilkerson v. Utah, 99 U.S. 130 (1878), one of the first capital punishment cases decided by the United States Supreme Court, the justices unanimously rejected the argument that Wilkerson’s execution by firing squad would represent cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the 8th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This paper draws on historical records to present the fascinating facts that gave rise to this landmark Supreme Court decision. It describes Wilkerson’s crime, his execution at the hands of Utah marksmen—which was badly botched—and then discusses the continuing significance of Wilkerson’s case to contemporary issues surrounding methods of execution, the meaning of the 8th Amendment, and death-penalty laws and policies.

 

Authors

James Acker, University at Albany, SUNY

Ryan Champagne, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Incapacitated Involvement: Incarceration and Fatherhood in Fragile Families at Year 9

 

In Event: Consequences of Parental Incarceration for Children and Families

 

This study uses the most recent wave of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N= 1,588) to expand our knowledge about the impact of paternal incarceration on fathering in three specific ways: 1) we update prior studies by exploring father’s involvement with children in middle childhood, 2) in addition to fathers’ economic contributions, we assess how paternal incarceration influences children’s own assessments of their relationships with their fathers, and 3) we examine the extent to which we observe similar reports of father involvement across multiple respondents (i.e. mothers, children and fathers themselves). Results from propensity score and multivariate models indicate that paternal incarceration is associated with decreased father involvement for children in middle childhood. This finding holds across both forms of involvement examined and is robust across multiple respondents’ reports of fathering. Implications for research and policy regarding incarcerees’ families and children are discussed.

 

Authors

Heather M. Washington, University at Albany, SUNY

Shao-Chiu Juan, University at Albany, SUNY

Anna R. Haskins, Cornell University

Nicole Jackson, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Behavioral Economics, Rational Choice, & Sanction Perception Updating

 

In Event: Decision-Making, Quasi-Rational Choice, and Behavioral Economics

 

This study investigated the Bayesian Updating (BU) component of Rational Choice Theory (RCT) from the standpoint of Behavioral Economics (BE). We began with the model of Anwar and Loughran (2011) to identify areas where BE might provide insights. Thereafter, we present findings from a series of randomized experiments, embedded in two nationwide surveys of American adults (18 and over) in 2015 (N = 1,004 and 623). The results suggest that prior probability estimates are blunter and more diffuse than as depicted under RCT. This, in turn, creates circumstances for various decision-making heuristics to bias the perceptual updating process. BE thus appears to be a fertile source of principles and future research directions for better understanding crime as choice.

 

Authors

Sean Patrick Roche, University at Albany, SUNY

Greg Pogarsky, University at Albany, SUNY

Justin Tyler Pickett, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Smart Stops: Toward More Strategic Proactive Policing

 

In Event: Investigatory Stops by Police

 

Investigatory stops are simultaneously one of the most fundamental tools that police officers have to enforce the law and one of the most controversial. Conventional police wisdom holds that proactive policing is an effective crime control tactic, and the findings of social research have for the most part supported this proposition. That proactive policing has crime control benefits does not imply that more proactive policing is better, however, nor does it imply that each stop has the same marginal benefits regardless of where, when, and of whom they are made. Stops by their nature involve a trade-off of personal freedom for the public good. We believe that police might do better in guiding and encouraging officers to make “higher-value” stops – those that are more likely to serve crime control purposes, including stops in high-crime places, of high-risk people, or with successful enforcement outcomes. With historical data on over 200,000 pedestrian and vehicle stops by the Albany (NY) police between 2000 through 2013, we illustrate the extent to which stops have met these three criteria. Only 40% of stops meet any of the three objectives, with the majority of those being stops at high crime micro-places.

 

Authors

Robert E. Worden, University at Albany, SUNY

Sarah J. McLean, The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Andrew Palmer Wheeler, The University of Texas at Dallas

 

 

Experience Versus Expectation: Economic Insecurity, the Great Recession, and Support for the Death Penalty

 

In Event: Attitudes Toward the Death Penalty

 

Beginning in 2009, the U.S. prison population began to decline for the first time in nearly four decades (Petersilia & Cullen, 2015). One threat to this prison downsizing movement, however, is the possibility of an increase in public punitiveness, especially among White males, stemming from the lasting economic insecurity caused by the Great Recession (Gottschalk, 2014). A long theoretical tradition links economic downturns to harsher criminal punishments. Scholars theorize that people who have recently experienced an increase in economic hardship and those who forecast future economic deterioration will be more punitive toward criminals. Unfortunately, researchers have only recently begun to test this association, and the findings from this small literature have been inconsistent. The current study contributes to this line of inquiry by investigating a uniquely rich set of economic insecurity measures included in a very large national survey (N = 9,060) fielded during a time period of special theoretical salience: the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We explore the effects of experienced and expected personal, vicarious, and societal economic insecurity on support for the death penalty. Contrary to the hypotheses, expectations of future economic insecurity are negatively associated with death penalty support, but this relationship is conditional on respondents’ demographics.

