Chapter 12

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In classical conditioning, the unconditional stimulus

always elicits the species-typical response.

is a neutral stimulus.

elicits the species-typical response if it has previously been paired with the conditional stimulus.

initially has little effect on behavior.

Instrumental conditioning results from an association between

two stimuli.

a stimulus and a response.

a conditional and an unconditional stimulus.

two responses.

The Hebb rule states that a synapse will be strengthened if it repeatedly become active _____ the _____ neuron fires.

at the same time; presynaptic

soon after; presynaptic

about the same time; postsynaptic

before; postsynaptic

In order for long-term potentiation to occur

the presynaptic membrane must be depolarized at the same time that the synapses are active.

the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized at the same time that the synapses are active.

weak and strong synapses to a single neuron must be stimulated at approximately the same time.

a series of electrical pulses must be delivered at a slow rate.

The size of the

population EPSP was predicted by the Hebb rule.

first population EPSP indicates the strength of synaptic connections before long-term potentiation takes place.

population EPSP decreases if long-term potentiation has taken place.

population EPSP slowly increases for up to 40 hours if long-term potentiation has taken place.

NMDA receptors

control calcium ion channels.

are found in highest concentration in the mossy fibers of field CA3.

detect the presence of magnesium.

are blocked by glutamate.

One of the effects of long-term potentiation is a(n)

increase in the number of calcium-dependent enzymes.

increase in the amount of postsynaptic thickening of neurons in the hippocampal formation.

decrease in protein synthesis in the cell body.

increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors.

Nitric oxide

blocks the effects of calcium.

may increase the number of glutamate receptors.

may be produced in the dendritic spines.

lasts for a long time and can diffuse the entire length of a postsynaptic axon.

Long-term depression may result from

sustained increases in protein synthesis in the cell body.

the gradual atrophy of the dendrites that transmit chemical messages to the cell.

low-frequency stimulation of the synaptic inputs to a cell.

increased sensitivity of protein kinases to calcium.

In a delayed matching-to-sample task, the "delay" is the interval

between teaching the subject the task and testing to see whether it has learned it.

between the sample stimulus and the choices.

between successive trials.

a subject must pause before responding.

In a delayed matching-to-sample task, neurons in inferior temporal cortex continued to respond during the delay interval, which suggests that these neurons are parts of circuits

involved in instrumental conditioning.

responsible for reinforcement.

involved in excitation rather than inhibition.

that remember that a particular stimulus was presented.

The release of _____ from neurons in the _____ causes neurons in the auditory cortex _____.

acetylcholine; nucleus basalis; to become more sensitive to the auditory input they are receiving

glutamate; medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus; to fail to differentiate between tones of different frequencies

calcium; NMDA receptors; to respond more vigorously to the presence of calcium

nitric oxide synthase; presynaptic neuron; to increase protein synthesis necessary for long-term potentiation.

When an animal is trained to make a classically conditioned emotional response by pairing a tone and a foot shock, the tone is the

US.

CS.

US.

UR.

The synaptic changes that produce the classically conditioned emotional response occurs in the

substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.

auditory cortex and the nucleus accumbens

MGm and the basolateral amygdala.

medial forebrain bundle.

A classically conditioned response will disappear if the

US is not associated with a biological need.

CS is presented repeated by itself.

CR was originally a behavior the animal had never made before.

CR does not have favorable outcomes.

The principal nuclei of the basal ganglia are the

caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus.

amygdala, the substantia nigra, and the putamen.

neostriatum and the substantia nigra.

caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus.

People with Parkinson's disease who participated in an experiment to predict the weather from a set of cards

performed as well as normal subjects.

learned the task, but never improved their performance.

learned the task more slowly than normal subjects.

never learned the task.

Monkeys with lesions of the supplementary motor cortex never learned to extend their arm through an opening in the cage because they

had lesion-induced difficulties with coordination.

were no longer able to learn a response through instrumental conditioning.

could not learn to make a self-initiated response.

had lesion-induced deficits in visual perception.

If you wished to have the best chance of an animal pressing a lever to receive reinforcing brain stimulation, where would you place an electrode?

medial forebrain bundle

MGm

nucleus accumbens

premotor cortex

When rats trained to go through a runway to receive reinforcing electrical brain stimulation were given a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, the drug __________ the reinforcing effects of brain stimulation.

increased

replaced

reduced

abolished

The effects of reinforcing brain stimulation are _____ those of natural reinforcers.

weaker than

greater than

similar to

not as long-lasting as

An appetitive stimulus

reinforces behavior only under certain conditions.

facilitates the synthesis of acetylcholine.

inhibits the release of dopamine.

activates the reinforcement system only when the animal is not engaging in an appetitive behavior.

