In addition to the specific prerequisites listed for each course, a general prerequisite for all graduate courses offered by the department is an adequate undergraduate preparation, as described in the Requirements for Admission to the Program Leading to the Doctor of Philosophy Degree, or consent of instructor.

**Atm 500 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (3)**

Basic principles and laws governing the motions of fluids; elements of vector and tensor analysis; kinematics of fluid motion; the Navier-Stokes equations of motion and the energy equation for a Newtonian fluid; ideal and viscous fluids; dimensional analysis; graduate project assignments required.

**Atm 501 Synoptic Laboratory II (3)**

Intermediate principles of weather analysis on different motion scales in middle latitudes; use of satellite products in analysis and forecasting; analysis and use of numerical weather prediction products in real time forecasting.

**Atm 504A Introduction to Atmospheric Physics (3)**

The application of physical laws and principles including acoustics, electricity, wave-propagation, optics, and radiation to the atmosphere; required readings and problems in these areas.

**Atm 507 (Chm 507) Atmospheric Chemistry (3)**

Chemical kinetics and photochemical principles of atmospheric transformation processes; mechanisms of polluted and clean tropospheres; chemical constituents of natural and polluted atmospheres, transient species, gas- and liquid-phase reactions; fate of chemical constituents in the atmosphere; quantitative basis for understanding complex chemical interactions of the atmospheric environment. Graduate project required.

The physical processes governing the continental hydrologic cycle such as water vapor transport, runoff, evapotranspiration, streamflow, sub-surface recharge; land/atmosphere interaction; spatial/temporal variability of hydrologic parameters. Prerequisites: Atm 320 and Math 311.

**Atm 510 Synoptic Dynamic Meteorology I (3)**

Fundamentals of fluid dynamics necessary for understanding synoptic scale atmospheric
motions; conservation laws, applications of the governing equations; circulation,
vorticity, divergence and deformation concepts and applications; use of vorticity
and potential vorticity concepts to interpret synoptic scale weather systems;
planetary boundary layer circulations. Corequisite: Atm 504 or consent of instructor

**Atm 511 Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology (3)**

Governing atmospheric physical laws; wind in relation to pressure; influence of friction; vertical structure of wind systems; atmospheric kinematics; circulation, vorticity and divergence theorems, fronts and frontogenesis; quasi-geostrophic theory and application of basic atmospheric dynamics to the observed weather behavior; required readings and problems in these areas. Prerequisite: Atm 500 or consent of instructor.

Methods and instruments for air sampling; physical and chemical analyses of air suspensoids; pollutant dispersion under various conditions of stability; capacity of the atmosphere to assimilate wastes; effects of pollutants on materials, vegetation, and animal life.

Size distribution, shape, and structure of aerosol particles; Brownian motion; convective and turbulent diffusion; collisions and coagulation of particles and disintegration of aggregates; aerosol precipitation.

**Atm 518 Meteorological Instrumentation (3)**

Principles and performance of instruments with emphasis on the selection of instrumentation for particular measurement requirements; principles of operation and performance of various instruments; selection of recorders; introduction to the principle of digital instrumentation; integration of sensors and recorders into measurement systems; selection and installation of instruments for specialized measurements.

Principles and processes of the chemical composition of condensed water in the atmosphere; techniques for measuring cloud chemical and microphysical structure; cloud chemistry measurements; laboratory studies and theoretical models; aerosol microphysics and chemistry, nucleation theory, droplet growth-multiphase environment; influences of clouds on global and regional scale atmospheric chemistry. Prerequisite: Atm 507 (Chm 507).

**Atm 520 Remote Sensing in Atmospheric Sciences (3)**

Satellite remote sensing from UV to microwave will be covered. Techniques and physical principles of sensor and platforms are presented along with theories upon which measurements are based. Atmospheric related parameters that are accessible to remote sensing are highlighted but other ecosystem parameters are also included Prerequisites: Atm 504A, Atm 507 (Chm 507).

**Atm 521 Tropical Meteorology (3)**

Tropical cyclone dynamics and thermodynamics; tropical cyclone formation; monsoons; tropical waves; El Niņo.

