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38) Huang Kung-wang (1269-1354) -- Living in the Fu-ch'un Mountains. Handscroll, ink on paper, dated 1350. The next four slides (Nos. 38-41) are by painters collectively known as the "Four Great Masters of the Yiian, " because all were in some way students and/or disciples of Chao Meng-fu. The enormous variety of works represented by these masters testifies to the scope of Chao Meng-fu's artistic vision. This long handscroll by Huang Kungwang is among the most famous paintings in Chinese history, is considered an epitome of literati landscape painting, and had an enormous influence on later ages. Clearly derived from, but an great expansion of such earlier works as Chao's Twin Pines, Huang's is an eclectic work that draws freely from the earlier, opposing landscape traditions of Northern Sung. His trees derive from northern Li Ch'eng "crab-claw" models, but his mountains derive from the southern soft, "fuzzy" depiction of Tung Yfian. In an inscription at the end of the painting, Huang relates that, after an initial burst of creative energy during which he laid out the general conception of the entire scroll, he then worked on the painting off and on for three years, adding gradually to the work as the spirit moved him. Huang held such working methods to be the highest ideal of the literati painter: he should work only when inspired. As such, the Fuch'un Mountains is totally free of earlier landscape conventions, such as those found in Southern Sung Academy painting, and is rather relaxed, unaffected, and full of individual and spontaneous artistic decisions.

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