Topics in theoretical and applied physics will be studied using both analytical and numerical approaches. Formal descriptions of phenomena and interpretations of results will involve a variety of classical and modern mathematical techniques. Prerequisites: Differential equations; six credits in physics.

**Phy 510B Mathematical Methods in Physics II (3)**

Topics in theoretical and applied physics will be studied using both analytical and numerical approaches. Formal descriptions of phenomena and interpretations of results will involve a variety of classical and modern mathematical techniques. Prerequisite: Phy 510A

**Phy 519 Experimental Techniques in Physics (3)**

Techniques of contemporary experimental physics are highlighted through active participation in seminars and selected structured projects utilizing the various research facilities in the department. Emphasis will be given to the advantages and limitations of the techniques in the elucidation of the physics involved. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

A broad survey of the phenomena of nuclear physics. Bulk properties of the nucleus; size, shape, spin, moments, and binding energy. Two-nucleon problem; deuteron, scattering, nuclear shell model, unified model, and collective motion. Electromagnetic and weak interactions. Nuclear reactions, compound nucleus, and direct reactions.

A broad survey of the phenomena of particle physics. Experimental methods. Classification of particles, quantum numbers, and interactions. External and internal symmetries. Electromagnetic, strong, and weak interactions; resonances; unitary symmetry; recent topics.

**Phy 532 Solid State Physics (3)**

A broad survey of the phenomena of solid state physics. Symmetry restrictions on physical properties; electronic and vibrational band structures in crystalline metals, semiconductors, and insulators, and in liquids; electronic properties include transport and optical properties; magnetism; superconductivity.

**Phy 533 Solid State Physics II (3)
**

A broad survey of the phenomena of solid state physics. Superconductivity, dielectrics and ferroelectrics, diamagnetism and paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, magnetic resonance, point and line defects, surfaces and interfaces, alloys, noncrystalline solids. Prerequisite: Phy 532.

**Phy 542 Introduction to General Relativity (3)**

Review of special relativity. Introduction to tensor analysis and the geometry of curved spaces. Einstein's equations. Applications to gravitational waves, black holes and expanding universes.

**Phy 545 Topics in the Physics of Nuclear Medicine
(3)**

Fundamental physics in nuclear medicine; tracer applications; radiation dosimetry; scanning techniques; radio-chemistry; organ imaging; effects of ionizing radiation; data processing; labeled compounds; genetic effects of radiation; and safety and removal of contamination. Three class periods a week. May be taken first semester only. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Phy 551 (Csi 551) Bayesian Data Analysis and Signal Processing (3)**

This course will introduce both the principles and practice of Bayesian and
maximum entropy methods for data analysis, signal processing, and machine learning.
This is a hands-on course that will introduce the use of the MATLAB computing
language for software development. Students will learn to write their own Bayesian
computer programs to solve problems relevant to physics, chemistry, biology,
earth science, and signal processing, as well as hypothesis testing and error
analysis. Optimization techniques to be covered include gradient ascent, fixed-point
methods, and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Prerequisites: Csi
101 or Csi 201 or equivalent or permission of instructor.

**Phy 552A,B Advanced Electronics (3,3)**

Circuit techniques and design for electronic measurements and instrumentation. Fast pulse techniques, operational amplifiers, analog/digital conversion, digital logic and circuitry. In keeping with modern practice, semiconductor devices and integrated circuitry will be emphasized. Two classes, one lab each week.

**Phy 553 Microprocessor Applications (3)**

Applications of commercially available microprocessors to data collection and process control. The course concentrates on the interfacing of microprocessors to devices associated with computers, laboratory measurement and control, and home systems. Such devices might include printers, keyboards, analog-digital converters, event counters, heating monitors and controls, music synthesizers, etc. Prerequisite: Csi 201 or equivalent.