**Atm 522 Climate Variability and Predictability (3)**

This course will develop theoretical concepts needed to understand climate
variability and its predictability on a range of space and timescales. The course
will emphasize variability on seasonal-to-interannual timescales and will include
an analysis of El Nino Southern Oscillation and its global impacts. The different
roles of the ocean, land and atmosphere in determining variability and predictability
of the climate system will be discussed. Methods used for seasonal-to-interannual
prediction will also be covered. No prerequisites besides the general prerequisites
for all departmental graduate courses.

**Atm 524 Atmospheric Electricity I (3)**

Processes of atmospheric ionization; ion equilibrium and conductivity of air; fair-weather phenomena; charge generation under storm conditions; charge separation; the lightning discharge.

**Atm 528 Basic Concepts of Atmospheric Transfer Processes
(3)**

An introduction to the study of atmospheric diffusion, heat conduction and convection, radiative transfer, friction, and evaporation at the Earth's surface and in the air above; measuring techniques and applications. Prerequisite: Atm 511.

**Atm 530 Solar Radiation and Applications (3)**

Definition of solar and terrestrial radiation components; basic celestial geometry; introduction to the measurement of solar radiation; principles of solar radiation transfer through the Earth's atmosphere; study of the interrelationship between solar radiation components; applied solar radiation examples.

**Atm 534 Cloud and Precipitation Physics I (3)**

Basic principles of cloud and precipitation physics, including the study of condensation processes, freezing nucleation, ice crystal growth, weather modification, and application of radar techniques.

**Atm 542 Wave Motions in the Atmosphere (3)**

Introduction to midlatitude and equatorial wave motions, including basic concepts and equations; structures, propagation, and dispersion characteristics of various atmospheric wave types and their interactions. Prerequisite: Atm 500.

**Atm 546 Atmospheric Radiative Processes (3)**

Fundamental radiation laws; the theory of radiative transfer in the atmosphere with emphasis on the computation of solar and infra-red heating rates; atmospheric modulation of radiative processes; the atmospheric heat budget; effects of radiative processes on atmospheric phenomena of various scales; applications in remote sensing.

**Atm 562 Numerical Techniques in Atmospheric Science
(3)**

Basic mathematical and numerical concepts used to describe atmospheric behavior; individual practical experience in numerical solutions of systems of equations, nonlinear equations, ordinary and partial differential equations, and numerical inversion and approximation techniques. Prerequisites: Familiarity with Basic, Fortran, or Pascal languages; course in partial differential equations, and permission of instructor.

**Atm 601 Synoptic Laboratory III (3)**

Advanced principles of weather analysis, isentropic analysis of weather systems; vertical motion, vorticity and divergence computations, selected analyses of tropical weather systems; mesoanalysis; use of numerical guidance in weather forecasting.

**Atm 607 Chemical and Optical Instrumentation for
Atmospheric Measurement (3)**

Principles and performance of chemical and optical instrumentation and techniques for ground and aircraft-based measurements; chromatography; absorption and emission spectroscopy; fluorescence, wavelength and frequency modulation, and laser based technologies; data collection and analysis methods; sources of noise and mitigation, detection limit and adaptation of laboratory instrumentation to field measurement. Prerequisite: Atm 507 (Chm 507).

**Atm 611 Advanced Synoptic Meteorology (3)**

Application of advanced synoptic principles to various atmospheric flow regimes; jet stream dynamics; weather systems as viewed from isentropic coordinates; application of numerical prediction models to weather forecasting; tropical weather systems; interaction of synoptic and mesoscale weather systems. Prerequisite: Atm 511.

**Atm 612 Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Convection (3)**

Saturation-point formulation of moist thermodynamics, mixing in cumulus clouds, virtual potential temperature relative to updrafts and downdrafts, idealized examples of downdrafts from evaporative mixing instability, unsaturated downdraft thermodynamics, simple cloud models in saturation-point coordinates.

**Atm 615 Global Biogeochemical Cycles (3)**

Chemical perspectives of the cycling of elements through the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, surface waters, and solid; retrospective of biogeochemical cycles prior to the industrial revolution; biogeochemical cycles of C, N, S, P, and O and their interaction with the environment; evolution of the atmosphere and global pollution. Student seminars. Prerequisite: Atm 507 (Chm 507).

**Atm 619 Seminar in Atmospheric Science I (1-3)**

Report on selected research topics.