 

Authors

Justin Tyler Pickett, University at Albany, SUNY

Peter S. Lehmann, Florida State University

 

 

Building Police Legitimacy: Public Judgments and Police Practices

 

In Event: Cultivating Satisfaction, Trust and Confidence in Police

 

We know that levels of trust and confidence in the police – police legitimacy – are fairly high, that public trust and confidence is associated with other judgments about police – e.g., the procedural justice with which they act – and that public attitudes toward the police are fairly stable, shaped by their prior attitudes toward the police and thus not strongly influenced by their direct experiences with the police. Consequently, we have a limited understanding of how police might change public attitudes for the better. We report on a research effort to examine both the basis for public judgments about their trust in police and police department efforts to cultivate public trust. We analyze semi-structured interviews with community leaders about how they form judgments about police, and with police executives about what police do to build community trust and confidence. We characterize what communities expect and what departments do, allowing us to gauge the degree of correspondence: the extent to which police leaders are taking the steps that will build trust in their communities, and the missed opportunities to foster trust that could potentially guide future efforts.

 

Authors

Sarah J. McLean, The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Robert E. Worden, University at Albany, SUNY

Caitlin J. Dole, The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Danielle L. Reynolds, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

The Impact of the Get Tough Movement on Judicial Sentencing Patterns: A New York Case Study

 

In Event: Exploring the Adult Trajectories of Juvenile Offenders Processed In New York Criminal Courts

 

This study explores the sentencing patterns of New York Judges before, during and after the “get tough” movement of the 1990’s, which changed much of the face of juvenile justice in America. New York poses a unique study ground as even prior to this movement the state set the upper jurisdiction of juvenile court at age 15, meaning all 16 and 17 years olds were processed as adults. However, at the same time, the state maintained a youthful offender status that allowed judges to extend mitigation at sentencing to those youth who were below the age of 19 at the time of the offense. Using a cohort of all arrested 16 and 17 year olds in 1987, 1994, and 2001 this analysis will explore cohort differences in overall severity of sentencing, the application of the youthful offender status to extend mitigation of punishment, and search for sources of sentencing heterogeneity within and between cohorts based on gender, race, and type of offense. Interaction effects between offender and offense characteristics will also be explored as well as potential contextual effects across regions and counties in New York.

 

Author

Megan Kurlychek, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

The Impact of Criminal History Record Sealing on National Recidivism Estimates

 

In Event: Exploring the Adult Trajectories of Juvenile Offenders Processed In New York Criminal Courts

 

The accuracy of recidivism estimates hinges on the completeness and reliability of official criminal history records. Efforts to characterize the nature of criminal careers and to generate valid estimates of recidivism are complicated by state differences in criminal history reporting procedures and state laws and policies that impact the release of arrest information. Using a cohort of all youth arrested in New York at age 16 or 17 in 2001, we follow their official criminal histories for 10 years to examine how one particular type of state policy in the state of New York—the sealing of criminal records- impacts estimates of both the number of times a person is arrested as well as the degree to which offenders specialize in certain types of offenses. The results of the analyses have implications for national recidivism estimates as they address the need to assess state-specific recording and reporting practices that may impact national recidivism estimates and highlight a need for error correction terms for use when comparing New York rap sheets to those of other states that do not allow for the widespread sealing of criminal history records.

 

Authors

Kimberly Martin, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice

Matthew Durose, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice

Megan Kurlychek, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Dispatch Priming and Police Officer Error

 

In Event: Police Use of Force: Tactics, Training and Liability

 

Police officers are often asked to respond to emergencies with less than perfect information about the circumstances and/or individuals involved. In response to this, as some of the classic observational studies of the police have noted, many officers develop what Jerome Skolnick (1967) called "a perceptual shorthand" (p. 45) and William Muir (1977) termed "pidgeonholes" (p. 156) or cognitive shortcuts to efficiently predicting and responding to human behavior and potential threats of violence.

 

Using a firearms training simulator in a randomized controlled experimental design, this study examined the relationship between dispatch priming and the propensity of experienced police officers to make mistakes during shoot/no-shoot scenarios. The aim of the study was to understand how dispatched information affects officer decision making during rapidly evolving, time compressed emergencies.

 

This research starts to explore the ways in which police officers use heuristics and other implicit processes to make decisions in the field. The research could be expanded into other police decision making domains like arrest decisions, suspect identification, and the decisions to search particular vehicles and/or citizens.

 

Author

Paul Taylor, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Using Multiple Sources to Estimate Homicides by Police Officers

 

In Event: Police-Related Deaths

 

We identify sources of error in the Supplementary Homicide Reports and the National Vital Statistics System. Then we use information from both systems to produce more accurate estimates of the number of homicides committed by police officers in the United States.

 

Authors

Colin Loftin, University at Albany, SUNY

David McDowall, University at Albany, SUNY

Min Xie, University of Maryland

 

 

Gangs, Groups, Networks, and Deterrence: An Evaluation of Syracuse Truce

 

In Event: Posters I

 

Syracuse Truce is a focused deterrence intervention modeled on the group violence intervention of the National Network for Safe Communities, designed to reduce gun violence by members of street gangs and other criminal groups. We estimate the impact of Syracuse Truce on gun violence overall and for individual gangs and other groups. We are particularly concerned with how the deterrent effects of Truce may be contingent on the direct and indirect reach of the deterrence message within gangs/groups and on the cohesion of the social networks that gangs/groups respectively comprise.

