Nelson A. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy

Interim Dean
R. Karl Rethemeyer, Ph.D.

Associate Dean for Undergraduate Education
Anne M. Hildreth, Ph.D.



The Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy offers two undergraduate majors: Political Science and Public Policy and Management. In addition, students may pursue graduate course work in either political science or public administration as part of a combined degree program (a B.A./M.A. in Political Science or a B.A./M.P.A. program in Public Administration). In each of these programs, students can apply a portion of their credits in graduate work to both their undergraduate and graduate degrees, earning either a Bachelor of Arts degree in Public Policy or a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science and a Master’s of Political Science or Public Administration in 11 semesters.

All undergraduate courses offered by the Rockefeller College, except R PAD 110, 111, 210, 211, 380, 381, 480, and 481 are considered liberal arts and sciences courses for purposes of degree requirements.

All courses listed in this College are preceded by the prefix letter R.

  

Department of Political Science

Faculty

Distinguished Professors
Richard P. Nathan, Ph.D.
Harvard University

Professors Emeriti
Carlos A. Astiz, Ph.D.
Pennsylvania State University
Thomas W. Church, Ph.D.
Cornell University
Martin Edelman, Ph.D. (Collins Fellow)
University of California, Berkeley
Webb S. Fiser, Ph.D.
University of Chicago
Walter Goldstein, Ph.D.
University of Chicago
John G. Gunnell, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley
Erik P. Hoffmann, Ph.D. (O'Leary Professor)
Indiana University       
Alvin Magid, Ph.D.
Michigan State University
Robert T. Nakamura, Ph.D. (O'Leary Professor)
University of California, Berkeley
Charles D. Tarlton, Ph.D.
University of California, Los Angeles
Frank J. Thompson, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley
Stephen L. Wasby, Ph.D.
University of Oregon
Lewis P. Welch, Ph.D.
Syracuse University
Theodore P. Wright Jr., Ph.D.
Yale University
Joseph F. Zimmerman, Ph.D.
Syracuse University

Professors
Michael J. Malbin, Ph.D.
Cornell University
Bruce L. Miroff, Ph.D. (Collins Fellow)
University of California, Berkeley
Julie Novkov, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
Morton Schoolman, Ph.D.
Brown University
Meredith Weiss, Ph.D.
Yale University

Associate Professors
Victor Asal, Ph.D.
University of Maryland
Peter D. Breiner, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Cheng Chen, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania
José E. Cruz, Ph.D.
City University of New York — Graduate Center
Bryan Early, Ph.D.
University of Georgia
Sally Friedman, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
Anne M. Hildreth, Ph.D.
University of Iowa       
Reynold Koslowski, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania
Gregory P. Nowell, Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
David Rousseau, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
Patricia Strach, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin, Madison       

Assistant Professors
Zsofia Barta, Ph.D.
London School of Economics and Political Science - European Institute
Christopher Clary, Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  
Matthew Ingram, Ph.D.
University of New Mexico     
Stephen Stohler, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania

Adjuncts (estimated): 5
Teaching Assistants (estimated): 12



The study of political science is concerned with the activity and organization of society for the realization of public goals and values. The study of political science is designed to prepare the student for responsible and effective citizenship, political participation, and advanced academic or professional studies. The student of political science may gain an understanding and appreciation of political values, institutions, and processes operating in American, foreign, and international systems.

Careers

Majors in the Department of Political Science may use their studies as preparation for graduate programs in law, public administration, public affairs, or other professional study. Studies in political science can also lead to entry-level employment in government or industry training programs. Our programs provide a basis for effective citizen participation in public affairs whether or not a student pursues further professional training. The most common careers are in law, government service, teaching, business, and journalism.

Undergraduate Study

The faculty and students in the Department of Political Science study politics in all of its manifestations:

The tools we use to approach these issues range from theoretical and philosophical studies, to historical and institutional analysis, to quantitative studies.

The program requirements of the major in Political Science are made up of courses at four levels, providing breadth at the introductory level, depth in one of four distinct areas of specialization and, through elective courses, the opportunity to explore different types of political issues. As soon as possible after declaring a Political Science major, a student should meet with an academic advisor in the department and declare a concentration.

American Politics
The faculty in American politics have research and teaching interests in all areas of the subfield: American political institutions (the presidency, Congress, courts, state and local government, political parties), as well as political processes (elections, public opinion, urban politics, minority politics, political behavior, public policy formation). Given its location in the state capital and within Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, the department offers students unique opportunities to study ongoing research projects at the intersection of politics and public policy.

Public Law
The subfield of public law at the University at Albany has a national reputation for the quality of its program. The public law faculty pursue a variety of research interests related to law, legal actors, and legal systems. Faculty members in this area focus their research on trial and appellate court processes, the relationship of law and the legal system to public policy, interest groups, the media, and the political system in general. Faculty members also examine doctrinal issues in constitutional and administrative law, as well as the relationship of tort and other forms of private law to public policy.

Political Theory
The subfield of political theory includes faculty members whose interests range from the traditional texts to contemporary theory, including critical theory, deconstructive readings of political theory, theories of political judgment, and German social and political theory.

Although students are allowed to work out their own program with faculty mentors, the program aims to give students a firm grounding in the history of political theory, interpretive theory and the philosophy of the social sciences, and the various strands of contemporary theory.

Global Politics
The global politics faculty have research and teaching interests in a range of substantive and geographical areas, current changes in the world, and the comparative study of political systems. Particular areas of interest include civil-military relations, political economy, gender and LGBTQ rights, human rights, political violence and terrorism, contentious politics, foreign policy, regional integration, nationalism, ethnicity and international relations, international conflict and security, international regimes, WMD, and economic statecraft. The faculty has regional specializations in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe, Israel-Palestine and China.

Special Programs or Opportunities

Recognizing the fact that a lawyer must be politically knowledgeable, many pre-law students major in political science. Individuals engaged in the practice of law automatically are involved in "political" activities because of their dealings with the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.

The location of the Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy in the capital city of the Empire State affords students of political science unusual opportunities to observe and study the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the state government, the second largest public employer in the United States. With a few exceptions, the principal office of each state department, division, and office is located in Albany.

Internship opportunities are available for juniors and seniors to work in legislative and other governmental offices in Albany; the department also organizes a competitive Semester in Washington internship program available in the Spring semester, open to high achieving students across the university.

Library resources to support research in New York State government are excellent. Students have access to the New York State Library, with one of the largest collections in the world. State departments, divisions and offices also have specialized libraries containing information not commonly housed in university or public libraries.

Degree Requirements for the Major in Political Science

General Program B.A.

The major in political science requires a minimum of 36 credits distributed as follows:

Majors in Political Science must pick an upper-division area of concentration in American Politics, Global Politics, Public Law, or Political Theory and take at least four courses in this area of concentration at the 300 or 400 level. It is recommended, but not required, that students take the 400 level writing intensive course that is part of the major in their area of concentration. The courses for each area of concentration are:

American Politics
T POS 219 American Political Development
R POS 303/R PAD 304 Public Policy in Theory and Practice
R POS 307 American Political Theory
R POS 319 American Political Development
R POS 320 American Federalism
R POS 321/R PAD 321 State and Local Government
R POS 322/R PAD 322 Government & Politics of New York City
R POS 323 Urban Government
R POS 324 Latino Politics in the United States
R POS 325/R PAD 325 The Government and Politics of New York State
R POS 329/R PAD 329 Bureaucratic Politics
R POS 331 American Legislatures
R POS 332 The Presidency
R POS 334 American Political Parties and Groups
R POS 335 The American Supreme Court
R POS 336 Civil Liberties
R POS 337 Campaigns and Elections in U.S.
R POS 340/R PAD 340 Introduction to Policy Analysis
R POS 341/R PAD 341 Washington in Perspective
R POS 365 Government and the Mass Media
R POS 383 American Foreign Policy
R POS 410/R PAD 410 Minorities and the Politico-Legal System
R POS 424 Community Politics
R POS 430 Founding the American National Government
R POS 433/A WSS 433 Women, Politics, and Power 
R POS 435 Congress and the Presidency 
R POS 438 Political Behavior
R POS 439 Topics in American Politics
R POS 495/R PAD 490 Research and Writing in Washington

Global Politics
T POS 248 Identities, Boundaries, and Mobilization
T POS 255/T LCS 255 Race and the American Empire
T POS 260 Political Violence: Honors Course
T POS 261 Comparative Ethnicity
R POS 266 International Political Economic Science
T POS 266 International Political Economic Science
T POS 272/H SPH 272 Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach
R POS 317 Comparative Criminal Procedure
R POS 327 Comparative Judicial Politics
R POS 343/R PAD 343 Homeland Security
R POS 349/A LCS 349 Urban Politics in Latin America
R POS 350/R PAD 350 Comparative Public Policy
R POS 351 European Politics
R POS 353 Developing Political Systems
R POS 354 Russian Domestic Politics
R POS 355 Government and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa
R POS 356 Russian Foreign Policy
R POS 357/A LCS 357 Latin American & Caribbean Politics
R POS 360 Violent Political Conflict
R POS 361 Comparative Ethnicity
R POS 362 Nationalism and Nation-Building
R POS 364 Building Democracy
R POS 366/R PAD 364 Approaches to Development
R POS 367 Politics of the Middle East
R POS 368 Information Technology and World Politics
R POS 370 International Relations: Theory
R POS 371 International Relations: Practice
R POS 373/A EAC 373 Government and Politics in the People's Republic of China
R POS 375 International Organization
R POS 376 The Foreign Policy of the People's Republic of China
R POS 377 Politics of Southeast Asia
R POS 380 Basics of International Law
R POS 383 American Foreign Policy
R POS 384 Formulation of American Foreign Policy
R POS 386 International Conflict and Security
R POS 395/R PAD 395 International Political Economy
R POS 396/R PAD 396 Energy Policy, Domestic and International
R POS 398/R PAD 398 Comparative National Security Policy 
R POS 425 Justice Reform in Latin America
R POS 447/A LCS 465 Latina/os and the New Political Economy
R POS 448 Identities, Boundaries & Mobilization
R POS 450 Theory and Research on Global Politics
R POS 452 Communist and Post-Communist Political Systems
R POS 469 Topics in Comparative Politics
R POS 472 International Conflict and Resolution
R POS 473 Economic Relations in the Global System
R POS 474 Politics of International Migration
R POS 479 Topics in International Relations
R POS 484 American Foreign Policy Formulation and Implementation

R POS/R PAD/ H HPM 486 International Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach

Public Law
R POS 295/A HIS 295 The Supreme Court and American Constitutional History
R POS 317 Comparative Criminal Procedure
R POS 326 Introduction to Public Law
R POS 327 Comparative Judicial Politics
R POS 328/R PAD 328 Law and Policy
R POS 330 Law, Courts, and Politics
R POS 333/A WSS 333 Women and the Law
R POS 335 The American Supreme Court
R POS 336 Civil Liberties
R POS 344 Predicting the Supreme Court
R POS 346/A WSS 346 Law, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity
R POS 361 Comparative Ethnicity
R POS 363/R CRJ 353 American Criminal Courts
R POS 364 Building Democracy
R POS 410/R PAD 410 Minorities and the Politico-Legal System
R POS 425 Justice Reform in Latin America
R POS 426 American Constitutional Law
R POS 427 American Constitutional Law
R POS 428 Comparative Legal Systems
R POS 437 Law and Society
R POS 449 Topics in Public Law

Political Theory
R POS 301 History of Political Theory I
R POS 302 History of Political Theory II
R POS 306 Contemporary Democratic Theory
R POS 307 American Political Theory
R POS 308 Theorists and Theorizing
R POS 310 Contemporary Political Philosophy
R POS 313 Feminist Social and Political Thought
R POS 314 Problems of Political Inquiry
R POS 419 Seminar in Political Theory

Internships cannot be used to satisfy the 400 level course requirement, but honors seminars or independent studies can be counted if they are appropriate and with permission.

