Names of deity; nature of cult; two locations, and survival beyond Augustan era in more acceptable guise
Raise question whether connection with state religion conducted by Vestals
Lucilius recorded jibe T. Albucius directed at Q.Mucius Scaevola Augur (cos. 117). In commenting on the verb lurcare Nonius preserved two full lines: nam quid moetino subrectoque huic opus signo? ut lurcaretur lardum et carnaria fartim conficeret? (C. Cichorius, Untersuchungen zu Lucilius, Berlin, 1908, pp. 240-41; ll. 78-80)
Marx, attracting Cichorius' praise, recognized a double word-play in first line. Mucius and moetinus (mutinus) are punning, while moetinus, penis, invites attention to Scaevola, the phallic charm or amulet that wards off the evil-eye. (F. Marx, Lucilii carminum reliquiae, Leipzig, 1905. vol. 2 ad loc.)
Warmington renders first sentence: "For what need had he of a phallic emblem thus affixed" (Remains of Old Latin, vol. 3, p. 25 Loeb ed.) Marx and Warmington take word moetinus as an adjective modifying signo and in coordination with subrecto. So oldest reference to word or god Mutinus (Tutinus) shows first of his names to be a common adjective which is to be related to mutto and mututinium, similar genital designations. Moreover, word moetinus has failed to call forth any comment from Nonius, who was concerned only with lurcare. Moetinus was evidently common usage. Epicuriean Albucius asks of Stoic Mucius Scaevola, "For why did he need the raised penis image? Was it so that he could stuff himself with bacon and strip the larder of meat?"
Loss of full satire prevents recreating context in which a moenium subrectumque signum would help in gluttony. Nothing in later evidence on god helps in connection with food consumption. Possibly Albucius suggested how Mucius Scaevola used the image to embarrass and expel diners, whose dinners he then consumed. Although special powers might reside in a phallus, no hint of deity in Lucilius' lines. A presumptive efficacy in any phallic cult rests with allurement of fertility --also fields and food?
Festus informs us "There was a shrine of Mutinius Titinus on the Velian Hill against Weasel Wall in that alleyway from which the altars were removed and where the baths of the mansion of Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus were built, although it had lasted from the founding of the city to the principate of Augustus."
Mutinus is joined by Titinus and accurately fixed in Rome. Cult comprised a plurality of altars but we cannot surmise a double god, because mutilated part of entry refers to a single deity. Antiquity of deity noticed from name Titinus. Know that in 36 BCE Calvinus was responsible for rebuilding the Regia or chief pontiff's headquarters, and obtained statues from Octavian by ruse to embellish it. (CIL VI 1301; Dio 48.42)
Calvinus was a pontiff. Regia coud have stood scarecely more than 200 meters from Calvinus' house and shrine.
Tertullian, contemporary of Festus, sarcastically holds up Sterculus, Mutunus, and Larentina as models of gods who spread the Roman empire, and he contrasts these native gods with foreign ones. (Tert. Ap. 25) Stercutus was a god of dung and Larentina, a deified whore. "There is Juventa for the young who have just donned men's clothing, and already a Bearded Luck for the men. If I were to discourse on the wedding, there is Afferenda adjusted from the bringing of dowries; for shame! there is mutuns and Tutuns and goddess Pertunda and Subigus and mother Prema:
"est et Iuventa novorum togatorum, virorum iam Fortuna Barbata. si de nuptialibus disseram, Afferenda est ab afferndis dotibus ordinata; sunt pro pudor, et Mutuns et Tutuns et dea Pertuna et Subigus et Prema mater" (ad Nat. 2.11.11-13)
Pertunda means piercer, Subigus the forcer, Prema the presser. Too great emphasis cannot be given to company gods keep in Varronian theology, because associations often provide key to many closed doors on knowledge of Roman religion.
About a century later, Lactantius: "and Cunina (is worshipped) who watches over infants in the cradle and keeps off the evil-eye, and Stercutus (is worshipped) who first imported the system of manuring the land, and Tutinus (is worshipped) in whose shameless embrace brides set themselves so that the god seems to have the first taste of their modesty."
