Chapter 16

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Which of the following is not true of drug use in general?

Alcohol is one of the oldest drugs.

Consciousness-changing drugs are sometimes used in religious ceremonies.

Drugs have been cultivated around the world.

Drug use is unique to modern Western cultures.

All of the following are linked to abuse of alcohol except:

drug-induced psychosis.

cirrhosis of the liver.

mental retardation in infants exposed in utero.

Korsakoff's syndrome.

Which statement about drug addiction is not true?

Drug addiction is caused by physical dependence.

Withdrawal symptoms and tolerance are the result of compensatory mechanisms.

The withdrawal symptoms that occur in heroin addicts are less dangerous than those that occur in alcoholics.

Withdrawal symptoms are primarily the opposite of the effects of the drug itself.

The most appropriate definition of drug addiction would emphasize

negative personal, legal, and social effects of drug taking.

physical dependence rather than psychological dependence.

tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.

an established pattern of compulsive drug-taking behavior.

Drugs that do not produce physical dependence

can still be addictive.

do not cause tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.

have no reinforcing effects on behavior.

have no effect on the brain.

All of the following are true of positive reinforcement except:

Positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of the most recent response.

A reinforcing stimulus is most effective if it occurs immediately after the behavior.

Positive reinforcement works better in humans than in laboratory animals.

Immediacy of reinforcement takes precedence over quantity.

Addictive drugs can trigger the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens by

stimulating the reuptake of dopamine by terminal buttons.

blocking the secretion of endogenous opioids.

increasing the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic system.

inhibiting the postsynaptic effects of dopamine.

Lamb et al. (1991) found that subjects with a history of heroin abuse

push a lever very slowly.

fail to push a lever for "worthless" doses of morphine.

show that positive reinforcement requires pleasurable stimuli.

show that positive reinforcement does not necessarily equal pleasure.

Negative reinforcement does not refer to

a behavior that reduces an aversive stimulus.

a response that makes an unpleasant stimulus occur.

the capacity of alcohol to relieve feelings of anxiety.

an addict suffering from withdrawal symptoms who takes some of the drug.

All of the following are compensatory mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the phenomena of tolerance to and withdrawal from drugs except

down regulation of opiate receptors.

reduced effects of opioid receptors on physiological processes within cells on which they are found.

classical conditioning of homeostatic response to environmental stimuli.

dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens become supersensitive.

What parts of the brain may be involved in a craving for addictive drugs?

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and cerebellum

amygdala, periaqueductal gray matter

cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, reticular formation

nucleus accumbens, preoptic area, hippocampus

Which stimuli will probably not induce drug-seeking behavior?

the priming effect of a small dose

stressful situations

fatigue

the sight of drug-related paraphernalia

The reinforcing aspect of opiate drugs involves receptors in the

periaqueductal gray matter.

nucleus accumbens.

preoptic area.

reticular formation.

Which opiate receptors are responsible for the reinforcing effects of opiates?

mu

delta

kappa

alpha

Which of the following is not true of CREB?

CREB stands for cyclic AMP-responsive enzyme-bonding protein.

It is involved in the intracellular processes involved in the development of withdrawal symptoms of opiates.

It plays a role in regulating the activity of some genes.

It binds with a second messenger.

Cocaine

causes strong physical dependence.

is a dopamine antagonist.

may be the most effective reinforcer of all available drugs.

produces the same physical and behavioral effects as heroin.

Amphetamine

causes dopamine transporters to run in reverse.

stimulates the release of endogenous opiates.

increases the sensitivity of GABA receptors.

affects an enzyme in the second messenger system.

Which of the following is not true about nicotine?

It has considerable addictive potential.

It stimulates acetylcholine receptors.

It is self-administered in the form of tobacco, but not by animals.

It causes dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

Which of the following is not true of alcohol?

It is the leading cause of mental retardation in children whose mothers consumed alcohol while pregnant.

It results in sedation and incoordination at low doses.

It produces both positive and negative reinforcement.

Its anxiolytic effects are observed in both humans and animals.

The anxiolytic effect of alcohol

reduces the discomfort of anxiety.

forces the drinker to consume more and more to feel the same effects.

reinforces social controls on behavior.

provides positive reinforcement.

The effects of alcohol and barbiturates are not

additive.

sedative.

excitatory.

potentially fatal.

Marijuana may affect short-term memory by disrupting the normal function of the

acetylcholine receptors.

GABA receptors.

nucleus accumbens.

hippocampus.

Steady drinkers are most likely to

be male; have a biological parent who is a steady drinker; begin drinking late in life.

be male; have a father who is a steady drinker; begin drinking early in life.

be female; have two biological parents who are alcoholic; drink secretly.

be either male or female; be exposed to a family environment of heavy drinking; begin drinking early in life.

The most common treatment for opiate addiction is

naltrexone treatment.

treatment with drugs that block dopamine receptors.

treatment with serotonin agonists.

methadone maintenance.