Independent study courses are used to deal with topics not covered by regular departmental offerings and after classroom courses dealing with the same subject have been completed. Prior to registering for independent study, students must have their proposed research project approved by a faculty member willing to direct the research. The student's prospectus must outline the topic of the proposed research, indicate its importance to political science, and describe the methodology to be employed and methodological problems that may be encountered. Students may not register for independent study unless a copy of the prospectus, properly signed, has been filed with the department; independent study courses may not be used in lieu of classroom courses.

Only Public Administration courses that are cross listed with Political Science are acceptable in meeting the 36 credit requirement.

The Political Science Internship (R POS 390) is open only to juniors and seniors with a minimum overall average of 2.50 or higher. A maximum of 3 credits from R POS 390, U UNI 390, 391 or 392 will be applied toward a major in Political Science. Approval of the undergraduate coordinator is required prior to enrollment.

The Department recommends that students take the 200 level survey and topical courses. The Department offers two empirical methodology courses for social scientists: R POS 316 and 417Z.

Honors Program

This program is designed to provide serious students of politics with the opportunity for a special educational experience in small seminars where they can develop their writing, discussion, and analytical skills.

Majors may apply for admission to the Director of the Honors Program at the end of the sophomore year, or for junior transfers, upon admission to the University.

The requirements for admission include: an overall cumulative grade point average of 3.50, and a 3.70 in political science courses; and completion of 12 credits in political science (including, normally, R POS 101, 102, and 103) before beginning the program.

Honors Program Requirements
The Honors Program requires 16 credits of honors work. All students beginning the Honors Program will take Great Ideas in Political Science (R POS 496Z). This seminar is taught each fall and only honors students may enroll.

Students in the honors program must take two 4 credit honors versions of existing 300 level courses (R POS 300 level + 1 credit R POS 300). In addition to attending classes and doing the same assignments as the other students in the course, they will earn the additional fourth credit through a tutorial with the faculty member teaching the course that will include extra reading and writing assignments. Students in the honors program will have the option of capping their studies with either a 4 credit honors thesis (R POS 499Z) written under the supervision of a faculty member or a 4 credit version of an existing 400 level course in which the honors student will undertake a major writing project (R POS 400 level + 1 credit R POS 400).

Honors students will need to have an upper-division area of concentration in American Politics, Global Politics, Public Law, or Political Theory. The two 300 level honors courses and the 400 level honors course or honors thesis can be used to fulfill this requirement. Honors students must maintain a minimum grade point average of 3.25 overall and 3.50 in political science to continue in the program in the senior year and to graduate with honors.

Combined B.A./M.A. Programs

Political Science/Political Science
The combined B.A./M.A. program in political science/political science provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to fulfill integrated requirements of undergraduate and master's degree programs from the beginning of the junior year to earn the B.A. and M.A. degrees within nine semesters.

The combined program requires a minimum of 143 credits, of which at least 32 must be graduate credits. In qualifying for the B.A., students must meet all University and school requirements, including the requirements of the major described previously, the minor requirement, the minimum 90 credit liberal arts and sciences requirement, general education requirements, and residency requirements. In qualifying for the M.A., students must meet all University and school requirements as outlined in the Graduate Bulletin, including completion of a minimum of 38 graduate credits and any other conditions such as field seminars and Master's Essay (R POS 698), professional experience, and residency requirements. Up to 12 graduate credits may be applied simultaneously to both the B.A. and M.A. programs.

Students may apply to the combined degree program in political science/political science at the beginning of their junior year or after the successful completion of 56 credits. To be eligible for admission, the student must have completed at least one semester in residency at this University.

The student must also have completed at least 6 credits of course work in political science at this University, have a cumulative grade point average of 3.20 or higher, a grade point average of 3.20 or higher in course work completed at Albany, and three supportive letters of recommendation from faculty to be considered for this program.

Political Science/Public Administration
The combined B.A./M.P.A. program in political science/public administration provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to fulfill integrated requirements of undergraduate and master's degree programs from the beginning of the junior year. A carefully designed program can permit a student to earn the B.A. and M.P.A. degrees in one less semester than is normally required.

The combined program requires a minimum of 154 credits, of which at least 46 must be graduate credits. In qualifying for the B.A., students must meet all University and school requirements, including the requirements of the major described previously, the minor requirement, the minimum 90 credit liberal arts and sciences requirement, general education requirements, and residency requirements. In qualifying for the M.P.A., students must meet all University and school requirements, as outlined in the Graduate Bulletin, including completion of a minimum of 46 graduate credits and any other conditions such as a research seminar, thesis, comprehensive examination, professional experience, and residency requirements. Up to 12 graduate credits may be applied simultaneously to both the B.A. and M.P.A. programs.

Students may apply to the combined degree program in political science/public administration at the beginning of their junior year or after the successful completion of 56 credits. To be eligible for admission, the student must have completed at least one semester in residency at this University. The student must also have completed at least 6 credits of course work in political science at this University. A cumulative grade point average of 3.20 or higher, a grade point average of 3.20 or higher in course work completed at Albany, and three supportive letters of recommendation from faculty are required for consideration. The Graduate Record Exam is not required. Of the 36 credits required for the B.A. degree in political science, at least 18 credits must be from courses taken in political science on this campus. 

  

Courses in Political Science

R POS 100 Introduction to Political Science (3)
This course introduces students to political science and its major fields: American politics, comparative politics, international relations and political theory. The course seeks to expose students to the study of social science, to introduce students to college learning.

R POS 101 American Politics (3)
Introduction to the study of politics, focusing on American national government. Includes some discussion of theoretical questions (such as authority, representation, and consent) and some illustrative examples from the area of comparative and international politics. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 101W American Politics (4)
R POS 101W is the oral discourse and writing intensive version of R POS 101 in which students will attend a weekly discussion section as well as weekly lectures. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 102 Comparative and International Politics (3)
The characteristics and development of statehood and power; conditions of stability; constitutions and the comparative political processes; the international order and the nation-state system. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 102X Comparative and International Politics (4)
R POS 102X is the information literacy version of R POS 102 in which students will attend a weekly discussion section as well as weekly lectures. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 103 Political Theory (3)
An introductory course in the history of political theory with an emphasis on understanding political ideas and concepts and applying them to perennial issues of political life. Only one version may be taken for credit.  

R POS 103Y Political Theory (4)
R POS 103Y is the oral discourse version of R POS 103 in which students will attend a weekly discussion section in addition to weekly regular classes. Only one version of R POS 103 may be taken for credit.

R POS 140 (= R PAD 140; formerly R PUB 140) Introduction to Public Policy (3)
Introduction to theories of how democracies make public policy. Describes the roles of government institutions, the media, and interest groups in the policy process. Reviews current theories of how problems are identified and how policies are formulated, enacted, and implemented to address public problems. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 203 Political Thought (3)
Original works in the history of Western political thought, emphasizing the relevance of this material for understanding political concepts, reflecting on political problems, and critically analyzing contemporary political institutions and ideas.

R POS 204/204Y/204Z Selected Problems in Political Science (3)
Selected problems pertaining to political science and/or public policy. May be repeated for credit if content varies.

T POS 219 American Political Development (3)
A study of the historical shaping of American politics. Encompassing institutions, public policies, political culture, and political economy, American Political Development uncovers patterns of political stability and change. It explores critical episodes in American political history in a theoretically-informed fashion. Only one of R POS 319 and T POS 219 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101. Open to Honors College students only.

T POS 248 Identities, Boundaries, and Mobilization (3)
This course explores the political nature of identities, and particularly the way collective identities are shaped, maintained, and deployed. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, we will examine key dimensions of identity, modes, and strategies of inclusion and exclusion, forms of “identity politics,” and questions of intersectionality (the overlapping of identity categories, as for race and gender). Course materials will span everything from theoretical approaches to identity mobilization to nationalism and secessionism, to the politics of gender and ethnicity, and will combine conceptual works, case studies, and literature. Assignments will include a series of short reaction papers, a collaborative final project, and class presentations. Only one of T POS 248 and R POS 448Z may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

R POS 250 Research and Method in Political Science (3)
This course is designed to equip students with the tools for doing original research in political science and providing them with an opportunity to do such research. Only one of R POS 250 and T POS 250 may be taken for credit.

T POS 250 Research and Method in Political Science (3)
This honors course is designed to equip students with the tools for doing original research in political science and providing them with an opportunity to do such research. T POS 250 is the Honors College version of R POS 250; only one may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

T POS 255 (= T LCS 255) Race and the American Empire (3)
This course will explore the relationship between racism and the formation of the American empire from approximately 1776 through the end of the Progressive Era. By the early 20th century the United States emerged as a world power after a relentless process of continental and overseas territorial expansion. The young nation employed an ideology of racial superiority and predestination to justify its expropriation of the land and natural resources of other peoples and nations, to capture a continuous supply of labor, and to acquire new export. Theories of Manifest Destiny, white man's burden, social Darwinism, and religious doctrines were some of the narratives central to an ideology of racial supremacy in service of empire. Only one version may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

T POS 260 Political Violence: Honors Course (3)
This course is designed to introduce students to the study of violent political conflict. We will examine the how, why, and when of violent political conflict both domestic and international. What are the key empirical and normative questions raised by violent political conflict and what answers to these questions does the literature offer? What other strategies, like nonviolence and negotiation are available to actors instead of political violence? In this course, in addition to studying the theories that have been developed to explain the politics and history of violent political conflict, students will have an opportunity to participate in simulation exercises designed to sharpen their analytic skills in the subject area. Open to Honors College students only.

T POS 261Y Comparative Ethnicity (3)
The composition and problems of various ethnic and religious minorities: their origins, characteristics, political mobilization, and degree of integration into the social and political systems of the new post-colonial nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America examined against a background of European, American, and Russian experience. T POS 261 is the Honors College version of R POS 361; only one may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

R POS 266 International Political Economic Science (3)
The course will address the historical significance of struggles for the control of world petroleum resources. The topics to be covered include: (1) the competition for power in the Middle East, and the competition among major powers for domination of world oil supplies; (2) Financial crises related to oil industry, in particular the collapse of the gold standard in 1974 and the decline of the dollar in 2008; (3) The politics of environmental regulation and alternative fuels with reference to tropospheric (ground level) pollution and also the Greenhouse Effect; (4) alternative fuels and their strategic context e.g. Germany's synthetic fuels program in the 1930s; (5) the role of speculation in energy pricing; (6) resource depletion theory.

T POS 266 International Political Economic Science (3)
T POS 266 is the Honors College version of R POS 266; only one may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

T POS 272 (= T PAD 272 & T SPH 272) Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions Kamiar Alaei and Arash Alaei, with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration and the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

R POS 295/295Z (= A HIS 295/295Z) The Supreme Court and American Constitutional History (3)
This course treats the history of the Constitution through an examination of many of the major arguments made about it before the Supreme Court of the United States. This course allows us to understand the critical role counsel has made in shaping arguments before the Court, the way in which litigants representing competing social demands have pushed the envelope of American constitutionalism, and the means by which the Courts’ agenda (and American constitutional history) has changed in response to those arguments and the underlying social circumstances that have informed them during the previous two centuries. Only one version may be taken for credit. May not be offered in 2016-2017.

