In addition to regular solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal variations, the upper atmosphere experiences "weather" events which are driven by:
  • Weather from the lower atmosphere
  • Transient intrusions by, for example, meteoroids and man-made missiles or rockets
  • Space weather largely due to solar disturbances

    The Impact of Upper Atmospheric Variability

    Internet Resources

    A 9 minute video "Solar Storms: Why We Care"
    Space Weather Basics webcast
    Space Weather Prediction Center's A Primer on Space Weather
    Windows to the Universe
    NASA's Space Weather Media Viewer
    NASA's Space Weather Action Center
    NASA's Cosmicopia page on Space Weather
    Ionospheric Prediction Service (IPS) Radio & Space Services
    2012 Space Weather Enterprise Forum

    Recent article in the San Diego Union-Tribune
    Solar Proton Events since 1976
    Link page to more space weather resources

    Space Weather Advisories
    NOAA Space Weather Scales

    List of Affected Systems

    "Weather Events" in the Upper Atmosphere

    The upper atmosphere is a host to a variety of "weather events" or disturbances which are most readily apparent by their effects on radio communication, by unusual auroral displays or by fluctuations in the magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. Since these weather events were first identified by such indicators, different names may be used for events that are closely associated but one must also keep in mind that closely associated events may have quite different causes. The details of any weather event in the upper atmosphere are just as unique as for any storm in the lower atmosphere. Below is a listing of upper atmospheric disturbances and irregularities with a few comments and/or links.