 

Authors

Robert E. Worden, University at Albany, SUNY

Sarah J. McLean, The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Andrew Palmer Wheeler, The University of Texas at Dallas

Kelly J. Becker, The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

 

 

Terrorist Ideology and Behavior: An Examination of the Behavior of Known Perpetrators

 

In Event: Terrorism: Motivations, Strategy, and Messaging

 

The terrorist decision-making process is the key component of understanding the types of attacks terrorists execute. Terrorist group ideology is the goal orientation of the decision-making process and determines a number of aspects of the decision-making process that expand or limit the targets groups will attack and the tactics they will use including: a group’s long-term goals, short-term objectives, an attack’s purpose, the audience, the group’s constituency, its enemies, and its message. Using a database of terrorist group ideologies of my own making, the Global Terrorism Database, and other databases, I establish the link between terrorist ideology and terrorist behavior. I first established the behaviors of terrorist perpetrators of each ideology type and evaluated ideology’s impact on terrorist behavior controlling for political violence and instability, geographic, time, and country and group-level variables.

 

There are three major findings: first, there is a relationship between terrorist ideology and terrorist behavior; second, some terrorist behaviors were consistent across ideologies and over time, and third, the geographic and political instability and violence context in which terrorism occurs affects terrorist behavior. Finally, the incidents committed by unknown perpetrators are geographically concentrated and their behavior patterns are similar to the general behaviors of identifiable perpetrators.

 

Author

Rose Bellandi, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

A Neglected Population: Media Consumption and Fear of Crime Among International Students Studying in the United States

 

In Event: ACCCJ Migration, Crime and Fear of Crime in China and the U.S.

 

Fear of crime may play an important role in influencing international students’ global mobility (Marginson et al., 2010) and may harm their social integration, health, psychological wellbeing (see e.g., Jackson & Stafford, 2009; Stafford et al., 2006) and academic success (see e.g., Bowen and Bowen, 1999). There are roughly 4.5 million international students worldwide (Institute of International Education, 2015). Yet, surprisingly, scholarship on fear of crime has all but overlooked this large and important population. This current study addresses this void in the literature by examining the predictors of international students’ fear of crime and perceived risk of victimization. Drawing on cultivation theory, I devote particular attention to understanding the effects of media consumption. I analyze data from an online survey of 646 international students attending several different universities in the United States. International students may rely on traditional as well as “new” media. Therefore, the analysis incorporates a uniquely rich set of measures of media consumption and media importance. The theoretical, empirical, and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

 

Author

Luzi Shi, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Sex Crime on Campus: Public Opinion on University Accountability and Mandatory Reporting

 

In Event: Advances in Sex Offense Policy Research: Exploring Public Views and Opinions

 

Following highly publicized college sex crimes, states have adopted or considered new, controversial reforms such as mandatory reporting (MR). Although its merits are debated, no study to date has measured public support for MR. This omission is notable because public opinion can shape crime policy. Drawing on a recent poll, this study evaluates views about campus sexual assault policy. Results indicate that most of the public feels universities can effectively reduce assaults and a majority favors MR. Some differences are evident, however.

Because the public holds universities accountable, institutional policies should be transparent and effective. Approval for MR signals that the public prioritizes efforts to prevent victimization. Still, because MR may have unintended effects, this support should be further explored.

 

Authors

Christina Mancini, Virginia Commonwealth University

Justin Tyler Pickett, University at Albany, SUNY

Corey Call, West Liberty University

Robyn Diehl McDougle, Virginia Commonwealth University

Sarah Jane Brubaker, Virginia Commonwealth University

Henry Brownstein, Virginia Commonwealth University

 

 

Testing a Model of Attitudes toward Disproportionate Minority Contact

 

In Event: Contemporary Issues in Disproportionate Minority Contact

 

Alexander (2010: 11) explains that disproportionate minority contact (DMC) and mass incarceration together have created a “new racial caste system” in America. She argues that nothing less than a race-conscious social movement that successfully engages the public as well as criminal justice actors is necessary to dismantle this system of racial control. Unfortunately, very little is currently known about the nature or correlates of views about DMC. Scant research has examined public attitudes toward DMC. Even fewer studies have investigated such attitudes among criminal justice actors who have opportunities to sustain or reduce racial and ethnic bias in the justice system. Building on the literature on social movements and framing as well as on scholarship on modern forms of racism, we develop a theoretical model of attitudes toward DMC. We hypothesize that: 1) race influences the resonance of injustice frames about DMC, and 2) endorsement of injustice frames, in turn, shapes judgements about the consequences of DMC as well as the perceived personal and policy importance of DMC, and mediates the effects of race on these outcomes. We provide an initial test of our theory using data from a nationwide sample (N = 552) of criminal justice actors.