**Phy 554 Microprocessors Applications Laboratory
(3)**

This course complements the theoretical development presented in Phy 553. It is centered around practical laboratory applications in both hardware and software of a particular microprocessor. The student will prototype a minimum system and expanded system. Applications will include keyboard, printer, display, AID, D/A, and control functions. A knowledge of a microprocessor and digital logic functions is desirable. Prerequisite: Phy 553 or consent of instructor.

**Phy 560 Atoms and Molecules (3)**

A broad survey of the phenomena in atomic and molecular physics. Atomic structure and spectroscopy, scattering and collisions; molecular structure, electronic, rotational and vibrational spectra, photon excitations, scattering and collisions.

**Phy 561 Introduction to Plasma Physics (3)**

Partially and fully ionized gases are considered with particular emphasis on how microscopic interactions lead to macroscopic transport coefficients of conductivity, heat transfer and thermal diffusion. Collisions between electrons, atoms, molecules and ion. Excitation, radiation, ionization and recombination as controlled by the degree of ionization of the plasma. Plasmas as fluids interacting with electric and magnetic fields. Examples of plasma behavior include magnetohydrodynamics, plasma confinement, lasers and wave propagation. Particular emphasis is given to electrical discharges (coronas, glows and arcs) and to the plasma-electrode interface. Prerequisite: Consent of Instructor.

**Phy 562 Structure and Properties of Materials (3)**

The physics of real materials: the structure of crystalline and amorphous solids; x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy; the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations; crystallographic defects and their relation to mechanical properties.

**Phy 563 Particle-Solid Interactions (3)**

A survey of basic phenomena encountered in the interaction of atomic particles with a solid and of their underlying physical principles. Topics include stopping power and particle beam methods for materials characterization, modification, and removal such as backscattering and channeling, ion implantation, and sputtering.

**Phy 564 Optical Processes in Solids (3)**

Fundamentals of optical interactions with solid-state systems. Topics include dielectric function, elementary excitations in solids, optical transitions in solids (direct/indirect processes, radiative/nonradiative processes), optical properties of phonons and excitons, and nonlinear optical processes. Basic principles of optical spectroscopy are also covered.

**Phy 566 X-Ray optics, Analysis and Imaging (3)**

A broad survey of x-ray optics and their uses. Introduction to the theory of x-ray interaction with matter, including refraction, diffraction, total reflection, image formation, fluorescence, absorption, and surface roughness. Applications include x-ray astronomy, microscopy, lithography, materials analysis and medical imaging. A paper and presentation are required.

**Phy 567 Physics of Semiconductor Devices (3)**

A survey of state of the art semiconductor device manufacture and usage in the electronics industry. Topics covered include basic semiconductor physics (band structure, electron transport, phonon, optical, thermal, and high magnetic field properties) and the operating principles and current manufacturing techniques of various devices (p-n junctions, transistors, CCD’s, photonic devices, and superlattices). Graduate students are required to submit a written report.

**Phy 568 Introduction to Particle Physics (3)**

Particle interactions and symmetries. Introduction to classification and the quark model. Calculation of elementary processes using Feynman diagrams.

**Phy 570A (Chm 544) Theory and Techniques of Biophysics
and Biophysical Chemistry (3)**

Introductory theory and applications of thermodynamics, spectroscopy, and diffraction as used to probe biomolecular structure in modern quantitative biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. A Physics Department survey course. Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor; Chm 340A,B or Phy 431 are recommended if course is taken for a letter grade.

**Phy 570B Problems in Biophysics and Biophysical
Chemistry (3)**

In-depth application of the theory and techniques introduced in the first semester's Theory and Techniques of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry. Topics covered: energetics of macromolecular structure, regulation of biological activity, ligand interactions, biological magnetic resonance, membrane structure and function, electron microscopy and image reconstruction, DNA structure and dynamics. Prerequisite: Phy 570A or consent of instructor.

**Phy 580 Electron Diffraction and Microscopy (3)**

Kinematic theory of electron diffraction. Reciprocal lattices and fine structure of diffraction patterns. Electron guns and electron lenses. Operation and calibration of electron microscopes. Dynamical theory of diffraction contrast. Images of various defects in solids. Analysis of dislocations and interfaces. Many-beam effects and weak-beam images. Phase contrast. Lattice images and multislice method. Sample preparation and analytical electron microscopy techniques. The course encludes hands-on electron microscope experiments.

