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21) Attributed to Tung Yuan ~ ~Ji~(1 0th century). Scenery along the Hsiao and Hsiang Rivers. Detail of a handscroll; ink and color on silk. Northern Sung. This painting is the best-known example of the "southern style" of Northern Sung landscape painting. This tradition stands in contrast to that of Li Ch'eng, Fan K'uan, and Kuo Hsi, itself often called the "northern style." In this case, the north-south contrast relates to the geographical areas of China from which these styles are believed to have arisen. The landscape in the Li Ch'eng, "northern" style is based on the typography of northern China, with sharp, often deforested, bare mountains. Tung Yuan~ s "southern style," on the other hand, derives from the south (actually today, central China), where the mountain formations are characterized by gently rolling, forested hills, often interspersed with rivers and lakes. The painterly execution of the "southern" style is also softer and more rounded than the "northern" style, and often depicts lush spring or summer scenes. Beginning with the Yuan dynasty in the late 13th century, the "southern" style would come to dominate Chinese landscape painting, and the "northern" style became archaic.

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