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27) Hsia Kuei (active 1200-1230). Sailboat in the Rain. Fan mounted as round album leaf, with accompanying poem written by Emperor Hsiao-tsung (reigned 1163-1189). Southern Sung. Probably an early work of Hsia Kuei, this "one comer" fan continues in the Academy style of fan-painting established by Ma Yuan. The river scene shows a sailboat approaching a water-side cottage during a rain storm. Such paintings, viewed hurriedly and as a whole, are often understood by Westerners to depict "nature" to the exclusion of human beings. But contemporary viewers examined such paintings closely. The poetic couplet shows that the focus is meant to be on the hardship suffered by the person in the boat: "All life long, fence of his house fronts the river rain; at end of day, his boat comes in, pushing against the wind by the cliff " This couplet helps the viewer to understand the precise moment captured on the fan: at nightfall, a fisherman (?) returns through a storm to his house

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