"colitur...Cunina que infantes tuetur in cunis ac fascinum submovet, et Stercutus qui stercorandi agri rationem primus induxit, et Titinus in cuius sinu pudendo nubentes praesident ut illarum pudicitia prior deus delibasse videatur." Lact.DI 1.20.30)
Arnobius supplies interesting list of divinities indirectly taken,
in alphabetical order, from Varro. After Perfica and Pertunda and
before Puta, Peta, Petallana, Nodulterensis he writes, "Is there
also (a god of the people) Tutunus whose gigantic genitals and
scary penis you desire your ladies to straddle and consider
"Do you shout and complain that such gods as these are violated and overlooked by us in sacrilegious contempt for Lateranus spirit of the hearth, Limentinus keeper of thresholds, Pertunda, Perfica and Noduterensis? And because we do not lie down and adore Mutunus and Tutunus, do you say that everything has gone to ruin and the world itself has changed its laws and statutes?"
"etiamne Tutunus, cuiuc inmanibus pudendis horrentique fascino vestras inequitare matronas et auspicabile ducitis et optatis?" (Arn. 4.7) "hoscine a nobis deos violari et neglegi sacrilego clamitatis queritaminique contemptu, Lateranum genius focorum, Limentinum praesidem liminum, Pertundam Perficam Noduterensem? et quia non suplices Mutuno procumbimus atque Tutuno, ad interitum res lapsas atque ipsum dicitis mundum leges suas et constituta mutasse?" (id.)
Augustine explcitly cites god. In a famous chapter of Civitas Dei entitled "The many gods who heathen wisemen argue are the same as Jupiter" Augustine, inter alios, mentions gods Juventas, Fortuna Barbata or Barbatus, and Nodutus and adds another Jupiter, "Mutunus or Tutunus who is Priapus among the Greeks" (CD 4.11 "ipse (sc.Iuppiter) sit Mutunus vel Tutunus, qui est apud Graecos Priapus"
In a later section Augustine citing now familiar Subigus, mother Prema and Pertunda, he introduces the Priapus "on whose enormous and wanton penis the bride was bidden to sit." (CD 6.9: "Sed quid hoc dicam, cum ibi sit et Priapus nimius masculus, super cuius inmanissimum et turpissimum fascinum sedere nova nupta iubebatur, more honestissimo et relgiosissimo matronarum?"
Agustine's Priapus served same purpose as Lactantius' Tutinus and Arnobius' Tutunus.
Questions: what was name or names of the god? and in what relation did Varro view him besides role of Jpiter? Mutunus and Tutunus in Tertullian were double and obscene. Besides other deities interpreted with acts of the wedding night, he is associated with Stercutus. Tutinus (alone) is associated by Lactantius with a cradle deity against the evil-eye and Stercutus. Arnobius associates double Mutunus and Tutunus with a group of deities of wedding night. Augustine considers double names as alternatives, relates the single god, like Priapus, to a host of divinities, and recalls remarks of Lactantius and Arnobius on cult function in equally graphic terms while, in applying word fascinum in its other sense, he reminds us of Lactantius' Cunina and the evil-eye.
Varro distingushed between names Mutunus and Tutuns. The former he probably connected linguistically to mutto, mutunium, and their variant forms. His etymology accounts for divergence from Lucilius' and Festus' name. Further, Varro confirmed singleness of Lucilius' moetinus, if not its adjectival nature. Since Lucilius had the Scaevola in mind when he wrote, Varro cannot be held accountable for inventing phallic character of the god. But Varro bequeathed to Fathers knowledge of a past private cult in which god's image played a unique role. Highly unlikely Varro could have believed such practices occurred in an alleyway within easy reach of the Forum. Althugh the deity of the Velian Hill was identical with the one discussed by Varro, the Velian public cult can hardly have been identical with that described by Lactantius, Arnobius and Augustine.