**Phy 610A Classical Physics I (3)**

The fundamental principles of classical mechanics: the Lagrangian formulation, action, variational principles, and equations of motion, Hamilton’s principle, conserved quantities, rigid bodies and tops, Hamiltonian formulation and canonical equations, canonical transformations and generating functions, Liouville’s theorem. Corequisites: Phy 510A.

**Phy 610B Classical Physics II (3)**

Electrostatics and magnetostatics, potentials and energy, boundary value problems, Green’s functions expansions, Maxwell’s equations; electromagnetic waves, conservation laws, wave guides; retarded potentials and dipole radiation. Relativistic formulations for the electromagnetic field and particle dynamics. Prerequisite: Phy 610A. Corequisite: Phy 510B.

**Phy 612 Statistical Mechanics (3)**

An introduction to statistical methods and the description of a variety of phenomena on a statistical basis. Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory are presented from a unified point of view. Topics include elements of probability theory, interaction between macroscopic systems and their parameters, equilibrium, ensembles, classical and quantum statistics, systems of interacting particles, Boltzmann equation, irreversible processes, and fluctuations. Prerequisite: Phy 431.

**Phy 615 Quantum Mechanics I (3)**

Review of Schroedinger equation. Heisenberg formalism and its properties. Basic principles and structure of quantum mechanics. States, observables, measurements and their mathematical descriptions. Representation and transformation theory. Bound states and scattering. Applications to harmonic oscillator and central potentials. Prerequisite: Phy 421. Corequisites: Phy 510B.

**Phy 617 Quantum Mechanics II (3)**

Theory of angular momentum; rotation, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Wigner-Eckart theorem. Approximation, methods, perturbation, variation and WKB approaches, identical particles, Thomas-Fermi model, Hartree-Fock equation. Semiclassical theory of radiation. Prerequisite: Phy 615.

**Phy 619 Quantum Mechanics III (3)**

Potential scattering; wave packets, scattering amplitude, cross section, partial waves, phase shifts, Born approximation. Effective range, resonances, scattering matrix, dispersion relations. Formal collision theory. Relativistic wave equation. Klein-Gordon equation, Dirac equation, Relativistic electron theory, spin and negative energy, fine structure of the hydrogen atom. Prerequisite: Phy 615.

**Phy 632 Magnetic Resonance (3)**

Nuclear magnetic resonance and electron-spin paramagnetic resonance. Topics include spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions, Bloch's phenomenological equations, nuclear electric quadrupole effects in solids, crystal fields and the effective spin Hamiltonian. Hyperfine interactions and applications of resonance techniques to studies of molecular and crystalline structure. May be taken second semester only. Prerequisite: Phy 615.

**Phy 640 Information Physics (3)**

The basic principles of information theory and their relation to the laws of physics. Probability and entropy as tools for inductive reasoning. The Cox axioms. Bayes’ theorem and its application to elementary data analysis. Relative entropy, the method of maximum entropy and the foundations of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Information geometry, the Fisher-Rao information metric. Shannon’s entropy and Shannon’s theorems. Entropy in quantum mechanics. Quantum information theory and quantum computation. Derivation of quantum mechanics from information theory. Prerequisites: Phy 612, Phys 615, or consent of the instructor.

**Phy 650 A,B Theoretical Solid State Physics (3,3)**

Symmetry properties of crystals, electronic states, band-structure, and electronic properties. Lattice vibrations, electron-photon interactions, and cooperative phenomena including ferromagnetism and superconductivity. Structure and properties of imperfections in crystals. Year course. Prerequisites: Phy 615.

**Phy 680 Seminar in Physics (3-6)**

Conferences, reports, and individual theoretical and experimental work. May be taken in either session or both.