T POS 295 (= T HIS 295) The Supreme Court and American Constitutional History (3)
T POS 295 is the Honors College version of R POS 295. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 300 Honors Tutorial in Political Science (1)
A one credit honors tutorial accompanying a 300 level political science course. May be repeated for credit. Open only to students in the Political Science Honors Program. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

R POS 301 History of Political Theory I (3)
An examination of classical texts in political theory from ancient Greece to the 15th century.

R POS 302 History of Political Theory II (3)
An examination of classical text in modern political thought from the Renaissance to the 19th century.

R POS 303 (= R PAD 304) Public Policy in Theory and Practice (3)
Examines the theoretical foundations of public policy research, of alternative models of public policy formation, their methodologies, and the relationship between the theory and practice of the policy sciences. Inquiries into the practice of public policy; focuses on actual policies in a substantive area. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or R POS/R PAD 140, or junior or senior standing.

R POS 306 Contemporary Democratic Theory (3)
An historical and analytical examination of modern conceptions of democracy. The course will focus on the meaning of democracy, the justifications for democratic self-governments and the variety of models that have been offered as the realization of a democratic society and their forms of democratic legitimization.

R POS 307 American Political Theory (3)
The development of political thought and action in the American experience.

R POS 308 Theorists and Theorizing (3)
This course will focus on the work of a single political theorist. Students will become acquainted with the major writings of one theorist who has been chosen both for the historical and contemporary significance of his/her thought and for the purpose of learning the value of in-depth study of works that have such a significance. Along with studying the work of a major theorist, students may examine the different interpretations of that work and the conflicts and problems that arise in the practice of interpretation. May be repeated for credit if content varies.

R POS 309 (= A GLO 303) Theoretical Perspectives on Globalization (3)
This course takes up the ambitious task of theorizing globalization, one of the defining conceptual rubrics of our current historical moment. Under investigation, then, is not only globalization - its origins, dynamics, characteristics, and consequences - but also theory. What role can intellectual and critical inquiry play in the world today? What is the relationship between generalization and particularity, that is to say between conceptual models that engage in broad forms of periodization, systemic analysis, or abstraction, versus those analytical models that focus on the particular, the local, the historically or geographically specific? What is the relationship between theory and critique? What are the intellectual traditions that inform contemporary thought? And how might a reflective investigation of theory help us to better understand and respond to the globalizing processes and structures that condition the world in which we live? Engaging these questions, the course will review a variety of influential theoretical perspectives that analyze the origins, dynamics, and consequences of globalizing forces. Focusing on key areas of contention and commonality, the course aims to provide students with a complex understanding of the assumptions, contribution, and limitations of current theoretical perspectives on globalization. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 310 Contemporary Political Philosophy (3)
Analysis of selected perspectives in the political and social thought of the 19th and 20th centuries.

R POS 313 Feminist Social and Political Thought (3)
The major documents of American, English, and Continental feminist thought. Emphasizes chronological development and continuity and change in feminist theory. Particular attention to the directions feminism has taken since the 1960s.

R POS 314 Problems of Political Inquiry (3)
Introduction to the discipline of political science and contemporary approaches to the study of politics.

R POS 316 (= R PAD 316; formerly R PUB 316) Methodological Tools for Public Policy (3)
Introduction to research design, statistics, and computer usage in public policy with an emphasis on the interpretation of results. Students examine experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental research designs, summarize and present univariate distributions, perform bivariate and multivariate analyses including simple cross-tabulations and multiple regression analysis, and learn to use a computer to perform statistical and data management operations. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 317 Comparative Criminal Procedure (3)
"Due process" is a core element of democracy and the rule of law. Criminal procedure encompasses all the legal actors, institutions, and steps between them that make due process possible in the criminal justice system — from police to prison, initial detention to final custody. In an effort to identify best practices in criminal procedure and understand the causes and consequences of these practices, this course examines the criminal process across different countries and criminal procedure reform over time within individual countries.

R POS 319 American Political Development (3)
A study of the historical shaping of American politics. Encompassing institutions, public policies, political culture, and political economy, American Political Development uncovers patterns of political stability and change. It explores critical episodes in American political history in a theoretically-informed fashion. Only one of R POS 319 and T POS 219 may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101.

R POS 320 American Federalism (3)
This course focuses on the theoretical, constitutional, and political dimensions of American federalism, including the tensions between the planes of government, interstate relations, and the problem-solving capabilities of the federal system. Particular emphasis is placed upon the formal powers of each plane of government and the limitations upon these powers. The reasons for and the political significance of the increasing use of preemption powers by the Congress will be examined.

R POS 321 (= R PAD 321; formerly RPUB 321) State and Local Government (3)
Course focus is on intergovernmental relations; the interdependent roles of governors, legislatures, and courts in policymaking and implementation; the organization, functions, and jurisdiction of local governments; interaction of political parties and interest groups with formal institutions and processes; and problems in selected functional areas. Emphasis will be placed upon socio-economic trends leading to change in state and local governments, consequent issues raised, and proposals made in response to such issues. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101.

R POS 322 (= R PAD 322; formerly R PUB 322) Government & Politics of New York City (3)
Introduction to New York City's major political and governmental institutions, with an emphasis on the recurring efforts to provide for borough and community input into the city's policy making and implementation processes and to increase inter- and intra-party competition. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 323 Urban Government (3)
Examines governmental patterns in major urban areas of the United States. Considers the nature of a municipal corporation, forms of government, state-local relations, and urban politics.

R POS 324 Latino Politics in the United States (3)
This course reviews Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban participation, perspectives and issues on American politics. Each Latino sub-group will be analyzed and comparisons will be made between Latino sub-groups and between Latinos and other groups. The following questions will be examined: What is the context of Latino politics? What characterizes Latino political behavior? What is the place of Latinos in the U.S. political system? What are the political perspectives and values? What issues form the basis of their political mobilization and incorporation? What are their political prospects? We will be concerned with relevant historical, interpretive, and theoretical issues raised by the Latino political experience, with an emphasis on electoral representation, issues of gender, race, and ethnicity, education, affirmative action, and radical politics. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 325 (= R PAD 325; formerly R PUB 325) The Government and Politics of New York State (3)
Introduction to the major political governmental institutions in New York. Examines the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government; the nature of parties and election, and of selected policy questions. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 321.

R POS 326 Introduction to Public Law (3)
What is law and why is it such a significant part of modern-day society and culture in the United States? How does the legal system operate through its various actors — judges, lawyers, and juries — to enable individuals to resolve disputes without resorting to violence? How does the law operate to structure and control the state? From where does legal power arise and what are its limits? How does the law both constrain and empower subordinated individuals and groups in American politics and society? These questions and others are the subject of this course, providing students with a general overview of the legal system of the U.S. The course is intended primarily for students who have little/no prior background in law. Some students will take the course as a gateway to further study about law, others will use it to broaden their understanding of the legal system as one of the most significant and powerful institutions in the modern state.

R POS 327 Comparative Judicial Politics (3)
This course is about judicial politics in different countries, i.e., different justice systems. Judicial politics is the study of how political dynamics shape courts (including justice reforms and actual court decisions) and how courts, in turn, shape politics (including the social impact of institutional rules and decisions). The course introduces the two main systems of law in the world and the primary theoretical approaches to understanding judicial politics, proceeding to analyze how institutions and actors in different systems of law interact with various patterns of democracy and democratization.

R POS 328 (= R PAD 328; formerly R PUB 328) Law and Policy (3)
Examination of the role of the of the courts in the public policy process and in substantive policy fields; integrates the literature of law and policy and applies it to such areas as mental health care, corrections, human resources, education, and housing policy. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 329/329Z (= R PAD 329/329Z) Administrative Leadership (3)
This class examines leadership, management and human behavior within and among complex organizations, with special emphasis on the distribution and use of power by organizational actors. The course will also examine how leaders can position their organizations to gain the greatest results and most significant impact on and for organizational stakeholders. Only one version may be taken for credit.       

R POS 330 Law, Courts, and Politics (3)
The structure and function of the courts in the American political system with special attention to staffing, the decision-making process, judicial policy making, and checks upon judicial power. Students who have taken R POS 230H may not take R POS 330 for credit.

R POS 331 American Legislatures (3)
Examination of the legislative function in the American political system. Inquiry into the sources of legislative power, the institutions involved in formulating legislation, and the people who participate in the legislative process. This course is recommended for students contemplating a legislative internship.

R POS 332 The Presidency (3)
The principal institutions, functions, and problems of the executive branch of government. Emphasizes the President as political leader, head of state, and administrator, as well as on his relations with Congress.

R POS 333 (= A WSS 333) Women and the Law (3)
This course surveys the relationship between women and the law, looking at the way that women have been defined as legal subjects over time and through intersections of gender, sexual orientation, race, and class. The course focuses on the United States, but may also include discussion of women's status in international law and cross-national comparisons of legal policies. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

R POS 334 American Political Parties and Groups (3)
Examination of the theory, organizational forms, and dynamics of political group formation and activity, with special attention given to the political party system, interest groups, political leadership and electoral behavior.

R POS 335 The American Supreme Court (3)
The role of the Supreme Court in American political life. Topics include: access to the court; the nature of Supreme Court decision making; the selection of Supreme Court justices; the relationship between the Supreme Court and the executive and legislative branches of government; and the major substantive issues with which the Supreme Court has been concerned.

R POS 336 Civil Liberties (3)
The ways in which the courts have interpreted the Constitution with respect to individual freedoms. Examines a range of source materials to assess the role of the judiciary in arbitrating between the individual and the state, and its implications in American political life

R POS 337 Campaigns and Elections in U.S. (3)
This course will examine how people run for office in the United States. We will examine elections for the presidency, Congress, etc. Topics will include the decision to run prenomination and general election campaigns; the role of parties; interest groups; media; campaign finance; advertising and other campaign techniques. The assignments also include historical comparisons to consider what makes some elections more significant than others. We need to ask what elections really decide besides who holds office. Ultimately, the basic issue is whether the structure and content of U.S. elections fosters or distorts democratic representation.

R POS 340 (= R PAD 340; formerly R PUB 340) Introduction to Policy Analysis (3)
Policy analysis involves advising policy makers about political, technical, and implementation feasibility of their options. This course will introduce students to different roles played by analysts, techniques of analysis, and to the range of generic policy implements. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/R POS 140, R PAD/R POS 316, A ECO 110. May substitute R PAD 316 with an alternate introductory statistics course. May waive R PAD 140 with permission of the instructor.

R POS 341 (= R PAD 341; formerly R PUB 341) Washington in Perspective (3)
A course using current government and politics to evaluate political science treatments of the process. Offered as part of the spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference given PAD Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in the early fall. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 level course in American government, junior class standing. Corequisite(s): R POS/R PAD 342 and R POS 495Z or R PAD 490Z.

R POS 342 (= R PAD 342; formerly R PUB 342) Washington Internship (9)
This is the internship component of the department's spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference to POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in early fall. Does not count toward a Public Policy and Management major or minor. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 level course in American government, junior standing. Corequisite(s): R POS 341 and R POS 495Z or R PAD 341 and 490Z. S/U graded.