A generation before Varro, moneyer Q. Titius issued two denarii with the same reverse showing Pegasus. One obverse displays god Bacchus wearing his common ivy wreath. Other obverse has aged and bearded god with a winged diadem, who is recognized as Priapos of Lampsakos. Roman numismatists have identified this god as Mutinus Titinus, whose second name was thought to have been derived from Titiius' clan name. So can be reasonably certain tht Varro inherited identification of Mutinus Titinus with Bacchus and with Lampsacene Priapus, as well as putative association of Tintinus with Titii. Jovian nature of Priapus may have been first demonstrated by Varo. The Titian coin of ca. 88 BCE supplies a link between Lucilus and Varro whose account is preserved in Christian authors. Certifies early phallic character of Roman Priapus and similarity to Bacchus.
Both Mutinus and Titinus are adjectives. Lucilius used former to describe a statue or figure (signum) of some sort. In Varro's discussion of the many gods identical with Jupiter, this deity was included. Follows had evidence of these words as Jovian epithets. Meaning of first name mutinus can hardly be divorced from vulgar words for male organ. Second name needs to be examined. In Festus' lexicon it is written that the shrine of Mutinus Titinus had stood since founding of Rome. Why belief in such antiquity? Lexicographer must hae analyzed Titinus as a derivative of Titus Tatius, Romulus' royal colleague, or of the Curia Titia, one of the many civil subdivisions or of the tribus of the Titienses, another civil division. Ancients usually related last two names to Titus Tatius, so sources based assertion of high antiquity on etymology of second name.
With regard to Jovian connections of names mutinus and titinus, divinity of god Liber supplies most apposite analogues. Liber Pater was another phenomenon of Jupiter.
Unusual portrait of Liber in Civitas Dei drawn from Varro who recognized Liber as a seed god of fertility, emissor seminum, and derived his name from liberamentum seminum. Liber appears in several Varronian chapters in a loose connection with Mutunus Tutuns, or Priapus. Augustine's lengthiest treatment of Liber provides analogous and unique cult practice.Liber watches over the seeds of vegetables and animals. His rites are conducted at crossroads (compita) of Italy, where male genitals were worshipped. On his holy days the phallus is hauled on small carts through the country crossroads and then brought into the city. At Latin town of Lavinium a month is named after Liber, because at that season the phallus is carried across the forum and brought to rest in its own place while people resort to obscene words. A lady of good family then wreathes the phallus in order to elicit good results from the seeds.(CD 7.21) Augustine recurs to same theme of welll-born lady reduced to draping Liber's phallus with a garland, but joins a later example to his criticism of Magna Mater and Priapus, who is implicitly the Mutunus Tutunus of the wedding night. (CD 7.24)
Worship of Liber in crossroads of country accompanied by stage plays of some sort. At Lavinium Liber installed by the forum, while at Rome Mutinus Titinus situated just above the forum. Both Liber and Mutinus can be recognized reflexes of Jupiter. In regard to cult, Mutinus' known phallic cult was private and could hardly be public matter, while matronly wreaths on Liber's phallus to elicit growth from seeds can be adduced to illustrate character of Roman public cult of Mutinus Titinus. Latter performed by women and perhaps also by Vestals.
Scholiast on a word in Persius' first satire: tunc neque more probo rideas nec voce serena ingentis trepidare Titos, cum carmina lumbum intrant et tremulo scalpunter ubi intima versu. (Pers. sat. 1.19-21) Comment runs "ingentes Titos dicit Romans senatores aut a Tito Tatio rege Sabinorum aut certe a membri virilis magnitudine dicti titi. titos scholasticos quod sint vagi neque uno magistro contenti et in libidinem proni sicut aves quibus comparantur, nam titi columbae sunt agrestes."First explanation can be attributed to fact that in some way the three ancient tribes (Ramnes, Luceres, and Titienses) still served as senatorial divisions, and that division thought to have descended from followers of Tatius. Second explanation appropriate to Persius' intent, uniquely provides knowledge of the word titus, "penis". Afterthought on wandering scholars and wild dove is not applied to Persius' words. Nevertheless the bird called titus is more important than all the lexical items because it is the oldest from viewpoint of semantics and of surviving evidence.