**Phy 695 Introduction to Research Problems in Physics
(3)**

Individually directed investigation into areas of current research interest in the department. Prerequisite: Consent of faculty member who will act as supervisor for the investigation.

**Phy 699 Master's Thesis in Physics (2-6)**

**Phy 731 Current Topics in Solid State Physics (3)**

Topics focus on the current theoretical and experimental frontiers of solid state physics. The topics vary from year to year.

**Phy 742 Relativity and Cosmology (3)**

Tensor analysis-special relativity, Lorenz transformations, covariant formulation of physical laws. Principles of general relativity and solutions of the Einstein field equation. Tests of general relativity; cosmological models; topics in general relativity.

**Phy 780 Graduate Student Seminar (1)**

Discussion of physics topics and research being done by graduate students.

**Phy 781A,B Methods for Investigation of Electronic
Structures of Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Systems (3,3)**

Procedures for quantitative study of electronic structures and properties of atoms, small molecules, large molecules and solid state materials. Topics include Hartree-Fock and Many-Body theories for atomic systems and small molecules, empirical and approximate procedures for large molecules especially for systems of biological interest, band-structure and cluster approaches to solid state systems including metallic, semiconductor, ionic crystal and molecular solids, impurity centers in these systems and surfaces and interfaces. Prerequisites: Phy 615 and 617.

**Phy 782 Advanced Topics in Theoretical Physics
(3)**

Selected topics in theoretical physics such as nonlinear mechanics, hydro-dynamics, elasticity, nonlinear optics, field theory, relativistic scattering theory, dispersion relations and causality, superconductivity, astrophysics, plasma physics, reactor kinetics, stochastic processes, and molecular physics. Matrix, dispersion relations. Formal collision theory. Relativistic wave equations; Lorentz invariance, Klein-Gordon equation, Dirac equation. Relativistic electron theory, spin and negative energy, fine structure of the hydrogen atom. Prerequisite: Phy 615.

**Phy 784 Special Topics in Physics (1-6)**

Selected coverage of specialized topics in techniques and nontraditional topics in which physics plays an important role such as new sources of energy, new materials, new devices, engineering and technology, pollution detection and control, dating of artifacts, and nuclear medicine. Often staffed by guest lecturers.

**Phy 810-832 Research in Physics (1-15)**

Research in physics for students working beyond the master's degree level. Consent of the department chair or the doctoral students advisory committee required. A student registering for this course indicates the portion of the total semester-load devoted to it by listing an appropriate number of "load equivalent units" instead of credits. Residence credit earned in this course becomes applicable upon satisfactory completion of all other requirements established for the Ph.D. degree in physics.

**Phy 810 Research in Physics (1-15)**

**Phy 811 Crystallography (3-15)**

**Phy 812 Elementary Particles (3-15)**

**Phy 814 Magnetic Resonance (3-15)**

**Phy 816 Mathematical Physics (3-15)**

**Phy 820 Theoretical Solid State Physics (3-15)**

**Phy 830 Particle-Solid Interactions (3-15)**

**Phy 831 Atomic Collisions (3-15)**

**Phy 852A,B Seminar in Solid State Physics (3,3)**

Lecture-discussion presented by faculty and graduate students (primarily the latter) on current literature in their field. It is expected that students who are working on their dissertations will take at least two sessions of one seminar.

**Phy 853A,B Seminar in Nuclear Physics (3,3)**

Lecture-discussion presented by faculty and graduate students (primarily the latter) on current literature in their field. It is expected that students who are working on their dissertation will take at least two sessions of one seminar.

**Phy 855A,B (Chm 685A,B) Seminar in Chemical
Physics (2,2)**

Lecture-discussion presented by faculty and graduate students on current literature in their field.

**Phy 890 Selected Topics in Physics (2-6)**

Formal or reading courses in selected areas of physics. Content will depend on the interests of instructor and students. Hours arranged.

**Phy 899 Doctoral Dissertation (3-12 L.E.U.)**

Required of all candidates completing the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.