 

Authors

Stephanie Bontrager Ryon, University of Colorado Colorado Springs

Justin Tyler Pickett, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Toward an Integrated Theory of Crime at Place: Routine Activities, Social Disorganization, and the Law of Crime Concentration

 

In Event: Crime and Arrest across Micro Places

 

In this study, we propose and test a wholly place-based multilevel theory of crime concentration. Our approach advances the literature on the law of crime concentration by (1) determining whether measures of routine activities theory and social disorganization theory should be integrated into a single multi-level theory of crime concentration and (2) demonstrating the utility of hierarchical modeling for estimating street segment level crime. We use hierarchical generalized linear modeling to nest 11,863 street segments within 77 census tracts. Our results generally support the idea that concepts of social disorganization matter for micro-spatial crime concentration, however, the test of our theoretical model suggests that the portion of our model based on concepts from routine activities has stronger and more consistent effects on crime concentration. While our results reveal numerous significant cross-level interaction effects between concepts of routine activities and social disorganization, overall support for our proposed integrated multi-level theory is mixed.

 

Authors

Roderick W. Jones, University of North Carolina at Wilmington

William Alex Pridemore, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Understanding Why Off-Premise Alcohol Outlets Matter for Neighborhood Violence

 

In Event: Crime and Place: Neighborhood Context and Crime

 

There is substantial evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and violence, and this association appears to be stronger for off-premise outlets. In these studies, however, each outlet is usually treated the same even though there are reasons to believe all outlets do not contribute equally to social problems. The literature lacks a discussion of the specific characteristics of off-premise alcohol outlets that might explain their differential contribution to hosting or generating violence. We collected data on immediate environment, outlet, staff, and patron characteristics for all off-premise alcohol outlets in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, using systematic social observation. We employed exploratory spatial data analyses and spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in off-premise alcohol outlet characteristics is related to robbery density net of important neighborhood predictors of crime rates. We discuss our findings in the context of the literatures on the effects of alcohol outlets and neighborhood characteristics on local crime rates.

 

Authors

Aleksandra J. Snowden, Marquette University

William Alex Pridemore, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Institutional Imbalance and a Marketized Mentality in Europe – A Multilevel Elaboration of Institutional Anomie Theory

 

In Event: Cross-National Survey Data: Toward Explanations for Social Attitudes and Views on Crime

 

This research builds upon prior efforts to transport insights from a macro-sociological theory of crime – Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT) – to enhance understanding of an important individual-level phenomenon in advanced capitalist societies – a “marketized mentality.” Such a mentality entails a strong commitment to the utilitarian, instrumental values of the market at the expense of more altruistic, expressive values. Drawing upon IAT, we hypothesize that at the individual-level, integration into selected non-economic institutions will inhibit the adoption of a marketized mentality, while at the macro-level, economically slanted imbalance in the institutional order will help account for cross-national variation in the degree to which individuals adopt such a mentality. In addition, we predict a cross-level statistical interaction: the buffering effects of integration into non-economic institutions at the individual level should be mitigated as institutional imbalance increases. These hypotheses are assessed in multilevel analyses with data from 25 European countries using the European Social Survey. The results are largely in accord with theoretical expectations, revealing how an institutional imbalance helps shape people´s value orientations by promoting marketized mentalities and by weakening the socialization effects of non-economic institutions.

 

Authors

Andreas Hövermann, University Bielefeld

Eva Groß, IKG, Bielefeld University (associated) / Lower Saxony State Office of Criminal Investigation

Steven Messner, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Prisoner Social Networks: Patterns Observed in Longitudinal Visitation Data

 

In Event: Emergent Research on Inmate Social Networks

 

As evidenced by the recent growth in prison visitation and social network studies, there is renewed interest in the in-prison experiences of the more than 1.5 million individuals behind bars in state and federal prisons in the U.S. (Carson, 2015). Gaining a better understanding of prisoner social supports and how these relationships can affect outcomes is of key importance. Theoretically, social networks and their maintenance are relevant to prisoner outcomes both during incarceration and post-release, yet little is known about the maintenance of these social bonds during incarceration. This study uses detailed, longitudinal visitation records from New York State facilities from 2000 to 2013 to characterize prisoner egocentric external social networks. The study proceeds to examine whether there are changes in egocentric prisoner-visitor networks over time, as well as, whether certain types of egocentric prisoner-visitor networks are associated with prisoner (e.g., crime type, length of criminal record) or prison system characteristics (e.g., length of stay, distance from home) or post-release outcomes (e.g., recidivism).

 

Author

Audrey Hickert, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Military Service and Subsequent Substance Use: A Propensity Score Approach

 

In Event: Exploring Substance Use with the Rochester Youth Development Study: Session II

 

The use of alcohol and drugs among military veterans is highly prevalent. The reasons for this are attributable to many theories, including both cultural transmission and self-medication. However, the degree to which military service plays an actual causal role in the promotion of substance use is often taken for granted, ignoring the possibility that military service may simply facilitate persisting differences in those likely to enlist. This study uses propensity score matching to compare veterans to non-veterans from the Rochester Youth Development Study in order to examine the extent to which selection effects may influence the military service/substance use relationship.