R POS 343 (= R PAD 343 & C EHC 343) Homeland Security (3)
This undergraduate survey course introduces students to the US government response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, specifically, the second largest reorganization of the executive branch that produced the US Department of Homeland Security. Topics examined include border and transportation security, customs, immigration policy and enforcement; preparedness and capabilities building, response and resilience; critical infrastructure protection; threat and vulnerability assessment and risk management; cyber security; counter-terrorism. Although the course is primarily focused on US federal government activities, it will also examine state and local dimensions of homeland security as well as US government interactions with other countries in the homeland security domain. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

R POS 344 Predicting the Supreme Court (3)
How will the U.S. Supreme Court decide upcoming cases? This course introduces students to three core topics: (1) the main legal and social science approaches to understanding how and why Supreme Court justices decide cases the way they do; (2) major data sets on these Supreme Court decisions; and (3) statistical approaches to understanding patterns and relationships in these data. An emphasis is also placed on explaining these patterns and relationships, not just identifying them. With these ideas, real data, and methods in place, the course culminates in a fun, friendly competition to see who can use the data and methods to best predict and explain the decisions of the current Supreme Court term just as the Court is itself announcing those decisions in the spring.

R POS 346 (= A WSS 346) Law, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity (3)
This course will examine how law, institutions, and society interact to define the contested boundaries of legal rights based on the issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. We will be looking at scholarship in the area of law and sexuality as well as relevant court cases at the state and federal levels. These will raise some big questions: Do courts even matter in creating social change for LGBT people? Why have transgender people been less successful in achieving rights reform? How do beliefs on religion and family play a role in defining rights? As the country looks ahead to greater state legislative activity and judicial action, this area becomes increasingly salient to our national politics every day. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 349 (= A LCS 349) Urban Politics in Latin America (3)
This course examines from a theoretical and historical perspective the context and character of politics and political participation in major Latin American urban cities. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 350 (= R PAD 350; formerly R PUB 350) Comparative Public Policy (3)
Comparison of the processes, content, and impact of public policy in both developed and underdeveloped, socialist and nonsocialist countries. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or R POS 140, or junior or senior standing.

R POS 351 European Politics (3)
Politics and political change in contemporary Europe, as reflected in ideology, organization and leadership. Both Western and Eastern Europe are treated in a common, comparative framework.

R POS 353 Developing Political Systems (3)
A study of political development and modernization in The Third World of Asia, Africa, and Latin America; the meanings and measurement of the concepts; groups involved in the process such as the military, bureaucracies, intellectuals, minorities, and charismatic leaders.

R POS 354 Russian Domestic Politics (3)
In-depth study of Russian and Soviet internal politics, 1861 to the present. Emphasizes the activities of the Communist party of the Soviet Union-political, economic, and ideological-and changing characteristics of the Soviet political system. Equal attention to the origins of the Communist party and to the Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, Gorbachev, and Yeltsin eras.

R POS 355 Government and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa (3)
The relationship between ideologies, institutions, and individuals in African political systems. Examines implications of these factors for African political behaviors (domestic and international).

R POS 356 Russian Foreign Policy (3)
Survey of Soviet and Russian activities in international relations, 1917 to the present. Attention is focused on the Soviet Union's relations with Western Europe, Eastern Europe, China, the developing nations, and the United States, and contemporary Russian policy. Previous study of Soviet internal politics is desirable, but not a prerequisite.

R POS 357 (= A LCS 357) Latin American & Caribbean Politics (3)
The course will examine the current process and societies in the hemisphere. Emphasis will be on Latin America and the Caribbean with implications of globalization for all workers and societies of the Americas. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): A LCS 100 or permission of instructor.

R POS 360 Violent Political Conflict (3)
This course is designed to introduce students to the study of violent political conflict. We will examine the how, why, and when of violent political conflict both domestic and international. The course will focus on the key empirical and normative questions raised by violent political conflict and what answers to these questions the existing literature offers. In this course, in addition to studying the theories that have been developed to explain the politics and history of violent political conflict, students will have an opportunity to participate in simulation exercises designed to sharpen their analytic skills in the subject.

R POS 361 Comparative Ethnicity (3)
The composition and problems of various ethnic and religious minorities: their origins, characteristics, political mobilization, and degree of integration into the social and political systems of the new post-colonial nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America examined against a background of European, American, and Russian experience. T POS 261 is the Honors College version of R POS 361; only one may be taken for credit.

R POS 362 Nationalism and Nation-Building (3)
Classical and recent scholarly debates regarding nationalism and nation-building: theoretical and historical evolution of nationalism, nationalist movements, and nation-building; some of the most salient contemporary issues related to the national question, including the effects of globalization and the resurgence of nationalist movements in the post-Cold War era.

R POS 363 (= R CRJ 353) American Criminal Courts (3)
Examines the organization and operations of state and local criminal court systems from the perspective of social science research and public policy analysis. Major issues include: the role of courts in American society; bail and pre-trial procedures; the roles and decisions of prosecutors, judges and the defense bar; selection and operation of grand juries and trial juries; sentencing of criminal defendants; and others. The operations of juvenile and adult courts are compared, and efforts directed toward court reform are assessed. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

R POS 364 Building Democracy (3)
A key shift in politics around the world has been the increasing number of democracies. This shift has important implications for everything from human rights to economic policy. This course will explore the causes and effects of democratization focusing on topics such as political economy, international pressures, and coalition building.

R POS 365 Government and the Mass Media (3)
Study of the relation of the mass media to the American political process, including an examination of the effect of the mass media on legislative actions, the executive, voting behavior, and the bureaucracy.

R POS 366 (= R PAD 364) Approaches to Development (3)
Leaders and citizens of low and moderate income countries have long worked to increase economic, social and political development. After reviewing the origin and evolution of these concepts, the class will focus on how national leaders, international institutions as the World Bank, and nongovernmental organizations have pursued development. The class will address the steps that can be taken to address persistent problems of global poverty, public health, deficits in democracy, and widespread armed conflict. The course will take an interdisciplinary approach that will blend insights from the disciplines of economics, political science, and anthropology in order to generate fresh thinking on important policy issues facing governments in developing and developed countries. Aside from readings, and class discussions, groups of students will work together to address important issues in policy memos that will be presented to the class. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior status.

R POS 367 Politics of the Middle East (3)
This class will cover selected topics in relation to the political development of the Middle and near East, an area loosely defined to cover the region from Morocco to Afghanistan and including modern Turkey and the Caspian littoral states. Topics will vary. Examples will include, but are not limited to, the classic British Imperial period, revolutions, the oil industry, regional conflicts such as the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, and the tensions between secular modernization and Islamic systems of government.

R POS 368 Information Technology and World Politics (3)
Broad overview of the information revolution and its political consequences. Examines the impact of information technologies on diplomacy, global security, the international political economy, and international organization with a particular emphasis on the use of administrative information systems and the Internet by governments and other public sector organizations.

R POS 370 International Relations: Theory (3)
The uses of theory in observing the interaction patterns found in the international system. Examines concepts of equilibrium, conflict and nationalism. Theoretical propositions about power, war, and diplomacy are tested and counter-theories formulated.

R POS 371 International Relations: Practice (3)
Fundamental procedures of interstate and transnational relations. The historical evolution of the international system, statecraft, the use of force, negotiation and diplomacy, alliance formation, and nationalism and imperialism. Note: R POS 370 is not a prerequisite for R POS 371.

R POS 373 (= A EAC 373) Government and Politics in the People's Republic of China (3)
Examination of the origins of the Communist movement in China against the backdrop of the decline of dynastic rule and the era of Western imperialism. The implications of ideology, institutions, and individuals for public policy in the People's Republic of China. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 375 International Organization (3)
The structure and processes of the United Nations evaluated in terms of its historical antecedents and the challenges that face it. The operational foundations of the specialized agencies and such other governmental organizations as are universal in character. Close attention to the forces and interest groups of international scope to which the United Nations and related organizations respond.

R POS 376 The Foreign Policy of the People's Republic of China (3)
The post-1949 foreign policy of the People's Republic of China, especially vis-à-vis the United States, the Soviet Union, Western Europe, Japan, and an array of developing countries.

R POS 377 Politics of Southeast Asia (3)
This class will introduce the politics and societies of the eleven states comprising Southeast Asia. The course will include an overview of the regions as a whole as well as of each country's political and social order, an exploration of prevailing theoretical approaches to the study of Southeast Asia and an analysis of major political issues of the region: nationalism and nation-building, ethnic and religious pluralism, developmentalism, reformist movements, and regional initiatives. Prerequisite(s): Prior knowledge of one or more countries in the region is helpful, but not required. R POS 102 strongly recommended.

R POS 380 Basics of International Law (3)
Analytical survey of the precedents and limitations of world law. The uses of law for the pacific settling of disputes and wars using varied texts, cases, and documents.

R POS 383 American Foreign Policy (3)
An examination of the patterns of American foreign policy in economic and security issues from the turn of the century through the end of the Cold War. This analysis provides the basis for discussion of the prospects for American foreign policy as we move into the 21st century.

R POS 384 Formulation of American Foreign Policy (3)
Introduction to the political institutions and values of the American foreign policy process. Issues considered: American national character; the search for national interests; the role of interest groups and public opinion; the Congress; the presidency; the military-industrial complex; the policy system in times of peace and Cold War.

R POS 386 International Conflict and Security (3)
This course explores the use of coercive diplomacy and military violence in international relations. It focuses on the broad security issues facing states and examines the factors that bring them into conflict with one another. Topics may include economic sanctions, military power, international conflict, arms races, arms control, alliance politics, multilateralism, terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and foreign support of insurgencies. Students will be called upon to analyze these topics through some combination of policy briefs, research papers, and examinations.

R POS 390 (= R PAD 390; formerly R PUB 390) Internship: Political Science/Public Administration & Policy (3)
Students will actively participate in the political process through working in a staff position at a recognized political agency, organization or institution to test — in a nonacademic setting — the concepts and theories examined in the classroom. Internships are open only to qualified juniors and seniors who have an overall grade point average of 2.50 or higher. Only one version may be taken for credit. Permission of instructor required. S/U graded.

R POS 395 (= R PAD 395; formerly R PUB 395) International Political Economy (3)
Examines world trade conflicts and impact of economic nationalism on global economy. Emphasizes U.S. policy formulation in recent decades and trade protection and economic nationalism as exercised in U.S. domestic and foreign policy. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 396 (= R PAD 396; formerly R PUB 396) Energy Policy, Domestic and International (3)
Analyzes present and future shortfall of energy supplies, availability of fuel sources to replace imported oil or U.S. energy production, and conflicts between OPEC, OECD consumers, and U.S. government. Projections of future conflict over energy controls within and between nation states. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or R POS/R PAD 140, or junior or senior standing.

R POS 397 Experiential and Service Learning in Political Science (0-3)
This course provides academic structure and oversight to service-learning and community engagement components available as options in other Political Science offerings. May be repeated but only three credits total may apply for the major in Political Science.       

R POS 398 (= R PAD 398; formerly R PUB 398) Comparative National Security Policy (3)
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the major theoretical explanations for the foundation and implementation of national security policy. The course will focus of two central questions. First, what determines the basic security strategy of different states? Second, once this strategy is mapped, how do different states translate strategy into particular security policies? A variety of historical and contemporary cases will be used to determine which theories best answer these questions. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 399 (= R PAD 399; formerly R PUB 399) Selected Topics (3)
Investigation of selected topics in political science and/or public policy. Specific topics selected and announced by the instructor when offered. May be repeated for credit if content varies. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and R POS 102, and permission of instructor.

R POS 400 Honors Tutorial in Political Science (1)
A one credit honors tutorial accompanying a 400 level political science course. May be repeated for credit. Open only to students in the Political Science Honors Program. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

R POS 410Z (= R PAD 410Z; formerly R PUB 410Z) Minorities and the Politico-Legal System (3)
Selected minority problems that appear in connection with the politico-legal system. Considers legislative, administrative and judicial responses and explores alternative public policy options. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 417Z Research Methods in Political Science (3)
Continuation of R POS 316. It is expected that students will have taken R POS 316 during the first semester of the current academic year in which they enroll for this course. Prerequisite(s): R POS 316.