In etymologizing names of various priesthoods, Varro wrote:"sodales Titii [ab avibus titis] dicti quas in auguriis certis observare solent." (LL5.85) Elsewhere Varro argued that Sodalies Titii took their name from the Curia Titia and that Cura Titii took name from the wild dove. Certain authors would combine Titinus with titus "penis" and thus extend the phallic cult. Moreover Sodales Titii are brought into same combination in order to provide a priesthood for Mutinus Titinus and, not so incidentally, recreate history of obscure priesthood. Can quarrel with such derivations, however.
Name of the bird precedes name of the penis. Italian: uccello, defined even in dictionaries for Italian high school students as "penis" after original "bird" (diminutive of avis). (Cp. English, cock, pussy) Bird titus is same as Latin praenomen Titus and, like Gaius "jay" was a bird of good omen who could supply a primitive personal name. Besides function as auspicious praenomens bestowed at birth, Gaius and Gaia were spoken at Roman wedding ceremony. On way to new husband's house bride prompted to say, "I am gaia where you are gaius"
Titinus Cp. Aesculanus (aesculus), Silvanus (silva) Cunina (cunae) Lucina (lucus) Montinus (mons) Tiberinus (Tiber)Pomona (pomum) Populona
(populus) etc. Among these Volturnus, Picumnus, and Nocturnus represent respecively ominous vulture, woodpecker, and night owl. Cp. also anserinus, aquilinus, columbinus, hirundininus, etc. Know that the Divae Corniscae related to raven (cornix) and to cult of Juno. On religious grounds a sense of phallic character in name can be rendered secondary. Even Arnobius reports that a bride's contact with Mutinus Titinus was reckoned auspicious.
Can be little doubt that Mutuinus Titinus was a god of fertility. That a titinus principally betokens good omen should not occasion surprise.
Lore of dove (kissing, extraordinary fertility) combined with weasel. Roman shrine of Mutinus Tutinus situated near Weasel Wall. Ash of weasel brain in cheese prevented consumption by mice. If ash of weasel added to chicken and dove feed, fowl immune to weasel's predation. (Pliny NH 10.104f) Association of wall's name is folk-belief in weasel's efficacy in human fertility. Inscriptionon base of a golden figure of a weasel runs "Assist Lucia Cornelia daughter of Lucius"On any interpretation, this kind of weasel offering could have been conjoined with cult of fertility deity.
In denarius with Lampsacene Priapus, bird nature of Mutinus Titinus recalled in reproducing winged diadem worn by Priapus.
20 Mutini Titini sa 21 cellum fuit in Veliis, adversus murum Mustellinum 22 in angiportu, de quo aris sublatis balnearia 23 sunt [f]acta domus Cn. D[omitii] Calvini, cum man- 24 sisset ab urbe condita [ad pri]ncipatum Augusti 25 [sed deum placatum pro seminibus] et sancte cultum 26 [ab mulieribus velatis praetextatis] manifestum est. 27 item sacellum via Cassia ad lapidem sextum et 28 vicensimum, dextra v[ia propter id diver]ticulum 29 [ad Aras Mutias ] ubi et colitur et placatur in e- 30 [odem more sub Ian]ula.