 

Authors

John Eassey, Missouri State University

Julie Marie Baldwin, Missouri State University

Alan J. Lizotte, SUNY Albany

 

 

Group Threat or Opportunity for Interaction: Understanding the Relationship between Relative Group Size and Hate Crime Rates

 

In Event: Hate Crime Offending

 

Understanding the relationship between demographics and hate crime rates has been at the core of much scholarly debate. Congruent with group threat theory, some research reported that a large or growing minority group has a positive effect on hate crime rates (Stacey et al., 2011). Other research, however, revealed a negative effect of minority population size, with the minority population included as the offset (Disha et al., 2011). In two recent studies, Hipp et al. (2009; 2011) caution that the selection of the appropriate denominator in computing the rate of intra- and inter-group interactions is crucial because the computation of rates entails a mathematically built-in relationship with the composition of a given group. This in turn yields conflicting findings. The present study builds on this body of work by examining whether the relationship between hate crime rates and the relative size of the minority population is a function of the structural opportunities for interaction. Using negative binomial regression analysis, we go beyond prior work by computing three distinctive measures of anti-black, anti-Hispanic, anti-Asian, and anti-Muslim/Arab hate crime rates across U.S. counties, with the following measures included as the offset: total population, group size population, and random probability of interaction.

 

Authors

Sylwia J. Piatkowska, Old Dominion University

Steven Messner, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Negotiating Balance: Criminal Justice and Social Complexity in Fragile States

 

In Event: Justice Challenges and Justice Solutions in Fragile and Developing Nations

 

Social science has long proffered that formal sanctions serve purposes beyond the mere circumscription of criminal behavior (Durkheim [1900]1983). Rusche and Kirchheimer, [1939]1968) assert that dominant groups within a society will invoke formal controls when they perceive threats to their economic and power interests. Their ability to do so often resides in a delicate system balance. As Marshall and Cole assert, “[T]he optimal functioning of a state system is dependent upon each “unit” within the system carrying out the tasks expected of competent governance, [coordinating] with and working with other parts of the system and perhaps most critically, “[working] to foster legitimacy and compliance through their just and fair actions (2009, 24).” For most nations of the world this manifests as a more or less stabilized and negotiated tension. For fragile and failed states, the tension often takes a fundamentally different form in terms of criminal justice processes. This framing suggests a relationship between social complexity and the power of social elites to manage resource distribution in society. In this study, it is argued that states whose social complexity has outpaced infrastructural development will exhibit signs of greater fragility, differential criminal justice system practices being chief among them.

 

Authors

Laurie Amanda Gould, Georgia Southern University

Matthew Pate, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Gang Member as Defendants: The Importance of Procedural Justice

 

In Event: Legal Services for the Indigent – Integrating Awareness of The Client’s Experience into Research and Practice

 

Prior research has demonstrated that defendants’ satisfaction with case outcomes and court processing can be predicted by measurements of defendant perceptions of procedural justice (also referred to as procedural fairness). In some studies, perceived fairness was found to be more predictive of defendant satisfaction than disposition or sentence. This study examined defendant perceptions of experiences in criminal court among a sample of gang involved and non-gang involved defendants. Each defendant had a recently closed case in an upstate New York City with an admitted gang problem. City and county officials have employed various enforcement, intervention, and prevention strategies for years in an effort to decrease gang activity, meaning gang members are often known to court actors. Intensive interviews were used to develop an in-depth understanding of how defendants developed perceptions of their court experiences and of which factors most influenced defendant satisfaction with case outcomes and case processing. Results were compared to prior research, most of which has employed close-ended surveys, to explore the use of interviews as a method to increase understanding of the issues of defendant satisfaction and perceptions of procedural justice. The results and conclusions of this study will be discussed, along with policy implications.

 

Author

Kirstin A. Morgan, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

How to Play the Game: Rationales Underlying and Shaping Plea Decision-Making According to Defendants, Defense attorneys, and Prosecutors

 

In Event: Legal Services for the Indigent – New Frontiers in Law, Policy and Research on Quality Legal Representation

 

The reality is that “criminal justice today is for the most part a system of pleas, not a system of trials,” as Justice Anthony M. Kennedy wrote for the majority in Lafler v. Cooper (2012). Ironically, individuals who have to make the actual decision are rarely asked (by researchers at least) about the reasons underlying their plea decisions. Although there has been influential and important research in which defendants and court actors were interviewed about the plea decision process, most of this research was conducted 30 to 40 years ago about a different court system than the one that exists today. Since then, much about courts and the process and prevalence of plea bargaining has changed. This qualitative study uses semi-structured interviews of defendants, defense attorneys, and prosecutors to investigate the (perceived) factors contributing to the rationales underlying and shaping plea offers, advisements, and acceptances. The broad goal of this project is to conduct an in-depth inquiry into the rationales and perceptions underlying the prosecutor’s plea offer, the defense attorney’s advice about the plea offer as an alternative to trial, and the defendant’s ultimate plea decision. Preliminary findings and their implications will be discussed.