R POS 419Z Seminar in Political Theory (3)
Special topics in political theory and philosophy. Prerequisite(s): two courses in political theory, or permission of instructor.

R POS 424 Community Politics (3)
Examines the bases of power at the local level. Political power, social stratification, and technology are discussed within a historical and contemporary context. Recommended: prior course in state and local government.

R POS 425Z Justice Reform in Latin America (3)
This course examines the patterns, causes, and consequences of justice reforms in Latin America over the last 30 years. Students will first explore the political, economic, and social costs of weak, abusive, or otherwise ineffective justice institutions, and then address the ways in which national and regional reform projects have sought to improve these institutions, including police, prosecutors, and courts, as well as non-criminal justice institutions (e.g., family and commercial courts).

R POS 426Z American Constitutional Law (3)
Examination of basic cases in their historical settings and analysis in terms of legal or constitutional issues and judicial doctrines, including judicial review, separation of powers, division of power, interstate relations, the power to tax and spend, war powers and treaty powers.

R POS 427Z American Constitutional Law (3)
Examination of basic cases in their historical settings and analysis in terms of legal or constitutional issues and judicial doctrines, civil and political rights, the privileges and immunities of citizenship, due process and equal protection.

R POS 428Z Comparative Legal Systems (3)
Examination of basic cases in their historical settings and analysis in terms of legal or constitutional issues and judicial doctrines in the area of criminal justice, including search and seizure, self-incrimination, the right to counsel, and the right of a fair trial.

R POS 430 Founding the American National Government (3)
Many contemporary disputes in American politics reflect ongoing debates that were first articulated clearly during the drafting and ratification of the Constitution in 1787. (Some examples: war powers, small versus large government, governmental concern with character formation or morality, factions and the common good, direct democracy versus representation, the role of "elites," etc.) This course will examine the founding debates closely, linking specific decisions to some of the broad themes just mentioned. It will also use student papers to carry the disputes through the early years of the government. The course will require interpretive papers based on assigned reading, and one research paper based on primary source documentation. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

R POS 433/433Z (= A WSS 433/433Z) Women, Politics, and Power (3)
Examines the role of women within American society; identifies the systematic factors that have contributed to women's sociopolitical exclusion; and investigates selected contemporary ideologies that posit a redefinition of the power relationships within society as the primary political objective. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 435Z Congress and the Presidency (3)
An examination of the dynamic political inter-relationship between the elected branches of government. Specific topics may vary from year to year, but typical ones would include: the President's legislative role; Congress's role in foreign and national security policy; the budget as a vehicle for interbranch conflict; and proposals for institutional reform. Short, theme papers and a longer research paper will be required. Some previous course work on Congress or the Presidency is recommended.

R POS 437Z Law and Society (3)
Examination of central aspects of the legal process, focusing primarily on Anglo-American common law. Attention to the meaning of law and law's functions; legal education and practice; basic procedural matters, and exposure to the law of manufacturer's liability, contracts and labor management relations (injunctions and administrative law).

R POS 438Z Political Behavior (3)
Politically relevant behaviors are discussed in terms of their psychological and sociological determinants. Emphasizes manifest and latent political training in numerous contexts.

R POS 439/439Z Topics in American Politics (3)
Special topics course in American politics. Topics will vary from semester to semester. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 447 (= A LCS 465) Latino/as and Inequality in America (3)
This course is about the political engagement of Latinas and Latinos and the political and economic forces that historically have impeded their full incorporation in U.S. society. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): open to seniors and graduate students.

R POS 448Z Identities, Boundaries & Mobilization (3)
This course explores the political nature of identities, and particularly the way collective identities are shaped, maintained, and deployed. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, we will examine key dimensions of identity, modes and strategies of inclusion and exclusion, forms of "identity politics," and questions of intersectionality (the overlapping of identity categories, as for race and gender). Course materials will span everything from theoretical approaches to identity mobilization, to nationalism and secessionism, to the politics of gender and ethnicity, and will combine conceptual works, case studies, and literature. Assignments will include a series of short reaction papers, a collaborative final project, and class presentations. Only one of T POS 248 and R POS 448Z may be taken for credit.

R POS 449/449Z Topics in Public Law (3)
Special topics course in Public Law. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): two courses in public law, or permission of instructor.

R POS 450Z Theory and Research on Global Politics (3)
The course will focus on how comparative and international politics is researched. The theories of one global politics topic will be studied in depth (the topic will change each semester). Students who successfully complete the course will be eligible to do independent studies as research assistants for Global Politics faculty.

R POS 452Z Communist and Post-Communist Political Systems (3)
The characteristics of East European regimes in the modern world: the role of the political parties; the state and bureaucracy, mostly after World War II and in the aftermath of the collapse of communism; relations of these states in the world political system.

R POS 469/469Z Topics in Comparative Politics (3)
Special topics course in Comparative Politics. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): two courses in Comparative Politics, or permission of instructor.

R POS 472Z International Conflict and Resolution (3)
An inquiry that includes strategic studies, arms control, foreign policy, and super power relations in the global threat system. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, 102, 370 or 371, and junior or senior standing.

R POS 473Z Economic Relations in the Global System (3)
An inquiry into international trade relations, energy and foreign economic policies adopted by industrial and developing nations, and the exchange relations that govern the course of transnational politics. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, R POS 102, and junior or senior standing.

R POS 474Z Politics of International Migration (3)
Surveys the domestic and international politics of migration. Examines labor migration to advanced industrial states, border control, immigrant incorporation, refugee policies, emigrant participation in home country politics and the effect of migration on international development, democratization, and security.

R POS 479/479Z Topics in International Relations (3)
Special topics course in International Relations. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): two courses in International Relations, or permission of instructor.

R POS 484Z American Foreign Policy Formulation and Implementation (3)
A study of the foreign policy making and diplomacy of the United States, the objectives and formulation of policy goals and procedures and the domestic constraints on U.S. statecraft. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior class standing.

R POS 486 (= R PAD 486 & H HPM 486) International Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R POS 495Z (= R PAD 490Z; formerly R PUB 490Z) Research and Writing in Washington (3)
This is the research and writing component of the department's spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference to POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in early fall. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 course in American government, junior class standing. Corequisite(s): R POS/R PAD 341 and R POS/R PAD 342. POS majors who wish to use R POS 495Z for an Honors essay (in lieu of R POS 499Z) should also enroll in R POS 400.

R POS 496Z Great Ideas in Political Science (4)
This course is designed to provide students beginning the Honors Program with a high level seminar on the major theories, approaches and issues in the field of Political Science. It will concentrate on the most prominent and challenging ideas in Political Theory, Global Politics, American Politics, Public Law, and Public Policy. There will be extensive reading and the writing assignments will meet University requirements for a writing intensive course.

R POS 498/498Z Independent Study (1-6)
Reading, research and intensive writing course work in a one-on-one relationship with a faculty member. To be overseen by the Chair of the Department. May be repeated for credit if content varies. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and R POS 102, or junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor and department chair. A-E graded.

R POS 499Z Honors Thesis (4)
Reading, research, and intensive writing course work for an honors thesis, under the direction of an individual faculty member, as part of the Honors Program. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, 102, 103, Honors student status, and permission of instructor or department chair.  

  

Department of Public Administration and Policy

Faculty

Professors Emeriti/ae
David F. Andersen, Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sue R. Faerman, Ph.D. (Collins Fellow)
University at Albany
James J. Heaphey, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley
Joseph M. Heikoff, Ph.D.
University of Chicago
Byron Hipple, M.A.
Syracuse University
Irene Lurie, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley       
Jeryl L. Mumpower, Ph.D.
University of Colorado
Richard I. Nunez, Ph.D.
Syracuse University
George P. Richardson, Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Frank Thompson, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley
Lewis Welch, Ph.D.
Syracuse University 

Professors
Mitchel Abolafia, Ph.D.
State University of New York at Stony Brook
Shawn Bushway, Ph.D.
Carnegie Mellon University      
Jeffrey D. Straussman, Ph.D.
City University of New York

Associate Professors Emeritae
Helen Desfosses, Ph.D. (Collins Fellow)
Boston University
Judith Saidel, Ph.D.
University at Albany

Associate Professors
Victor Asal, Ph.D. (Chair)
University of Maryland
Sharon Dawes, Ph.D.
University at Albany
James W. Fossett, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
Erika Martin, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Yale University
R. Karl Rethemeyer, Ph.D. (Interim Dean)
Harvard University         
Patricia Strach, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin

Assistant Professors
Gang Chen, Ph.D.
University of Nebraska at Omaha       
Jennifer Dodge, Ph.D.
New York University
Bryan Early, Ph.D.
University of Georgia
Ashley Fox, Ph.D.
Columbia University      
David Matkin, Ph.D. (Vice Chair)
University of Kansas      
Ellen Rubin, Ph.D.
University of Georgia
Elizabeth Searing, Ph.D.
Georgia State University
Lucy Sorensen, Ph.D.
Duke University
Edmund Stazyk, Ph.D.
University of Kansas       

Research Professors
Theresa Pardo, Ph.D.
University at Albany
James Steiner, Ph.D.
Georgetown University

Clinical Professor
Stephen Weinberg, Ph.D.
Harvard University

Public Service Professors
Kamiar Alaei, M.D., Dr.P.H., M.P.H., M.S.
University at Albany; Harvard School of Public Health
Kevin Bronner, Ph.D.
University at Albany
Paul Castellani, Ph.D.
Syracuse University
Michael Christakis, Ph.D.
University at Albany
Peter C. Finn, M.P.A.
University at Albany
Dall Forsythe, Ph.D.
Columbia University
David Liebschutz, M.A., J.D.
Duke University
Rick Mathews, M.S.
Indiana State University
Frank Mauro, M.P.A.
Syracuse University
Robert McEvoy, M.P.A.
Syracuse University
Philip Morris, B.A.
Hamilton College
Fredric David Sheppard, M.A.
The United States Army War College 


 

Public administration and public policy are concerned with the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and programs. The approach of the Department of Public Administration and Policy is interdisciplinary, drawing on various social and behavioral sciences. The courses focus on such topics as the role of bureaucracy in society, management of finances in the public sector, organizational theory and development, the political and legal environment of administration, and public policy research and analysis.

B.A. in Public Policy and Management

The Department of Public Administration and Policy offers a combined major and minor in Public Policy and Management, a stand-alone major in Public Policy and Management, and a stand-alone minor in Public Policy.

The B.A. in Public Policy and Management is focused on the development of the analytic skills needed in today's complex policy environment. The interdisciplinary nature of the Public Policy and Management program is reflected in the six required core courses that expose students to statistics, economics, the policy-making process and public management. The student then extends and deepens this interdisciplinary perspective through two capstones (including an internship), the choice of two courses in each of two Areas and, in the combined major/minor program the choice of one or two concentrations. The purpose of the Concentrations is to match students' interdisciplinary policy analysis and management skills with depth in a particular area. Students are expected to work with their advisor to construct a coherent plan of study across the concentrations.

Both the combined major/minor and the stand-alone major require that students complete an internship, typically with an agency of New York State government. According to University policy, enrollment in an internship requires a minimum 2.00 GPA. Students with a GPA below 2.00 will not be allowed to complete this requirement for the major.

The B.A. Program expects that students will have taken mathematics at the level of A MAT 100 or A MAT 101.

