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NORTHEAST ANTHROPOLOGY
Abstracts: Issue 67


Number 67 Spring 2004


The editorial comment for issue number 67 can be found at the end of this page.

ARTICLES
Pages

1-22 Picturing Pachgatgoch: An Eighteenth-Century American Indian Community in Western Connecticut

Corinna Dally-Starna and William A. Starna

Of the eighteenth-century native communities in western Connecticut, only one has an extensive and detailed documentary record of its existence. It is Pachgatgoch. Working almost exclusively from the diaries and correspondence left by Moravian missionaries who spent nearly three decades in service to the Indians there, this essay describes the community's multi-locus settlement pattern, forms of land use, native dwellings, and the design of the Moravian mission. Also presented is a discussion of mortuary practices against the backdrop of a previously unpublished drawing of "God's Acre," the Indian cemetery. Shifts evident in elements of the native cultural system are traceable, in part, to colonial encroachment and the presence of the Moravians.

Parmi les communautés amérindiennes du XVIIIe siècle dans l'ouest du Connecticut, celle de Pachgatgoch est la seule dont on détient des archives documentaires considérables et détaillées. En utilisant presque exclusivement la correspondance et les journaux personnels des missionnaires moraves qui y habitèrent pendant près de trois décennies, cet article décrit le schème d' établissement à emplacements multiples de cette communauté, les differentes utilisations du territoire les lieux d'habitation et le plan de la mission morave. Nous présentons également une discussion des pratiques funéraires à la lumière d'un dessin inédit de "God's Acre ", le cimetière amérindien. Des changements évidents de certains aspects du système culturel autochtone sont en partie reliés à l' empiètement colonial et la présence morave.


23-60 Seneca Iroquois Settlement Pattern, Community Structure, And Housing, 1677-1779

Kurt A. Jordan

This paper presents and analyzes archaeological and documentary evidence on homeland Seneca Iroquois settlements during the A.D. 1677-1779 era using synchronic depictions of Seneca settlement pattern, community structure, and housing in 1687, 1700, 1720, 1750, and 1779. Major changes in settlement pattern and community organization occurred during 1710-1720, when the first dispersed communities were constructed, and during 1740-1750 when the Genesee Valley was reoccupied. A model emphasizing supra-regional political-economic factors as establishing constraints and opportunities for local action provides a better framework for explaining the observed changes than normative linear developmental schemes.

Cet article présente une analyse des témoins archéologiques et documentaires concernant les établissements Senecas sur leur territoire au cours de la période entre les années 1677 et 1779. Des descriptions du schème d'établissement, de la structure communautaire et de l'habitation, datant de 1677, de 1700, de 1720, de 1750 et de 1779 sont mises à contribution. Des changements majeurs dans Ie scheme d'etablissement et l'organisation communautaire ont eu cours durant l'episode de 1710 a 1720, quand les premières communautes dispersees se sont amalgamees, et durant l'épisode de 1740 à 1750, quand la vallée de la rivière Genesee Jut réoccupée. Un modèle qui, à une échelle supra régionale, met l'accent sur des facteurs politico-économiques qui déterminent des contraintes et des occasions d'actions locales offre un cadre plus adéquat que des modèles normatifs de développement linéaires pour expliquer les changements observés.

61-88 Marbletown and Nachte Jan: Two Multi-Component Rockshelters in the Esopus Drainage, Ulster County, NY

Joseph E. Diamond

Two rockshelters in the Esopus drainage excavated by amateur archaeologists are discussed. The occupations at the Marbletown Rockshelter and Nachte Jan's Rockshelter span the periods from the Vosburg and Vergennes Phases, respectively, to contact with the Dutch in the seventeenth-century. Numerically, the bulk of the materials are from the Terminal Late Woodland and Contact Period, with the two rockshelters yielding a total of 66 distinct ceramic vessels, of which 48 are Chance or post-Chance Phase in date. Explanations for such large quantities of Terminal Late Woodland and Contact Period ceramic vessels (and European trade items) include caching of ceramics, and increased use of the rockshelters during the first and second Esopus Wars, as well as increasing use of the rockshelters by smaller social units (and individuals) spread across the landscape in an effort to be less visible.

Discussion de deux abris en pierre fouilles par des archéologues non-professionnels. L 'occupation des abris de Marbletown et de Nachte Jan s' 'etend des périodes Vosburg et Vergennes, respectivement, au contact avec les Hollandais au dix-septième siècle. En nombre, la plupart du matériel date de la période de la Fin de la Région Boisée et de celle du Contact. Ces deux abris ont rendu un total de 66 récipients en céramique distinctes, parmi lesquels 48 datent de la phase Chance ou post-Chance. Une telle quantité de récipients en céramique (et objets d'échange.de provenance europeenne) de ces périodes peut s 'expliquer par la cachette, l'usage plus fréquent de ces abris pendant les première et deuxième guerres de l'Esopus airisi que l'usage plus fréquent des abris de pierre par de plus petits groupes (et individus) qui, dans Ie but de passer inaperçus, se sont dispersés sur Ie terrain.


BOOK REVIEWS
89-90 People, Places, and Material Things: Historical Archaeology of Albany New York (Charles L. Fisher, editor)
Kelly M Britt
90-91 Northeast Subsistence-Settlement Change AD 700-1300 (John P. Hart and Christina B. Rieth, editors)
Sarah W. Neusius

EDITORIAL COMMENT
You'll notice that this commentary is signed by the editor of years past. Sean Rafferty and I decided that delaying the move back to Albany for a year (now effective 2005) would make for a smoother transition. At this time, the fall issue has sufficient material for an entire volume, so now is the time to forward manuscripts to my successor, at the following address:

Dr. Sean Rafferty
Department of Anthropology
University of Albany, SUNY
1400 Washington Avenue
Albany, NY 12222
rafferty@albany.edu

This issue is (unintentionally) thematically bound by virtue of its focus on Native American and EuroAmerican interactions prior to the Revolutionary War. Together these articles highlight the multiplicity and flexibility of Native American responses to encroachments from the sixteenth century onwards. Corinna Dally-Starna and William Starna's work in the Moravian Archives in Pennsylvania should make us feel optimistic about the possibilities of undiscovered or untranslated documents that may still be out there, and the new perspectives they provide. For those of you who stuck with Latin through college, perhaps some time spent with the unabridged Jesuit Relations would prove a boon for Northeastern ethnohistory? Likewise, Kurt Jordan's and Joseph Diamond's research, respectively, on earlier archaeological collections reminds us that there are still new insights that await the diligent scholar who is willing to revisit assemblages that have just been waiting for another look. This volume emphasizes that written documents and the archaeological record still have new revelations to offer on Northeastern ethnohistory, no matter how deeply we may think the data have been mined.

Charles R. Cobb


 



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