 

Author

Reveka V. Shteynberg, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Marketized Mentality, Schools, and Delinquency: A Multilevel Application of Institutional Anomie Theory

 

In Event: Macro Perspectives of Crime and Delinquency

 

This research builds upon prior efforts to apply insights from a macro-sociological theory of crime – institutional anomie theory (IAT) – at multiple levels of analysis. Drawing upon this research, the notion of a “marketized mentality” is introduced as a predictor of students’ delinquency, along with two features of the school community -- an egoistic/competitive school culture and dysfunctional school performance. Five hypotheses derived from the elaborated theoretical framework pertaining to readiness to use violence and self-reported delinquency were assessed with data from a survey in Germany for 4,201 students clustered in 70 schools. The results are largely in accord with theoretical expectations. The measure of marketized mentality is related to both forms of delinquency at the individual-level of analysis net of control variables, and the indicators of a competitive/egoistic school climate and dysfunctional performance of the school help explain variation in levels of these forms of delinquency across schools. Also consistent with expectations, for the attitudinal readiness for violence, the anti-social effects of marketized mentality are accentuated as a competitive/egoistic school climate and the dysfunctional performance of schools increase. The cross-level interaction was not found for self-reported delinquency as dependent variable.

 

Authors

Eva Groß, IKG, Bielefeld University (associated) / Lower Saxony State Office of Criminal Investigation

Andreas Hövermann, University Bielefeld

Steven Messner, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

The Effects of Community Supervision on Recidivism and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

 

In Event: Mass Probation and Inequality: The Purpose, Form, and Effects of Probation

 

Community supervision, primarily in the form of probation, has grown substantially over the past four decades. Yet, this expansion in community supervision and its attendant consequences are understudied. Existing research offers two competing perspectives on the effect of probation: (1) the rehabilitative perspective suggests that probation reforms offenders by treating and deterring criminiogenic behaviors; (2) the net-widening perspective contends that probation is punitive and deepens involvement with the criminal justice system. In this study, we offer an explicit test of these competing hypotheses by examining the effects of being sentenced to jail with probation compared to only jail on recidivism and labor market outcomes. We exploit the random assignment of criminal cases to judges to estimate the effects of probation supervision and probation length using administrative data on all individuals sentenced to a felony in Michigan between 2003 and 2006. Our results indicate that for individuals sentenced to jail, the addition of probation can serve important rehabilitative functions and induce greater labor market participation. This has important implications for inequality because of differential selection into probation as a criminal sanction. We observe that white offenders are more likely to be granted probation in combination with jail compared to nonwhite offenders.

 

Authors

Anh P. Nguyen, University of Michigan

David J. Harding, University of California, Berkeley

Jeffrey D. Morenoff, University of Michigan

Shawn Bushway, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

The Changing Faces of Neighborhoods and Crime: An Examination of Four Philadelphia Neighborhood Clusters over Time

 

In Event: Neighborhood Change, Crime, and Prisoner Reentry

 

Neighborhood demographic and social indicators influence communities in ways that might vary across place or time. My previous work has shown that this is true of the association between neighborhood racial composition and crime in Philadelphia, PA. These results call for more detailed examination of the historical trajectories of these neighborhoods in order to understand the longer-term context for this spatial and temporal heterogeneity. This is particularly necessary as previous research has shown that even though neighborhoods often undergo extensive demographic shifts over time, the placement of crime hot spots tends to be consistent. Moreover, the degree to which neighborhood outcomes are influenced by demographic shifts varies by neighborhood type. This study analyzes the degree to which a subset of Philadelphia neighborhoods has undergone demographic and crime shifts over the past 20 years. It also explores how these changes, or lack thereof, correspond with more detailed indicators of social life that might help account for the changing crime patterns within and across the neighborhoods. This is part of a larger project, which seeks to provide an historical explanation for currently observed cross-sectional patterns.

 

Author

Jeaneé C. Miller, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Gender Differences in Police-Juvenile Relations

 

In Event: Police Interactions with Special Populations

 

This study will examine gender differences in police behaviors in police-juvenile encounters. This research will be based on the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN) data, 1996-1997. This research will analyze two sets of police encounters with juveniles. The first set of police encounters with juveniles in this research would be encounters with individuals under age 18 who are suspected of crimes, and the analysis of the second set of encounters with juveniles would be with those who are treated as victims. This research will test hypotheses about the impact of officers' gender on behavioral outcomes in these settings and analyze how female officers use their feminine traits compared to male officers in handling juveniles by using quantitative data. Implications for policy and research will be discussed.

 

Author

Haemi Won, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Group-Based Trajectory Modeling of Police Misconduct: Toward Finding Needles in a Haystack

 

In Event: Police Misconduct, Control, and Accountability

 

The use of early intervention (EI) systems for police is widely regarded as a best administrative practice. The identification of officers who exhibit performance problems turns first – and in some agencies, only – on metrics that are ambiguous indicators of misconduct patterns, a procedure that can yield a large number of false positives. We conduct group-based trajectory modeling of longitudinal patterns of individual officers’ performance in several agencies that operate EI systems. We compare the trajectory groups against the set of officers in each agency who exceeded EI thresholds, and the subset of those officers who, upon further review, were subject to intervention.

