|18) Attributed to Li Ch'eng ~ Jj~ (919-967). Buddhist Temple in the Hills after Rain. Hanging scroll. Ink and color on silk. Northern Sung, 1050-75. Later painters who perfected Northern Sung "monumental" landscape painting regarded Li Ch'eng as their teacher and the fountainhead of this tradition. Although nothing connects this painting definitively to Li Ch'eng, the work accords well with literary descriptions of his style. He specialized in winter! autumn landscapes. In contrast to the bright, colorful T'ang style of No. 17, Li Ch'eng rendered the dark moods of his landscapes with monochrome ink and gradiated washes applied in built-up layers. The result is a new gravity and intensity that is lacking in the T'ang work. Also associated with Li Ch'eng were so -called "crab-claw trees," old pines and twisted trees rendered in forms that resembled the claws of a crab. There is certainly a religious aspect to this painting, an aspect that will be discussed in detail in connection with the next slide, No. 19 below. The landscape painting of early Sung maked a radical departure from the "blue and green" Tang style. Now, for the first time in Chinese painting, landscape forms were rendered with many short brush strokes -- called ts 'Un (texture strokes) or tien (dots) -- rather with washes as in the earlier style.