So shrine of Mutinus 26 miles from Rome. Location of rural shrine by an intersection suggests similarity to cult of Liber. By combination with place called Arae Mutiae and restoration of toponym Janula, shrine can be situated in Ager Veiens on Cassian Way.
flecte vias hac qua madidi sunt tecta Lyaei et Cybeles picto stato Corybante tholus. (Martial 1,70, 9-10) "Drunken Lyaeus" is Bacchus or Liber; Cibele, Magna Mater. Augustine lumps together Liber, Magna Mater, and Priapus who is Mutunus Titunus. An inscription form Samnite Telesia of 13BCE records erection of a statue group of Liber and Priapiscus (CIL ix 2197). Priapus and Liber are joined in a fragmentary text in which the sigill. Priap. Iber finds mention (CIL vi 564). Dio Cassius probably refers to this less famous shrine of Cyble (Dio 46.33.3)
Shrines of Lyaeus and Cybele stood on the Velia, west of the later temple of Venus and Rome and south-east of even later basilica of Constantine. Was within a few yards of remains of houses datable to republic. Age of Martial's shrine of Lyaus which preceded that on Aontininus Pius' medallion, is unknown.
Summary: In era of Octavian, Cn. Domitius Calvinus expanded his real estate at expense of grounds of Mutinus Titinus, whose altars were removed from an alleyway. In 36 BCE Calvinus rebuilt the Regia with funds won in his Spanish campaign. In it were set statues he had borrowed (?) from Octavian. As pontiff, Calvinus could justifiably indulge in such activities. To his house Caesar had officially resorted on 15 March 44. Although Caesar observed the tradition of chief pontiff to occupy domus publica beside Vestals' atrium, in 12 BCE Augustus transfered headquarters of pontifex maximus to Palatine. Thereafter complex of buildings kept by Vestals underwent modification. From 36 onwards Sacra Via and Velia witnessed prominent architectural reconstruction under impetus of Augustan restoration. To a degree the restorations coincided with marked alteration in tradition and religion. Cult of Mutinus Titinus transferred from an alleyway to the Sacra Via itself and installed in a circular tabernacle in company of "Trojan" Magna Mater. Martial mentions this later shrine and attributes it to Lyaeus. God himself underwent a double change: From Mutinus Titinus to Italic Liber to Hellenic Bacchus Lyaeus.
With Hellenization came loss of phallic ceremonial tools. At any rate, Antoninus Pius' commemorative medallion lacks indication of phallic cult. From Pliny, however, come details on phallic god which Vestals worshipped with the Roman sacra. Since Festus records end of archaic cult of Mutinus in Verrius Flaccus' day, keeping of whatever old implements survived may have been entrusted to Vestals. Pliny writes of their divine fascinus as if it were the same piece which travelled under triumphal car and protected it and its occupant from the evil-eye. If the triumphator's amulet belonged to Mutinus Titinus, its preservation after removal of god's altars seems assured. Spirit of god lived on in Bacchic guile
Gaius Julius Caesar was murdered on ides of March. Records indicate religious circumstances. Marked NP on the calendars, day given over to delightfully bawdy fertility festival of Anna Perenna. All ides dedicated to Jupiter. Varro argued that Mutinus Titinus was Jupiter. March 15 also witnessed a procession for Magna Mater that initiated a series of oriental rites for the goddess on subsequent days. Martial reports Lyauses' proximity to Cybele on Sacred Slope. Ovid emphasizes the slain Julius' priesthood of chief pontificate and his superintedence of Vesta's worship. (F. 3.697-710) Ovidian emphasis reinforces suggestion of a relation of Mutinus Titinus to Vestals' fascinus if sacrifices of Caesar on this day can be related to phallic god.