 

Authors

Christopher Harris, University of Massachusetts Lowell

Robert E. Worden, University at Albany, SUNY

Sarah J. McLean, The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

 

 

Crime and the Spatial Concentration of Poverty in the United States: 1980 - 2010

 

In Event: Poverty and Crime

 

In an influential account, William Julius Wilson (1987) attributed elevated crime rates to the concentration of poverty in urban neighborhoods. Wilson’s argument has generated significant scholarly attention, but its spatial implications have not been extensively examined in prior research. We investigate the relationship between temporal changes in crime rates in US counties and the spatial concentration of poverty within and between counties from 1980 to 2010, a period of marked swings in levels of both violent and property crime. Following Wilson, we anticipate that crime increases are associated with increases in the spatial concentration of poverty and crime reductions are linked to decreases in poverty concentration over the 30-year period. We discuss the implications of our results for future research on crime and the spatial distribution of economic disadvantage.

 

Authors

Eric Baumer, Pennsylvania State University

Richard Rosenfeld, University of Missouri - St. Louis

Steven Messner, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Measuring and Explaining Charge Bargaining in New York State

 

In Event: Prosecutorial Discretion, Guilty Pleas and Criminal Punishment

 

Recent literature in sentencing has pointed out that multiple decision points in the criminal justice system affect the sentence imposed. The movement of the charge when a case goes through the system is one important but frequently overlooked variable. Aggregated official statistics have indicated that the prevalence of charge reduction is high in New York State, however, the extent to which charge bargaining affects the sentence is yet to be investigated. The present study uses the Computerized Criminal History (CCH) data of New York State, and builds on the methodology of Piehl and Bushway’s (2007) work, to estimate the magnitude of charge bargaining. It further investigates the factors that explain the variation in charge bargaining, including variation associated with time and location.

 

Authors

Shi Yan, Arizona State University

Shawn Bushway, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Re-Raising the Age: Assessing Recidivism Outcomes of the Second Phase of Raise the Age Legislation in Connecticut

 

In Event: Raising the Age of Juvenile Court Jurisdiction versus Transfer to Adult Criminal Court: Critical Issues

 

A defining feature of the juvenile court system is the rehabilitative philosophy that conditions leniency in punishment for youths as compared to treatment in the adult court. However, the definition of “juvenile” and the protocol for adjudicating juveniles varies from state to state. While most states set the limit of juvenile court jurisdiction at 17, eight states draw the line at 16 and New York and North Carolina treat youths as juveniles only to age 15. Recent findings from an evaluation of a policy change in Connecticut that increased the age of juvenile court jurisdiction to 16 suggests juvenile court processing is preferential for this age group particularly as it relates to recidivism outcomes. A further change in this state that subsequently increased the age to 17 allows this research to assess the advantages of “drawing the line” of adulthood at 17 or 18. Specifically, this study utilizes a control group of 18 year olds not affected by the change and a classic difference in difference model to better causally isolate the impact of treating 17 year olds as juveniles or adults on recidivism outcomes.

 

Author

Eric Fowler, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Mental Disturbance and Gun Carrying: Findings from Monitoring the Future National Survey

 

In Event: Research on Health-Risk Behaviors among Adolescents: Drug Use and Weapon Carrying

 

School shootings are a serious problem in the United States. While there is still a debate about whether mental illness causes gun violence, the present study examines the interrelationships between substance abuse, depression, and gun carrying among youths enrolled in Monitoring the Future (MTF) National Study. Implications for research and policy will be discussed.

 

Authors

Shao-Chiu Juan, University at Albany, SUNY

Yu Gao, Florida State University

 

 

The Influence of Parental Incarceration on their Children’s Socialization and Adolescent Offending and Victimization

 

In Event: Roundtable: Incarceration

 

As parental incarceration has increased over the years, scholars have become concerned with the consequence it has on families. In order to examine these potential effects, prior research has focused mainly on how post-release family relations can influence recidivism. Less research, however, has focused on how prison experiences of parents may continue to affect parenting and children’s outcomes after release. Given the fact that incarceration can produce changes in beliefs, attitudes, and values on crime and the criminal justice system, it is important to examine how children are socialized by these parental perceptions when they return home. Utilizing longitudinal data, the proposed study will assess if incarceration influences parental socialization of their children and subsequent adolescent outcomes on offending and victimization.

 

Author

Melissa Noel, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Police Decision-Making at the Point of Arrest: What We Know, What We Don’t Know

 

In Event: Roundtable: Rethinking Pretrial Practice and Building a National Research Agenda for the Front End of the Criminal Justice System

 

Public concern about the abuse of police authority has waxed and waned over the past fifty years, and so too has researchers’ attention to the discretionary decisions of police officers waxed and waned. Much has been learned even without sustained inquiry, but many questions remain, particularly those that relate most directly to the policy levers at the disposal of police executives and their political superiors. Building on the report of the National Research Council’s Committee to Review Research on Police Policies and Practices, I discuss a number of substantive questions on which future research could profitably dwell, and I describe research methods whose application promises to yield answers to those questions.

