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37) Chao Meng-fu. Twin Pines. Handscroll, ink on paper. About 1310. In this work, representative of Chao Meng-fti's later, fully mature style, the artist completes his task of merging calligraphy and painting into a single art. In the inscription at the end of the painting, Chao remarks that he has followed the forms but not the brushwork of the earlier Li Ch'eng/Kuo Hsi lanscape tradition. And one may observe that the "crab-claw" pine tree and the rocks in Twin Pines indeed resemble the forms of the Northern Sung masters. But Chao has transformed the execution of the earlier forms by adapting the careful and deliberate bruslistrokes of calligraphy to the rendering of landscape. His brushwork is no longer subordinate to realistic representation, but breathes life and energy on its own as abstract shapes. Nature is here transformed into pure forms of brush and ink. Painting becomes an exploration of itself by focusing on the expressive potential of brush and ink. This scroll is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

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