Degree Requirements for the Major in Public Policy and Management

General Program B.A.: The combined major/minor program requires a minimum of 54 credits. The stand-alone major requires 36 credits: 

Students in the combined major/minor program also select 18 credits in one Concentration or 9 credits in each of two Concentrations.

Approved Concentrations:

Honors Program in Public Policy and Management

The Honors Program in Public Policy and Management combines recognition of general academic excellence with demonstrated achievement in specific area of public policy.

Administration
The Director of the Undergraduate Public Policy and Management Program administers the Honors Program, advises students, and helps students in selecting thesis advisers. The thesis is discussed in a forum involving the adviser, the Honors Director, and other faculty members selected by the student and the adviser upon its completion in the senior year.

Selection and Evaluation
Student must have declared Public Policy and Management as either a stand-alone major or as a combined major/minor and have completed at least 12 credits of coursework in the major. Student must have an overall grade point average not lower than 3.25, and a grade point average of 3.50 in the core subjects in public policy and management for admission to the Honors Program. Students may apply to the Honors Program during their sophomore year or during the first semester of their junior year.

Upon satisfactory completion of the honors curriculum and of courses required of all majors, students will be recommended by the Director of Public Policy and Management to graduate with honors in Public Policy and Management. Students must maintain at least the same grade point average overall and the same average in the major as were required for admission to the Honors Program to graduate with honors.

Requirements
Students in the Honors Programs in Public Policy and Management must complete the same coursework requirements as specified for the non-honors majors, including the completion of an honors thesis. 

Thesis: each student must complete a 30 to 40 page honors thesis. This paper should involve original research on a topic related to public policy. It should have a clearly defined thesis statement, a review of the existing literature on the chosen topic, original evidence offered to support the thesis, consideration of alternative rival hypothesis, and a conclusion of the consequence for public policy research of these findings. The paper is to be created in conjunction with a faculty mentor approved by the Director of the Undergraduate Public Policy and Management program (and the paper may be co-authored with the chosen faculty mentor). The paper is to be submitted to the Director of the Undergraduate Public Policy and Management program.

Completion of the thesis requires enrolling in two research courses, R PAD 494 and R PAD 496, in which the student works one-on-one with a faculty advisor to conduct the required research and write the thesis. R PAD 494 may be counted towards the Area of Management and Politics, and R PAD 496 may be counted towards the Area of Quantitative Methods and Policy Analysis. Students are encouraged to identify their thesis question and advisor before the end of their junior year.

Combined B.A./M.P.A. Program

Students majoring in Public Policy and Management may be eligible to apply for the combined B.A./M.P.A. program. This program provides an opportunity for students of recognized academic ability and educational maturity to earn both a B.A. and the graduate M.P.A. degree within 11 semesters.

The combined program requires a minimum of 156 credits, of which at least 48 must be graduate credits. In qualifying for the B.A., students must meet all University and school requirements, including the requirements of either the major/minor or the major described previously, the minimum 90 credit liberal arts and sciences requirement, general education requirements, minor requirement (if doing the stand-alone major) and residency requirements. In qualifying for the M.P.A., students must meet all University and school requirements as outlined in the Graduate Bulletin, including completion of approximately 49 graduate credits and any other conditions such as a professional experience requirement. Up to 12 graduate credits may be applied simultaneously to both the B.A. and M.P.A. programs.

Students may apply to the combined degree program at the end of their junior year. A cumulative grade point average of 3.20 or higher, completion of 56 credits toward towards the B.A., and three letters of recommendation from faculty are required for consideration. Evidence of ability in quantitative coursework, particularly in statistics and economics, is required for admission to the B.A./M.P.A program.

  

Courses in Public Administration

R PAD 101 (= C EHC 101) Introduction to Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security and Cybersecurity (3)
From hackers to hurricanes, suicide bombing to supply chain interruptions, infrastructure failures to infectious disease outbreaks, the nation's governments, companies and non-profits must prepare for, protect against, respond to, and recover from a growing array of risks and threats. The fields of emergency preparedness, homeland security and cybersecurity are central to those efforts, and there is an ever growing demand for individuals prepared in these areas. Through lectures, discussion, and case studies, students in this course will develop a broad theoretical, substantive, and practical understanding of the fields of emergency preparedness, homeland security and cybersecurity. Students will be exposed to various ways to think about, measure, assess and compare risks, as well as how to mitigate them and respond to incidents that do occur. The three disciplines will be explored through the crosscutting themes that tie them together, including prevention, incident management and response, crisis communication, recovery and resiliency. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 110 Introduction to Military Leadership I (1)
The course introduces students to fundamental components of service as an officer in the United States Army. These initial lessons are the building blocks of progressive lessons in values, fitness, leadership, and officership. Students will learn how the personal development of life skills such as cultural understanding, goal setting, time management, mental/physical resiliency, and stress management relate to leadership, officership, and the Army profession. The focus is on developing basic knowledge and comprehension of Army leadership attributes and core leader competencies while gaining an understanding of the ROTC program, its purpose in the Army, and its advantages for the student. Prerequisite(s): not open to juniors and seniors without instructor approval. S/U graded.

R PAD 111 Introduction to Military Leadership II (1)
The course builds upon the fundamentals introduced in R PAD 110 by focusing on leadership theory and decision making. "Life skills" lessons in the semester include: problem solving, critical thinking, leadership theory, followership, group interaction, goal setting, and feedback mechanisms. Upon completion, students are prepared to advance to more complex leadership instruction concerning the dynamics of organizations. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 110 or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

R PAD 140 (= R POS 140; formerly R PUB 140) Introduction to Public Policy (3)
Introduction to theories of how democracies make public policy. Describes the roles of government institutions, the media, and interest groups in the policy process. Reviews current theories of how problems are identified and how policies are formulated, enacted, and implemented to address public problems. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 204/204X Computer Modeling for Decision Support (3)
Making tough decisions — can computers help? Students will learn to use Internet technologies as well as techniques in computer modeling for critical thinking, policy analysis, and decision support. Topics include a review of quantitative methods for strategic analysis, tools for helping make tough decisions, and a survey of formal modeling techniques.

R PAD 210 Foundations of Military Leadership I (1)
The course contains the principal leadership instruction of the Basic Course. The use of practical exercises is emphasized, as students are increasingly required to apply communications and leadership concepts. The focus continues to build on developing knowledge of the leadership attributes and core leader competencies through the understanding of Army rank, structure, and duties as well as broadening knowledge of land navigation and infantry squad tactics. Case studies will provide a tangible context for learning and understanding the Soldier's Creed and Warrior Ethos. Upon completion of this semester, students are well grounded in the fundamental principles of leadership, and prepared to intensify the practical application of their studies during the Advanced Course. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 111 or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

R PAD 211 Foundations of Military Leadership II (1)
The course focuses principally on officership, providing an extensive examination of the unique purpose, roles, and obligations of commissioned officers. It includes a detailed look at the origin of the Army's institutional values and their practical application in decision making and leadership. Students examine the challenges of leading teams in a complex, combat operational environment. The course highlights dimensions of terrain analysis, infantry patrols, and operation orders. Further study of the theoretical basis of the Army Leadership Requirements Model explores the dynamics of adaptive leadership in the context of military operations. This course draws on the various components of values, communications, decision making, and leadership together to focus on a career as a commissioned officer. Upon completion of this course, students possess a fundamental understanding of both leadership and officership and demonstrate the ability to apply this understanding in real world situations. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 210 or permission of instructor. S/U graded.

R PAD 236 (= B FIN 236) Institutions and Policy in Business Regulation (3)
This course examines the public regulation of business, surveying the field in general but with special attention to regulatory controls in financial markets. Its subjects include the justifications and critiques of government regulation, ethical considerations in regulatory decisions, international dimensions of regulatory policy and management, and how political, legal, and technological processes shape regulation. Only one version may be taken for credit.

T PAD 236 Institutions and Policy in Business Regulation (3)
T PAD 236 is the Honors College version of R PAD 236; only one version may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

T PAD 272 (= T POS 272 & T SPH 272) Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions Kamiar Alaei and Arash Alaei, with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration and the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version may be taken for credit. Open to Honors College students only.

R PAD 300 (formerly R PUB 300) Public Administration and Policy (1)
For Honors students, R PAD credit used to designate an existing 300 level R PAD course as taken for honors credit and entailing an additional research and writing component to be determined by course instructor. Must be taken three separate occasions in at least three separate 300 level or above R PAD classes to meet Honors requirements. Prerequisite(s): must accompany enrollment in R PAD 300 level course.

R PAD 301 (formerly R PUB 301) The Philosophy of Public Policy (3)
Examination of the various theoretical approaches to the study of public policy and of the ethical, epistemological, ideological, and logical problems encountered in an examination of the claims of contemporary policy science. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and R POS/R PAD 140.

R PAD 302 Understanding Public Organizations (3)
The major objective of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic ideas about how people work in large (work) organizations, and the processes and structures that operate day to day in such organizations. The course examines how people act and interact within organizations and attempt to change those organizations, and how organizations react to the individuals who comprise the organization. The course uses multiple perspectives or frames as a way of understanding of individual and organizational behavior in work organizations. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 303 Public Administration and Management (3)
Introduction to the field of public administration as its theory and practice have developed in the United States, emphasizing current trends and problems of organization and management in such areas as personnel policy, budget making, policy research, and planning. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

R PAD 304 (= R POS 303) Public Policy in Theory and Practice (3)
Examines the theoretical foundations of public policy research, of alternative models of public policy formation, their methodologies, and the relationship between the theory and practice of the policy sciences. Inquiries into the practice of public policy; focuses on actual policies in a substantive area. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or R POS/R PAD 140, or junior or senior standing.

R PAD 305 Public Administration and Information Technologies (3)
This course introduces the ways that information and information technologies affect governmental functions, democratic processes, and public programs. It introduces students to understand the interaction of policy, management, data, and technology in the design, operation, and evaluation of information technology initiatives in the public sector. It also provides an overview of topics related to the use of information technologies in public administration, including open data, websites, social media, and mobile applications, among others. It covers topics such as e-government, e-democracy, e-governance, leadership, e-procurement, and information security and privacy.

R PAD 307 Professional Applications for Public Administration and Policy (3)
Course emphasizes the early development of professional skills, the ability to work in teams, career planning, and an awareness of trade-offs in modern administration. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 204.

R PAD 316 (= R POS 316; formerly R PUB 316) Methodological Tools for Public Policy (3)
Introduction to research design, statistics, and computer usage in public policy with an emphasis on the interpretation of results. Students examine experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental research designs, summarize and present univariate distributions, perform bivariate and multivariate analyses including simple cross-tabulations and multiple regression analysis, and learn to use a computer to perform statistical and data management operations. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 321 (= R POS 321) State and Local Government (3)
Course focus is on intergovernmental relations; the interdependent roles of governors, legislatures, and courts in policymaking and implementation; the organization, functions, and jurisdiction of local governments; interaction of political parties and interest groups with formal institutions and processes; and problems in selected functional areas. Emphasis will be placed upon socio-economic trends leading to change in state and local governments, consequent issues raised, and proposals made in response to such issues. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101.

R PAD 322 (= R POS 322; formerly R PUB 322) Government & Politics of New York City (3)
Introduction to New York City's major political and governmental institutions, with an emphasis on the recurring efforts to provide for borough and community input into the city's policy making and implementation processes and to increase inter- and intra-party competition. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 324 Introduction to System Dynamics (3)
System Dynamics applies computer simulation to the study of feedback-rich systems in the social, behavioral, environmental, and management sciences. This course teaches the basic principles of system dynamics with a hands-on approach involving frequent problem sets and case studies. Students will learn the basic principles governing systems modeling as well as how to create computer-based simulation models. Prerequisites(s): R PAD 204.