 

Author

Robert E. Worden, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Balancing Criminal Records with Evidence of Rehabilitation in Licensing Decisions

 

In Event: The Accuracy and Use of Criminal Records for Non-Criminal Justice Purposes

 

There is a strong tension between public safety concerns and “second chances” for individuals with criminal records. Licensed occupations in the United States, which can include jobs such as barbers, taxi drivers, and security guards, require formal criminal background checks with the explicit goal of protecting the public. However, in New York State criminal background check decision makers are also required by law to consider evidence of good conduct or rehabilitation in determining a job applicant’s suitability for a particular job. Using a content analysis approach, I examine how administrative law judges balance these contrasting types of information in making licensing decisions in New York State. I also examine potential variations in perceptions of “risk” and “rehabilitation” by the individual’s sex, type of conviction(s), time since last conviction(s), and whether an advocacy organization was involved in preparing the evidence of rehabilitation submission.

 

Author

Megan Denver, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Examining the Inevitability Hypothesis of Terrorism

 

In Event: The Arc of Terrorism: Organizational Reach, Lifespan, and International Data

 

Recent work has examined terrorism for signs of displacement and diffusion of benefits. The current study uses data from the Global Terrorism Database to investigate displacement in the operation of terroristic acts. This study also discusses policy implications and the relevant methodological issues and challenges.

 

Authors

Henda Y. Hsu, University of Houston - Clear Lake

Bob Edward Vasquez, Texas State University

David McDowall, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Methamphetamine Manufacturing, Risk Management, and Restrictive Deterrence: Variation in Risk Perception and Management by Cooking Roles

 

In Event: The Lived Experiences of People Who Use Methamphetamine

 

People who engage in illegal behaviors do not passively accept the risks of their actions. Instead, they actively engage in risk reduction behaviors to minimize their risks. Here, we explore the ways that people who manufacture methamphetamine assess and manage risk associated with their cooking. Specifically, we use semi-structured interviews with women and men who cooked shake and bake meth to elaborate on what they see as the riskiest parts of cooking and on the risk reduction behaviors they implemented to combat these risks. We find that their adherence to risk management strategies was largely dependent on their role in the cooking process. Those who were primary cooks (i.e., led the cooking process) were more aware of risks and engaged in more risk reduction behaviors than those who were secondary cooks (i.e., assistants). The findings suggest that it is important to examine people’s roles and positions within illegal economies when discussing risk reduction and have implications for restrictive deterrence more generally.

 

Authors

Jennifer Kim, Rutgers University

Natalie Matos, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Taylor Leet, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Samantha Wilcox, University of Albany

 

 

Exploring the Role of Caregiver Engagement in Post-discharge Outcomes for Residentially-placed Youth

 

In Event: The Role of Family in Juvenile Court Processes, Institutional Misconduct, and Aftercare

 

There has been increasing support for caregiver engagement in residential treatment for youth. Caregiver involvement in residential treatment has been demonstrated to produce better treatment and post-discharge outcomes for youth. There is also growing recognition that youth often return to the family environment, therefore necessitating family engagement to stabilize the post-discharge environment and facilitate post-discharge adjustment. The current study explores the effects of caregiver engagement in youth residential treatment on post-discharge family relationships and youth recidivism. A mix of self-report and official report data were used to explore the role of caregiver engagement on post-discharge outcomes. Caregivers were interviewed approximately 3 months after their child had been released from residential placement to reflect on their level of involvement during placement and rate the quality of various family measures since the youth had returned home. Recidivism data were supplied by the State for a 3 year period following the date of the youth’s discharge. The role of caregiver engagement in either preventing or delaying the occurrence of subsequent arrest or residential placement will be discussed.

 

Author

Raquel Derrick, University at Albany, SUNY

 

 

Illegal Guns in Boston: Patterns and Policy

 

In Event: Understanding the Underground Gun Market: How Violent Offenders Obtain Guns and Ammunition in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Boston

 

This presentation summarizes several years of mixed methods research into the trade in illegal guns in Boston, Massachusetts. Building on analyses of approximately two decades of ATF trace data, we begin by identifying patterns of continuity and change in the source states of crime guns recovered in Boston. We extend this analysis through the study of secondhand gun transactions that preceded the recovery of these Boston crime guns, made possible by a Massachusetts state law requiring record keeping of secondary and private firearm sales. After describing the contours of the illegal gun market through the lens of law enforcement data, we augment this picture with a summary of findings from recent ethnographic research with illegal gun users in Boston. We conclude by offering a composite portrait of the local gun market, identifying its unique features and emphasizing opportunities for policy intervention.

 

Authors

David Hureau, SUNY Albany

Anthony A. Braga, Northeastern University