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34) Ch'ien Hsijan. Dwelling in the Floating Jade Mountains. Handscroll; ink and color on paper. Ydan dynasty. This handscroll is supposedly a picture of Ch'ien Hsijan's own retreat. It is a hybrid, somewhat odd, but fascinating and beautiful work in which Ch'ien draws upon earlier models but adapts them to his own purpose. The painting moves away from standard Sung representation, such as in the work of Fan K'uan (No. 19 above), toward a more intellectual, almost primitivist position. The forms in this work float detached from each other and from anything else: water and sky are undifferentiated emptine , ss. The scale is unnatural, almost childish. In his rendering of textured landscape surfaces, Ch'ien here goes back to the Tung Ydan "southern landscape" tradition and begins a revival of that tradition that will last for many centuries~ In short, Ch'ien is more interested in scholarly allusions to past styles and to the problem of how to create a new style than his is in representation. As one famous scholar of Chinese painting explained: "The Sung painter, using his style as a tool, tackles the problem of how to depict mountain and water; the Ydan painter, using mountain and water as his media, tackles the problem of creating a style. (1254-1322). Sheep and Goat. Handscroll; ink on paper. Yiian

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