On Ides of March pontifex maximus (Caesar) went from his official residence, the domus publica to neighboring house of Calvinus, by which he sacrificed to Mutinus Titinus. There he met with inauspicious victims. Thence he returned home, but D. Brutus Albinus urged him to reject omens and quit his house. Now he went to Pompey's theater and senate-chamber for last meeting. The previous day an auspicious bird called "royal bird" (regaliolus) had brought laurel into the very chamber. Was this a wild dove. If conjecture on identity of deity to whom Caesar sacrificed is correct, reason for Calvinus' or Augustus' drastic change in cult of Mutinus Titinus is apparent. God had quit Caesar at moment of ultimate defeat. His heir saw to dismantelment of god's old shrine and at neighboring site to installation of an altered divinity patterned after hellenized Liber. Every year on June 9 Vestals celebrated Vestalia. They were attended by asses garlended with loaves of bread. The ass was sacred to the Lampsacene god Priapus. It was this strange god who usurped place of Mutinus Titinus in Latin authors. A calendar painted in reign of Tiberius notes that the sacrifice took place at a ianus. This ianus can be identified with an arch set up by Marius close to Vestal's house. Belief that Vestal Virgins kept the asses of Priapus arose form their veneration of Mutinus Titinus and his phallus. Whereas Mutinus Titinus was venerated by chief pontiff and Vestals on 15 March, ides sacred to Jupiter, Vesta was worshiped in 9 June by Vestals, who also honored phallus on this same day. No little irony in Martial's conjunctio of Cybele with Lyaeus, whose shrine virtually located by discovery of a sculptured fragment and by Antoninus's inscribed record of restoration. Godess Cybele figured on the Haterii relief, whereon her cult statue stands at top of flight of stairs looking through side openings of a ianus bearing a triumphal car. Before the shrine is an alatr at foot of stairs. Nature of her shrine, identity of that arch, and relation to Caesar can now be ascertained.
In 102 BCE Gaius Marius faced the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae and with Lutatius Catulus, in 101 at Vercellae the Cimbrians. Rome's destiny seemed weighed upon Gaulish balance. From Pessinum in Asia came Battaces, a pirest of the Great Mother of the Gods, who reported goddess foretold a Roman victory. Elated with news coming at time of untoward prodegies, senate decreed a temple of Victory to Magna Mater. Plebeian tribune Aulus Pompeius denounced the report at the assembly summoned to hear such heartening divine news. Almost at once he dropped dead on Capitol, where he had made his address to the gods. On occasion of triumph over Gauls and Germans, Marius reared the temple of Honor and Courage, as well as trophies in two different quarters. Sulla destroyed the trophies which Juilus Caesar restored. One set stood on Capitol and other unknown until now.
One of temples of the Velia was that of Vica Pota. In antiquity it was confused with a temple of Victory, which was believed to explain name Vica. This temple of Victory must be that vowed in 102 and related to the oracle of the Magna Mater. Senate chose site on Velia for three reasons: name Vica suggested victory; Penates would stand by their ancestral associate from Tory; phallic amulet for triumphs lodged with Mutinus Titinus who was quartered in vicinity. As curule aedile in 65 BCE Caesar restored second set of trophies which his aunt's husband had set up by the senate's temple of Victory. In temple stood a statue of the magna Mater which looked through the side openings of a triumphal arch Likely that this triumph was that of Marius.
At beginning of second century, Trajan reissued several old republican coin types that fittingly reminded subjects of past deeds. Among revived types was the then 200 year old coin of Q. Titius with Mutinus Titinus cast as Pripaus of Lampsacus. Reappearance of Mutinus Titinus perhaps reflects some Trajanaic renovation of shrine of Bacchus on Velian hill. Trajan's choice of the obverse of Mutinius Titinus' over Titius' other obverse of Bacchus will have been dictated by his program of encouraging repopulation of Rome and Italy -- masked allusion to antique fertility cult
In conclusion four cults of Mutinus Titinus discernible:
domestic cult subsequent to a wedding
public worship by women at altars in an alleyway on Velian Hill
remodelled cult of Liber-Bacchus on Sacra Via (which replaced alleyway cult)
rural observances in Veientine country by the twenty sixth milestone on Cassian Way
God Mutinus Titinus was worshipped for fertility which he brought to land and living things. First name reflected his phallic nature; second, the auspicious bird, titus.
Cult was associated with god of manuring, whose rural function also bestowed fertility, and with goddess of cradles who protected babies against evil-eye by virtue of a phallic amulet. As late as time of Festus Mutinus worshipped at 26th mile from Rome At Rome god venerated by women in an unusual habit. In consequence of removal from alleway, cult transformed into a hellenized Liber or Bacchus Lyaeus, and made neighbor of Great Phyrgian Mother