R PAD 325 (= R POS 325; formerly R PUB 325) The Government and Politics of New York State (3)
Introduction to the major political governmental institutions in New York. Examines the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government; the nature of parties and election, and of selected policy questions. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 321.

R PAD 328 (= R POS 328; formerly R PUB 328) Law and Policy (3)
Examination of the role of the of the courts in the public policy process and in substantive policy fields; integrates the literature of law and policy and applies it to such areas as mental health care, corrections, human resources, education, and housing policy. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 329/329Z (= R POS 329/329Z) Administrative Leadership (3)
This class examines leadership, management and human behavior within and among complex organizations, with special emphasis on the distribution and use of power by organizational actors. The course will also examine how leaders can position their organizations to gain the greatest results and most significant impact on and for organizational stakeholders. Only one version may be taken for credit.       

R PAD 340 (= R POS 340; formerly R PUB 340) Introduction to Policy Analysis (3)
Policy analysis involves advising policy makers about political, technical, and implementation feasibility of their options. This course will introduce students to different roles played by analysts, techniques of analysis, and to the range of generic policy implements. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/R POS 140, R PAD/R POS 316, A ECO 110. May substitute R PAD 316 with an alternate introductory statistics course. May waive R PAD 140 with permission of the instructor.

R PAD 341 (= R POS 341; formerly R PUB 341) Washington in Perspective (3)
A course using current government and politics to evaluate political science treatments of the process. Offered as part of the spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference given POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in the early fall. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 level course in American government, junior standing. Corequisite(s): R POS 342 and 495Z, or R PAD 342 and 490Z.

R PAD 342 (= R POS 342; formerly R PUB 342) Washington Internship (9)
This is the internship component of the department's spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference to POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in early fall. Does not count toward a Public Policy and Management major or minor. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 level course in American government, junior standing. Corequisite(s): R POS 341 and 495Z or R PAD 341 and 490Z. S/U graded.

R PAD 343 (= R POS 343 & C EHC 343) Homeland Security (3)
This undergraduate survey course introduces students to the US government response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, specifically, the second largest reorganization of the executive branch that produced the US Department of Homeland Security.  Topics examined include border and transportation security, customs, immigration policy and enforcement; preparedness and capabilities building, response and resilience; critical infrastructure protection; threat and vulnerability assessment and risk management; cyber security; counter-terrorism. Although the course is primarily focused on US federal government activities, it will also examine state and local dimensions of homeland security as well as US government interactions with other countries in the homeland security domain. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.

R PAD 344 (= C EHC 344) Emergency Preparedness (3)
This course provides a study of applicable policies, protocols, and laws that impact the practice of emergency preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels of government. The study includes a brief review of the history of emergency management setting the stage for an examination of "best practices" and philosophies. These drive the nation's preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation efforts of various levels of emergencies and disasters which in turn helps facilitate a community's resilience in the face of disasters. The methodology used in this course includes classroom discussions and activities, studies of applicable case studies, and individual exploration resulting in a well crated paper. Where applicable, simulation activities provide opportunities for the student to "experience" realistic situations similar to real-world emergencies and disaster operations. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/C EHC 101 recommended.

R PAD 345 Psychological Economics and Policy (3)
Economic analyses are usually rooted in assumptions of perfect rationality, perfect selfishness, and perfect self-control. Real human beings do not meet these assumptions. How do real people respond to economic policies? How can traditional analyses be adapted to incorporate social and cognitive psychology? In the past few decades, economists in the fields of Behavioral Economics and Experimental Economics have explored how to draw on the methods and insights of psychologists, model psychological behavior within markets, and test psychological hypotheses using data from the field. That work has become increasingly relevant in policy circles. This class surveys the theories, methods, and evidence of these fields and discusses their relevance for designing and implementing public programs. Prerequisite(s): A ECO 110, A ECO 111, and a 300-level statistics course such as R PAD 316 or A ECO 320.

R PAD 350 (= R POS 350; formerly R PUB 350) Comparative Public Policy (3)
Comparison of the processes, content, and impact of public policy in both developed and underdeveloped, socialist and nonsocialist countries. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or 140, or junior or senior standing.

R PAD 364 (= R POS 366) Approaches to Development (3)
Leaders and citizens of low and moderate income countries have long worked to increase economic, social and political development. After reviewing the origin and evolution of these concepts, the class will focus on how national leaders, international institutions as the World Bank, and nongovernmental organizations have pursued development. The class will address the steps that can be taken to address persistent problems of global poverty, public health, deficits in democracy, and widespread armed conflict. The course will take an interdisciplinary approach that will blend insights from the disciplines of economics, political science, and anthropology in order to generate fresh thinking on important policy issues facing governments in developing and developed countries. Aside from readings, and class discussions, groups of students will work together to address important issues in policy memos that will be presented to the class. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior status.

R PAD 366 International Environmental Policy (3)
The class investigates how environmental consciousness arose in major industrial countries and the subsequent formation of environmental policies and institutions in China and India. After reviewing US experience, the class considers critical dilemmas including climate change, water scarcity and renewable energy. Prerequisite: junior or senior status.

R PAD 380 Applied Military Leadership I (2)
In this course students will study, practice, and apply the fundamentals of Army leadership, Officership, Army Values and ethics, personal development, and small unit tactics at the team and squad level. At the conclusion of this course, students will be capable of planning, coordinating, navigating, motivating and leading a team or squad in the execution of a tactical mission during a classroom PE, a Leadership Lab, or during a Situational Training Exercise (STX) in a field environment. Successful completion of this course will help prepare students for success at the ROTC Leader Development and Assessment Course (LDAC) during the summer following the junior year, at Fort Knox, KY. This course includes reading assignments, homework assignments, small group assignments, briefings, case studies, and practical exercises, a mid-term exam, and a final exam. Students will receive systematic and specific feedback on leader attributes values and core leader competencies from instructor and other ROTC cadre and MSL IV Cadets who will evaluate students using the ROTC Leader Development Program (LDP) model. The course closes with instruction in small unit battle drills to facilitate practical application and further leader development during labs and Situational Training Exercises (STX). Prerequisite(s): R PAD 211, or permission of instructor.

R PAD 381 Applied Military Leadership II (2)
The course continues to focus on doctrinal leadership and tactical operations at the small unit level. It includes opportunities to plan and conduct individual and collective skill training for military operations to gain leadership and tactical experience. The course synthesizes the various components of training, leadership and team building. Students are required to incorporate previous military science instruction for their practical application in a performance-oriented environment. Upon completion of the course, students possess the fundamental confidence and competence of leadership in a small unit setting and are prepared to attend the Leadership Development and Assessment Course. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 380.

R PAD 390 (= R POS 390; formerly R PUB 390) Internship: Political Science/Public Administration & Policy (3)
Students will actively participate in the political process through working in a staff position at a recognized political agency, organization or institution to test — in a nonacademic setting — the concepts and theories examined in the classroom. Internships are open only to qualified juniors and seniors who have an overall grade point average of 2.50 or higher. Only one version may be taken for credit. Permission of instructor required. S/U graded.

R PAD 395 (= R POS 395; formerly R PUB 395) International Political Economy (3)
Examines world trade conflicts and impact of economic nationalism on global economy. Emphasizes U.S. policy formulation in recent decades and trade protection and economic nationalism as exercised in U.S. domestic and foreign policy. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 396 (= R POS 396; formerly R PUB 396) Energy Policy, Domestic and International (3)
Analyzes present and future shortfall of energy supplies, availability of fuel sources to replace imported oil or U.S. energy production, and conflicts between OPEC, OECD consumers, and U.S. government. Projections of future conflict over energy controls within and between nation states. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 or R POS 140, or junior or senior standing. May not be offered in 2015-2016.

R PAD 398 (= R POS 398; formerly R PUB 398) Comparative National Security Policy (3)
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the major theoretical explanations for the foundation and implementation of national security policy. The course will focus of two central questions. First, what determines the basic security strategy of different states? Second, once this strategy is mapped, how do different states translate strategy into particular security policies? A variety of historical and contemporary cases will be used to determine which theories best answer these questions. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 399 (= R POS 399; formerly R PUB 399) Selected Topics (3)
Investigation of selected topics in political science and/or public policy. Specific topics selected and announced by the instructor when offered. May be repeated for credit if content varies. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101 and 102, and permission of instructor.

R PAD 410Z (= R POS 410Z; formerly R PUB 410Z) Minorities and the Politico-Legal System (3)
Selected minority problems that appear in connection with the politico-legal system. Considers legislative, administrative and judicial responses and explores alternative public policy options. Only one version of may be taken for credit.

R PAD 411 Special Topics in Public Administration: Program Evaluation Training (1)
This class will introduce participants to the concepts that are essential to evaluation. Topics discussed will include: program measures (methods, management, characteristics, etc.), participant measures, intervening measures (changes in economy, management, demographics, etc.), impact measures, different viewpoints of evaluation (program participants, program staff, policy makers, etc.), and measurement levels (individual vs. agency vs. society). This course is the shared resources equivalent of the graduate course R PAD 511. S/U graded.

R PAD 424 Systems Thinking and Strategic Development (4)
The course represents a set of concepts and tools for thinking through complex system-wide problems that challenge government managers' ability to design and manage cross-agency and intergovernmental policies and programs. Students will learn to diagnose and solve complex system-level problems by applying systems thinking and strategic planning tools to case examples. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor.

R PAD 435 (= B FIN 435) Law in Financial Market Regulation (3)
This course examines the rationales and main features of regulatory law in financial markets, focusing on banking, securities, futures, options, and other capital markets. It discusses approaches to regulating investor and customer protection, financial institutions, and market structure. It examines relationships among change in financial markets such as financial innovations and regulatory structure and practice. The course discusses the roles of federal and state regulation, self-regulatory organizations and private associations, and firms within the regulatory system. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): prior coursework in study of regulation and/or finance highly recommended.

R PAD 436 (= B FIN 439) Technology in Financial Market Regulation (3)
The development, operation, and regulation of technological systems shape modern financial markets. These systems are developed and overseen by market centers, clearing organizations, and other market infrastructure organizations, as well as sell-side financial firms, institutional investors and other buy-side participants, corporations, technology providers, and public and private regulators. Market controls, technological development, and regulation shape this system individually and interactively. This course examines the central features of technology in financial markets and how market and regulatory controls and social and behavioral conditions produce and interact with them. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): prior coursework in study of regulation and/or finance highly recommended.

R PAD 437 Broker-Dealer Accounting, Regulation, and Auditing (3)
This course is designed to enable students to understand the theory and practice of broker-dealer regulation and regulatory auditing in the securities industry. Nomenclature used in the securities industry is unique and the course examines accounting standards that apply to securities firms. It teaches students how to read financial statements of broker-dealers and understand stock brokerage accounting. The course also will help students understand how to audit the validity of the numbers included in broker-dealer financial reports, focusing primarily on the income statement and balance sheet and including the verification of customer assets. Prerequisite(s): B ACC 211.

R PAD 438 (formerly R PAD 354) U.S. Health Policy in the Age of Obama (3)
How does "Obamacare" work, why is it designed the way it is, and what have its impacts been so far? This course will examine the Affordable Care Act (colloquially known as Obamacare) through the lens of economics. The course will examine the main structure of the Affordable Care Act and how the various provisions address (or fail to address) such key economic issues as asymmetric information, market power, and economic justice. Finally, the course will review empirical evidence on the impacts of the law. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 316 or an equivalent course in statistics.