**Atm 621 Structure and Dynamics of Extratropical Cyclones
(3)**

Overview of quasi- and semi-geostrophic models of extratropical cyclones; diagnostic methods for cyclone development and vertical circulations; conceptual models of cyclone structure and evolution. Prerequisites: Atm 511, Atm 611.

**Atm 622 General Circulation of the Atmosphere (3)**

Processes which maintain the general circulation of the Earth's atmosphere; investigation of observed angular momentum, energy and water vapor budgets of the atmosphere; atmospheric energetics; application of numerical methods to studies of the general circulation. Prerequisite: Atm 511.

Fundamental physical and chemical processes governing the Earth's atmosphere-surface climate systems; Formulation and development of mathematical models for simulation of past, present and future climates; Climate variability from observations; Greenhouse effect and other natural and anthropogenic causes for climate changes. Cloud physics and cloud chemistry effects on climate. Prerequisites: Atm 500, 504A, and 507.

**Atm 628 Boundary Layer Meteorology (3)**

Properties of turbulent shear flows in the atmosphere surface and boundary layers; the turbulent kinetic energy budget in stable and convective conditions; similarity hypotheses and spectral analysis; observations and models of boundary layer development including consideration of internal sources of heat, momentum and chemical constituents; observational techniques. Prerequisite: Atm 528 or consent of instructor.

**Atm 631 Mesoscale Dynamics (3)**

Dynamical descriptions and analysis of ageostrophic circulations on the mesoscale in the absence of moist processes; primary emphasis on frontogenesis and symmetric instability. Prerequisite: Atm 511.

**Atm 632 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (3)**

An introduction to fluid dynamics as it applies to geophysical phenomena including general properties of viscous fluids; vorticity dynamics; introduction to thermal convection and the stability of atmospheric and oceanic flows. Prerequisite: Atm 511.

**Atm 639 Independent Study I (1-3)**

Independent reading on a specialized topic. Prerequisite: By advisement only.

**Atm 641 Mesoscale Processes (3)**

Role of moisture and inhomogeneities of the Earth's surface in forcing and modifying mesoscale circulations; mesoscale organization of precipitation systems; thermally and topographically forced circulations. Prerequisite: Atm 511.

**Atm 652 Numerical Weather Prediction (3)**

Numerical methods for diagnostic and prognostic meteorological models; geostrophic adjustment and initialization; incorporation of clouds and precipitation; review of current numerical weather prediction models. Prerequisite: Atm 500.

Independent research leading to an acceptable thesis. Satisfactory completion of a master's thesis seminar on principal research findings. Prerequisite: By advisement only.

**Atm 719 Seminar in Atmospheric Science II (1-2)**

Reports on selected research topics. Prerequisite: By advisement only.

**Atm 721 Special Problems in Synoptic Meteorology (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in synoptic meteorology. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 722 Special Problems in Dynamic Meteorology (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in dynamic meteorology. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 723 Special Problems in Climatology (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in climatology. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 724 Special Problems in Atmospheric Electricity
(2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in atmospheric electricity. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 725 Special Problems in Aerosol Physics (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in aerosol physics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 726 Special Problems in Aeronomy (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in aeronomy. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 727 Special Problems in Limnology and Oceanography
(2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in limnology and oceanography. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 728 Special Problems in Micrometeorology (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in micrometeorology. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 732 Special Problems in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
(2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in geophysical fluid dynamics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 733 Special Problems in Atmospheric Chemistry
(2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in atmospheric chemistry. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 734 Special Problems in Cloud and Precipitation
Physics (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in cloud and precipitation physics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 735 Special Problems in Instrumentation (2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in instrumentation. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 736 Special Problems in Atmospheric Radiation
(2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in atmospheric radiation. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 737 Special Problems in Mesoscale Meteorology
(2-4)**

Considers advanced topics in mesoscale meteorology. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 741 Special Problems in Tropical Cyclone Research
(1-3)**

Considers advanced topics in tropical cyclone research. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**Atm 839 Independent Study II (1-3)**

Advanced independent reading on a specialized topic. Prerequisite: By advisement only.

**Atm 898 Research in Atmospheric Science II (1-9)**

Advanced independent research. Prerequisite: By advisement only.

**Atm 899 Doctoral Dissertation (1)**