Cells of the Nervous System

 

Neurons

 

Dendrites

The Cell Body

 

The cell body integrates synaptic input and determines the message to be transmitted to other cells by the axon, but that is not its only function. The cell body also is responsible for a variety of complex biochemical processes. For example, the cell body contains the metabolic machinery necessary to transform glucose into high-energy compounds that supply the energy needs of other parts of the neuron. Furthermore, the highly active proteins that serve as chemical messengers between cells are manufactured and packaged in the cell body. The cell body contains a number of smaller, specialized substructures, called organelles, or little organs, which carry out many of the cellís functions. Figure 3.5 illustrates the organelles of a typical neuron.

Mitochondria

Nucleus

Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus

Axon

 

Axon Hillock

Endfeet

The Cell Membrane

 

Glia and Other Supporting Cells

 

Summary