R PAD 445 (= C EHC 445) Principles and Practices of Cybersecurity (3)
This course provides a broad introduction to cybersecurity and the way in which cybersecurity is viewed, studied, or executed by professionals in industry, government, the military, and academia. For students that approach the topic from a policy management perspective, this class will enhance their understanding of the interaction between social, technical, policy, and management factors that affect the creation and management of secure cyber infrastructure. A brief introduction to the technical side of cybersecurity will be provided. The course will offer technically advanced students an opportunity to better understand management, policy, and political equities involved in cybersecurity. Students approaching the subject from either the technical or policy/management perspective will be equipped to take more advanced technical courses in a multitude of disciplines that make up cybersecurity. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 449 (= C EHC 449) Cybersecurity: Long Term Planning and Risk Management (3)
The goal of this course is to equip decision makers with the principles and methods that will allow for more informed budget decisions as it relates to cybersecurity. First this class will review budgeting basics as well as the core of budgeting for information technology and cybersecurity. Then the class will examine risk management as a total program component of cybersecurity as well as apply it to the budgeting process. Finally the class will take a comprehensive approach to managing IT/IS projects from a risk management, budgeting, and procurement point of view. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 455 (= C EHC 455) Disaster, Crisis and Emergency Management and Policy (3)
The course studies the policies, statutes and priorities established by federal, state, and local governments to plan and prepare for emergencies, disasters, and catastrophic events caused by nature, technology, or humans. The course's scope will include all mission areas established by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and prioritized by the New York State Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services as an example of state policies. The course will rely heavily upon primary source documents, and will involve simulations. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 456 (= C EHC 456) Homeland Security Intelligence (3)
This course examines homeland security intelligence at the Federal, State, and local levels. It begins with an overview of the U.S. foreign intelligence community, its mission, history, structure, and capabilities. The course will examine how this community's composition and structure have changed as its mission was fundamentally altered twice, first with the end of the Cold War and then with the rise of terrorism. Next, it looks at the capabilities of new producers of terrorism related intelligence at federal law enforcement agencies and at the Department of Homeland Security. The main thrust of the course is intelligence at the state and local levels. The federal government has worked with the states to create significant intelligence capabilities outside the beltway since the events of 9/11/2001. This course identifies and discusses the state and local customers for homeland security intelligence and examines the degree to which these intelligence requirements are being met. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 457 (= C EHC 457) Intelligence Analysis for Homeland Security (3)
This course provides instruction in conducting intelligence analysis, with emphasis on homeland security issues at the state and local levels. After an overview of the history and structure of the U.S. foreign intelligence community, the class will review the fundamentals of intelligence analysis tradecraft as practiced within the CIA and other federal intelligence agencies. Extensive time is devoted to learning and using structured analytic techniques through student-led analytic exercises on terrorism and major crimes. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 458 (= C EHC 458) Intelligence & U.S. National Security Policymaking (3)
This seminar examines the role of intelligence in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy. Through critical analysis and case studies, students will develop techniques to increase intelligence's contribution to policy deliberations while ensuring that it does not prescribe policy. The course will assess the most appropriate role for the CIA and the intelligence community in supporting this executive branch process. After an overview of the CIA, its functions, structure, and capabilities, the class reviews the U.S. foreign policy process, key players, and institutional bias. The bulk of the course is devoted to a series of mock intelligence and policy meetings on the Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq crises to critically analyze the CIA's proper role in supporting the policy process. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 459 (= C EHC 459) Homeland Security: Building Preparedness Capabilities (3)
The short but significant history of the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will serve as the starting point for this course which will provide a comprehensive and functional approach to understanding this department and its role. The preponderance of time will be spent in developing an understanding of the nation's effort, led by DHS, to develop preparedness capabilities to prevent, protect from, respond to, and recover from high consequence events caused by acts of terrorism, natural disasters, and accidents. The course will rely heavily upon scenario-based activities and case studies to guide the student through the DHS maze and the nation's preparedness efforts at the federal, state, and local levels. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 469 (= C EHC 469) Cyber Threats and Intelligence (3)
Cyber threats currently are posed by state and non-state actors whose motivations include financial gain, notoriety, social activism, espionage, and even revenge. This course will examine cyber threats from different angles to introduce students to today's actors; motivations; tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs); and mitigation techniques, while providing insight into the impact of cyber crimes on victim organizations and employees. A variety of case studies will used to study how TTPs are applied, and aid students in understanding attack consequences, responding agency abilities, and the various protection, mitigation, and remediation measures. The course will also examine models of cyber activity, as well as how models from other fields can be applied to thinking about cyber threats. The objective of the course is to provide students with a foundation for leading their organization in prevention, mitigation, and remediation of cyber-attacks. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of the instructor.

R PAD 470 Government Information Strategy and Management (GISM): Comparative and International Perspectives (3)
This course draws from literature and case studies to understand cultural differences in the concepts of digital government, practical applications for building information capabilities of organizations across national and cultural boundaries and understanding the behavioral aspects of digital government within the larger society and global economy. Topics include the global information environment; managing information in multinational settings; information access, security, and privacy; information systems for international organizations; international trends in information and technology policies, and using information and technology for global collaborative networks. Prerequisite(s): knowledge of the principles, structures, and processes of American government and administration, and some understanding of public administration in other countries or students must contact the instructor for a reading list.

R PAD 471 (= C EHC 471) Military Forces in Support of Civil Authorities (3)
This on-line course provides a comprehensive strategic level examination of the Homeland Security Enterprise and the methodology for integrating federal and state military forces in support of civil authorities during the planning, training, and response phases of emergency operations. Federal, state and local civilian authorities are responsible for preparing for and responding to natural and man-made emergency incidents and disasters. Emergency managers often include military forces in their emergency management planning and training programs as necessary to support potentially overwhelmed civilian first-responders during an incident. This course examines various agencies associated with homeland security and focuses on specialized military forces mission support sets such as Weapons of Mass Destruction, Critical Infrastructure Protection and defense of the homeland. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.

R PAD 472 (= C EHC 472) Disasters and Crisis Management in the Public, Private and Nonprofit Sectors (3)
This course will examine how disaster and crisis management has evolved over time in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. It will begin by identifying key issues and challenges facing emergency managers and other crisis management professionals. Then the course will systematically examine the similarities and differences across the various sectors and analyze contemporary trends and common challenges, to include risk management, crisis communication and crisis leadership. Through the use of conceptual models and real-world case studies, the application of theory and practice within the field will be further explored. The course will examine specific events, how organizations responded to those events, and how those events changed and shaped the organizations, and the discipline itself. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing or permission of instructor.       

R PAD 480 Adaptive Military Leadership I (2)
The course concentrates on leadership, management and ethics. The course focuses students, early in the year, on attaining knowledge and proficiency in several critical areas they will need to operate effectively as Army officers. These areas include: Coordinate Activities with Staffs, Counseling Theory and Practice within the "Army Context," Training Management, and Ethics. While proficiency attained in each of these areas will initially be at the apprentice level, students will continue to sharpen these skills as they perform their roles as Cadet Officers within the ROTC program and after commissioning. At the end of the course, students possess the fundamental skills, attributes, and abilities to operate as competent leaders. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 381.

R PAD 481 Adaptive Military Leadership II (2)
The course focuses on completing the transition from Cadet to lieutenant. As a follow-on to the Ethics instruction in RPAD 480, the course starts with a foundation in the legal aspects of decision making and leadership. The curriculum reinforces previous instruction on the organization of the Army and introduces how the Army organizes for operations from the tactical to the strategic level. This is followed by instruction on administrative and logistical management that will focus on the fundamentals of Soldier and unit level support. Upon completion of the course, students will be prepared for the responsibility of being a commissioned officer in the United States Army. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 480.

R PAD 486 (= R POS 486 & H HPM 486) International Health and Human Rights: an Interdisciplinary Approach (3)
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to health and human rights and the contemporary challenges and solutions associated with them. The course will be taught by physicians and human rights champions with guest lectures from experts in public health, philosophy, social welfare, law, gender studies, public administration the United Nations, among others. Through lectures, discussion and case studies, students will develop a broad theoretical understanding of health as a human right, become familiar with legal and policy frameworks to support public health, and acquire skills in the application of these concepts and the implementation and evaluation of solutions to our modern health challenges. Only one version may be taken for credit.

R PAD 490Z (= R POS 495Z; formerly R PUB 490Z) Research and Writing in Washington (3)
This is the research and writing component of the department's spring Washington Semester program. Admission by application. Enrollment limited. Preference to POS Honors students. For information and applications, see Department of Political Science office or website. Deadlines and interviews in early fall. Only one version may be taken for credit. Prerequisite(s): R POS 101, one 300 course in American government, junior standing. Corequisite(s): R POS/R PAD 341 and R POS/R PAD 342. POS majors who wish to use R POS 495Z for an Honors essay (in lieu of R POS 499Z) should also enroll in R POS 400.

R PAD 494 (formerly R PUB 494) Honors Research (3)
To be taken in the fall of the senior year or the spring of the junior year. Student will engage in guided research mentored by a faculty member designated by student and approved by the Director of Undergraduate Public Policy Program in order to generate the research necessary to complete their honors thesis. Prerequisite(s): PAD Honors standing.

R PAD 495 (formerly R PUB 495) Honors Seminar (3)
To be taken in the fall of the senior year or the spring of the junior year. A seminar designed to explain the nature of research, including developing a thesis, applying a research design, and collecting data to support hypotheses. The seminar develops these skills while highlighting the dominant intellectual arguments occurring currently in the area of public policy research. Prerequisite(s): PAD Honors standing.

R PAD 496 (formerly R PUB 496) Honors Thesis (3)
To be taken in the fall or spring of the senior year. Each student must complete a 30 to 40 page honors thesis. This paper should involve original research on a topic related to public policy. It should have a clearly defined thesis statement, a review of the existing literature on the chosen topic, original evidence offered to support the thesis, consideration of alternative rival hypothesis, and a conclusion of the consequence for public policy research of these findings. The paper is to be created in conjunction with a faculty mentor approved by the Director of Public Policy (and the paper may be co-authored with the chosen faculty mentor). Prerequisite(s): PAD Honors standing.

R PAD 497 (formerly R PUB 497) Independent Study (1-6)
Reading or research under the direction of appropriate faculty. Prerequisite(s): R PAD/R POS 140, or junior or senior standing; and permission of instructor and department chair.

R PAD 498 Applied Public Affairs Capstone (3) 
This capstone course includes the completion of an internship and a linked classroom experience. This internship course integrates the policy and management coursework with practical experience in political and administrative institutions. Students are required to undertake an internship in public policy or public management, typically with a state agency or a non-profit organization. In the course, students will learn practical issues of implementing policy or managing public affairs. They will use written assignments and oral presentations to discuss how their coursework relates to their internship experience. May not be taken by students with credit for R PAD/R POS 390. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 140, R PAD 316, A ECO 110, R POS 101, R PAD 302, and a cumulative grade point average of 2.0.

R PAD 499 (formerly R PUB 499) Policy Capstone (3)
This course builds on the analytical tools and theoretical concepts developed in the Public Policy and Management core to explore the field of policy analysis, rationales for policy intervention, and a range of policy tools. Students will learn how to locate and apply external information sources, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of existing policy analyses, develop a plan to study a new policy issue, and effectively communicate these complex ideas in writing. May not be taken by students with credit for R POS/R PAD 340. Prerequisite(s): R PAD 140, R PAD 316, A ECO 110, A ECO 111.