|52) Wang Yuan-ch (1642-1715). Hanging scroll; ink and light color on paper. Wang YUan-ch i may be taken as representative of orthodox painting in the wake of Tung Ch i-ch ang. Wang was a favorite of the Manchu Emperor Kang-hs i and a representative Court painter of his time. His work represents a distillation and continuation of literati painting as outlined by Tung Ch i-ch ang. Wang s masters are Tung Yuan, Huang Kung-wang, and Tung himself. In this painting, Wang adopts the classic hills beyond a river composition of land-water-land. The painting is built up of modular landscape units, using standardized forms for trees, rocks, and houses. The work exudes a calm feeling, a characteristic of Ch ing literati painting and may be compared to the decidedly un-calm feeling of the contemporary Kung Hsien work above (no. XXXX) The literati painters of the Ch ing thus worked in highly stylized forms that adhered closely to Tung Ch i ch ang s interpretation of orthodox painting. Classical Chinese painting, as a continually innovating tradition, essentially ends in the eighteenth century.