Infusion of dopamine or cocaine through a micropipette __________ the rate of firing of CA1 pyramidal neurons if the infusions occurred __________ spontaneous bursts of action potentials.

increased; during

increased; following

decreased; during

decreased; following

Injections of a dopamine blocker into the nucleus accumbens appears

to make animals less motivated to perform an instrumentally conditioned response.

to alter animals' ability to respond to natural reinforcers, such as food.

to make animals less sensitive to biological drives.

to prevent animals from recognizing familiar stimuli.

connecting the hippocampal formation with association cortex.

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Anterograde amnesia can best be described as

a failure of short-term memory.

a failure to establish new nondeclarative memories.

the loss of relational learning.

a diminished sense of time.

Korsakoff's syndrome sometime results from _____that accompanies chronic alcoholism.

a thiamine deficiency

glucose intolerance

a folic acid deficiency

the pyruvate deficiency

Patient H.M. is

aware of his disorder.

bored by repetitive tasks.

unable to learn any new information.

frustrated by his difficulty in following a conversation.

When patients with anterograde amnesia are retested on an incomplete drawing task they

showed a priming effect for familiar objects only.

showed a priming effect for geometric patterns but not for real objects.

showed a priming effect for all stimuli.

did not show any signs of a priming effect.

Patients who showed a conditioned emotional response to a blue light that preceded a loud boat horn had bilateral damage to the

hippocampus.

amygdala.

mammillary bodies.

thalamus.

Nondeclarative memories

are a form of perceptual memory.

are usually expressed in writing.

fade more quickly than declarative memories.

do not require deliberate efforts to learn information.

What we remember about an episode that permits us to store it in long-term memory

are a few striking details.

are the events and the context in which they occur.

is the information that is inconsistent with what we already know.

is the information about it that we rehearse.

You looked up the telephone number, but went to let the dog in before making the call and found you had forgotten the number. This occurred because

of the phenomenon of retrograde amnesia.

long-term memories are difficult to retrieve.

the phone number exceeded the capacity of short-term memory.

insufficient rehearsal did not enable short-term memory to be converted into long-term memory.

The most important input to the hippocampal formation is the

anterior thalamus.

locus coeruleus

entorhinal cortex.

subiculum.

Neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus are easily damaged when metabolic disturbances set off a series of events that include the

rapid proliferation of NMDA receptors.

desynchronized firing of presynaptic axons.

entry of calcium into the neurons resulting in excessively high levels of intracellular calcium.

release serotonin at abnormally high levels by serotonergic terminal buttons.

Confabulation, a symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome, may be caused by damage to the

prefrontal cortex.

mammillary bodies.

perirhinal cortex

amygdala.

During testing, a patient made many more "false alarms" when the

researcher distracted him.

incorrect stimulus resembled one he had previously seen or heard.

length of time between training and testing increased.

number of choices increased.

Rats with hippocampal lesions could not efficiently visit the arms of a radial maze because they could not

distinguish between the many arms of the maze.

learn which arms never contained food.

establish an initial bearing.

remember where they had just been.

Information in reference memory is

constantly being replaced.

more difficult to retrieve than information in working memory.

relatively permanent.

episodic in nature.

Rats are trained in a milk maze

to reduce the effects of tactile stimulation.

to test their spatial perception and memory.

to avoid using food as a reinforcing stimulus.

to assess their stimulus-response learning.

How do rats in a symmetrical chamber react when researchers move environmental stimuli as a group?

Rats move toward the center of the chamber.

Rats tend to remain in one location.

Rats run constantly around the perimeter of the chamber.

Rats reorient their responses accordingly.

The hippocampus appears to receive its spatial information through the

fornix.

entorhinal cortex.

amygdala.

medial septum.

Place cells in primates tend to respond best to

where the animal is located.

where the animal is looking.

the animal's internally generated stimuli.

the direction of the animal's locomotion.

What is the source of theta rhythms?

glutamatergic axons from the dentate gyrus

serotonergic axons from the fornix

dopaminergic axons from the substantia nigra

acetylcholinergic axons from the medial septum

Theta behaviors closely associated with hippocampal theta activity include

ingestive behaviors.

wakefulness and sleep

reproductive behaviors.

exploration or investigation.

Depolarizing stimulation that coincided with the peaks of theta waves resulted in _____.

depression

disorientation of hippocampal place cells

long-term potentiation

disruption of working memory

The original function of the hippocampus may have been

to regulate an animal's circadian rhythms.

to help an animal recognize new stimuli.

to regulate an animal's metabolism in response to environmental changes.

to help an animal navigate in its environment.

Stimulation of the ventral angular bundle _____ long-term potentiation in the basolateral amygdala.

produced.

abolished.

improved

had no effect on

Rolls suggests that neurons in field CA3 function as an autoassociator-that is, they

can produce the appropriate output from fragments of the original pattern.

link together the structures that make up the hippocampal formation.

along with the recurrent collaterals provide an alternate system of connections that can minimize the effects of brain damage.

somehow